Presentation on theme: "S1. Coevolution or not? Crossbills, Squirrels, and Pinecones Anne-Marie Hoskinson, Laura Conner, Susan Hester, Mary Beth Leigh, Andrew P. Martin, Tom Powers."— Presentation transcript:
S1. Coevolution or not? Crossbills, Squirrels, and Pinecones Anne-Marie Hoskinson, Laura Conner, Susan Hester, Mary Beth Leigh, Andrew P. Martin, Tom Powers 1
What are the conditions for coevolution? think – pair – share 2
Necessary conditions 1)Two or more interacting species exist in the same place and at the same time 3
Necessary conditions 1)Two or more interacting species exist in the same place and at the same time AND 2) Each species affects the other species’: A.survival B.reproduction (fitness) OR C.some other allele that affects A or B 4
Coevolution requires… BOTH Geographic overlap of populations Reciprocal effects on traits 5
How is this coevolution? What happens to the gazelles when the cheetahs get faster? http://www.arkive.org/cheetah/acinonyx-jubatus/video-08c.html
The Plot: In the Rocky Mountains, red squirrels and crossbills both eat lodgepole pine seeds. In some locations, squirrels are absent. The species interact when they occur in the same place … but do they have reciprocal effects on one another’s traits? Red squirrels Crossbill birds Lodgepole pine cones After http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/IIIF1Casestudyofcoevo.shtml Image credits (L to R): http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tamiasciurus_hudsonicus_CT.jpg http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Loxia_curvirostra_NRM2.jpg http://idtools.org/id/dried_botanical/factsheet.php?name=Pinus+contorta+var.+latifolia 7
Lodgepole Pine Larger, open, fewer seeds Smaller, closed, more seeds 8 Figure 1, Benkman et al. 2001. Evolution 55:282-294 adapted from Figure 2, Benkman et al. 2003. Am. Nat. 162:182-194. http://esrd.a lberta.ca/lan ds- forests/trees - plants/trees/ images/GFX- Lodgepole- Pine-01.jpg http://rockymountainbushcr aft.blogspot.com/2012/12/ro cky-mountain-tree- identification.html
Crossbills Complete overlap with pine trees 9 Watch how crossbills manipulate seeds to feed: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1NvU8WG9bg0 Variation in crossover direction and beak depth (length) http://bootstrap-analysis.com/boot- images/crossbills_1.jpg shorter, right crossover longer, left crossover
Red squirrels Pines + crossbills, but no squirrels until 1950 Watch a red squirrel manipulate a cone to feed: 10 http://www.arkive.org/american-red- squirrel/tamiasciurus-hudsonicus/video- 02a.html http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tamiasciu rus_hudsonicus_CT.jpg
What You Will Do Small groups of 4 Each group gets one Exhibit (numbered 1 – 3) Work with: Modeling Evolutionary Relationships System Map your team’s Exhibit each other in order to make a claim, backed by evidence (your Exhibit) about what’s happening 10 minutes 11
Exhibit 1. From Benkman (2001) Evolution 55: 282-294. 13
Exhibit 2. Bill Depth (mm) Survival From Benkman (2003) Evolution 57: 1176-1181. 1 = survived 0 = died Upper CI* Best fit line Lower CI* * CI = 95% confidence interval 14
Exhibit 3. From Benkman (2003) American Naturalist 162: 182-194. 15
The three species 16 http://kuro- risu.blogspot.com /2010/03/america n-red- squirrel.html Squirrel photo http://www.learner.org/jn orth/images/graphics/a- b/Beak-Crossbill.jpg Crossbill bill photo http://www.nps.gov/ro mo/naturescience/image s/lodgepole_pine.jpg Lodgepole pine cone photo
Based on the data presented, ____________________ are in a coevolutionary relationship. A.squirrels and pinecones B.crossbills and pinecones C.squirrels and crossbills D.A and B E.none of these species
What kind of additional evidence would indicate a coevolutionary relationship between squirrel traits and pinecones?
Exhibit 4. From Smith 1970. Ecological Monographs 40: 349-371 19
Sketching predictive graphs 20 When [independent variable] changes in pine cones… …[Dependent variable] in squirrels will change as a result.
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