Crude Oil Also called petroleum, it is a natural mineral made mostly of hydrocarbons It makes up 38% of the world’s energy Oil refineries split it into more useful substances such as gasoline, kerosene and bitumen (oil sands) The oil can be transported by railway as well as by pipeline Fracking is the removal of crude oil from the ground http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum
Tank Cars The DOT-111 (or CTC-111A in Canada) is the most common tank car used in North America Others used are the DOT-112 and DOT-114 Minimum plate thickness of 11.1 mm. Max capacity of 131,000 L.
Regulations Since 1979, DOT-112 or DOT-114 cars must be used for the transportation of gases such as propane, butane, or vinyl chloride. DOT-111 tank cars “are not considered to provide the same degree of derailment protection against loss of product as the classification 112 and 114 cars, designed to carry flammable gases." The Class 111 is still used for crude oil as it is largely not a gaseous product at standard temperature and pressure It is also not required for railway operators to inform municipalities about any hazardous goods in transit.
Roughly 92,000 DOT-111 cars are used today in the transport of flammable liquids, with only around 14,000 of them built to latest industry standards It is estimated that the cost to retrofit all cars to industry standard would be around one billion dollars
Pros Easier to move oil to refineries In a competitive market, it is the easier method of transport
Cons Travels above ground through communities Possibility of derailment http://www.youtu be.com/watch?v=t VI6r7tQVeo
Railway Transportation The use of railways for oil transportation has become increasingly popular In 2009, five hundred carloads were transported This year it has grown to six hundred leading to about two hundred and thirty thousand barrels per day
Lac-Mégantic On July 6, 2013, a 73-car oil transport train derailed in the city of Lac- Mégantic, Quebec It caused a fire and explosion killing forty-two people with five missing and presumed dead The blast had an estimated one kilometer radius The accident was the fourth deadliest in Canadian history The train that derailed in Lac-Mégantic was unmanned and had rolled down a hill, picking up speed before derailing http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=93T7fnwU6js
Pipelines Pipeline transport is the transportation of crude oil by pipeline There are 5.9 million kilometers of gas pipelines in the world Fifty-seven thousand kilometers are in North America They were developed around the end of the nineteenth century
Keystone XL Expansion Project http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keystone_Pipeline It runs from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in Alberta to refineries in the US in: Steele City Nebraska Wood River Patoka, Illinois Gulf Coast in Texas
Pipeline Pros Pipelines can be built around areas inhabited by people as well as bodies of water to avoid contamination Pipelines can be built with extra safety precautions The XL expansion project will be ensure that the pipeline is monitored 24 hours a day, buried 4 – 25+ feet deep and built with high strength steel for durability along with a fusion bonded epoxy coating with cathodic protection to prevent corrosion http://blog.zintro.com/2012/01/16/keystone-xl-pipeline-pros-and-cons/
Pipeline Cons A buried pipe’s vibrations and potential heat may interfere with the temperature that the surrounding organisms need to be very precise Pumping stations are needed every so often along the route of the pipeline http://blog.zintro.com/2012/01/16/keystone-xl-pipeline-pros-and-cons/
History of Fracking First used rock fracturing methods to extract oil in the 1860s Floyd Harris began research in 1947, improved on previous methods. J.B Clark improved on his research and in 1949 his company acquired a patent for the process( Halliburn Oil Well and Cementing Company)
Many different types of sandstone and limestone were drilled in to 1976 companies began fracking shale deposits Was found to be the most economical source US Canada and China are using shale gas
Protests Companies are trying to explore land that belongs to the First Nations Large public protest in Rexton There is anti-fracking propaganda all over surrounding areas David Alward revealed his support for fracking in an interview after this went down. http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=9gt7kBfDx 5s
The Process of Fracking The main goal of fracking is to extract gas which is entrapped inside shale rocks deep beneath the earth. First, a deep hole is drilled far beneath the drinking water pool to the shale rocks. Next, a pipe is placed through the hole. A mix of water, sand, and various chemicals is pumped into the well at high pressure in order to create fissures in the shale through which the gas can escape. Natural gas escapes through the fissures and is drawn back up the well to the surface, where it is processed, refined, and shipped to market
Benefits of Fracking Economic growth. Causes less air pollution Carbon emissions have been slowly declining Carbon plants are much less expensive than natural gas plants Can supply the earth with hundreds of years of clean energy.
Cons of Fracking 600 different known chemicals including radium and methane 35%-50% never recovered 40000 gallons of chemicals are used per well Methane concentrations 17x higher near wells
More Cons Know to cause small earthquakes Water pollution Causes pollution to go into the air and effect our ozone This contamination has already been linked to 1000s of documented cases
Summary Crude oil is a big part of our world Our methods of extraction can have befits as well as harmful aspects Our transportation systems, though efficient, are not always good for the environment