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Bryson Savard Devan Sharma Sereena Rambaran Zach Adams.

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Presentation on theme: "Bryson Savard Devan Sharma Sereena Rambaran Zach Adams."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bryson Savard Devan Sharma Sereena Rambaran Zach Adams

2 Crude Oil  Also called petroleum, it is a natural mineral made mostly of hydrocarbons  It makes up 38% of the world’s energy  Oil refineries split it into more useful substances such as gasoline, kerosene and bitumen (oil sands)  The oil can be transported by railway as well as by pipeline  Fracking is the removal of crude oil from the ground

3 Tank Cars  The DOT-111 (or CTC-111A in Canada) is the most common tank car used in North America  Others used are the DOT-112 and DOT-114  Minimum plate thickness of 11.1 mm.  Max capacity of 131,000 L.

4 Regulations  Since 1979, DOT-112 or DOT-114 cars must be used for the transportation of gases such as propane, butane, or vinyl chloride.  DOT-111 tank cars “are not considered to provide the same degree of derailment protection against loss of product as the classification 112 and 114 cars, designed to carry flammable gases."  The Class 111 is still used for crude oil as it is largely not a gaseous product at standard temperature and pressure  It is also not required for railway operators to inform municipalities about any hazardous goods in transit.

5  Roughly 92,000 DOT-111 cars are used today in the transport of flammable liquids, with only around 14,000 of them built to latest industry standards  It is estimated that the cost to retrofit all cars to industry standard would be around one billion dollars

6 Pros  Easier to move oil to refineries  In a competitive market, it is the easier method of transport

7 Cons  Travels above ground through communities  Possibility of derailment http://www.youtu VI6r7tQVeo

8 Railway Transportation  The use of railways for oil transportation has become increasingly popular  In 2009, five hundred carloads were transported  This year it has grown to six hundred leading to about two hundred and thirty thousand barrels per day

9 Lac-Mégantic  On July 6, 2013, a 73-car oil transport train derailed in the city of Lac- Mégantic, Quebec  It caused a fire and explosion killing forty-two people with five missing and presumed dead  The blast had an estimated one kilometer radius  The accident was the fourth deadliest in Canadian history  The train that derailed in Lac-Mégantic was unmanned and had rolled down a hill, picking up speed before derailing atch?v=93T7fnwU6js

10 Pipelines  Pipeline transport is the transportation of crude oil by pipeline  There are 5.9 million kilometers of gas pipelines in the world  Fifty-seven thousand kilometers are in North America  They were developed around the end of the nineteenth century

11 Keystone XL Expansion Project  It runs from the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin in Alberta to refineries in the US in:  Steele City  Nebraska  Wood River  Patoka, Illinois  Gulf Coast in Texas

12 Pipeline Pros  Pipelines can be built around areas inhabited by people as well as bodies of water to avoid contamination  Pipelines can be built with extra safety precautions  The XL expansion project will be ensure that the pipeline is monitored 24 hours a day, buried 4 – 25+ feet deep and built with high strength steel for durability along with a fusion bonded epoxy coating with cathodic protection to prevent corrosion

13 Pipeline Cons  A buried pipe’s vibrations and potential heat may interfere with the temperature that the surrounding organisms need to be very precise  Pumping stations are needed every so often along the route of the pipeline


15 History of Fracking  First used rock fracturing methods to extract oil in the 1860s  Floyd Harris began research in 1947, improved on previous methods.  J.B Clark improved on his research and in 1949 his company acquired a patent for the process( Halliburn Oil Well and Cementing Company)

16  Many different types of sandstone and limestone were drilled in to  1976 companies began fracking shale deposits  Was found to be the most economical source  US Canada and China are using shale gas

17 Protests  Companies are trying to explore land that belongs to the First Nations  Large public protest in Rexton  There is anti-fracking propaganda all over surrounding areas  David Alward revealed his support for fracking in an interview after this went down. m/watch?v=9gt7kBfDx 5s

18 The Process of Fracking  The main goal of fracking is to extract gas which is entrapped inside shale rocks deep beneath the earth.  First, a deep hole is drilled far beneath the drinking water pool to the shale rocks.  Next, a pipe is placed through the hole.  A mix of water, sand, and various chemicals is pumped into the well at high pressure in order to create fissures in the shale through which the gas can escape.  Natural gas escapes through the fissures and is drawn back up the well to the surface, where it is processed, refined, and shipped to market

19 Benefits of Fracking  Economic growth.  Causes less air pollution  Carbon emissions have been slowly declining  Carbon plants are much less expensive than natural gas plants  Can supply the earth with hundreds of years of clean energy.

20 Cons of Fracking  600 different known chemicals including radium and methane  35%-50% never recovered  40000 gallons of chemicals are used per well  Methane concentrations 17x higher near wells

21 More Cons  Know to cause small earthquakes  Water pollution  Causes pollution to go into the air and effect our ozone  This contamination has already been linked to 1000s of documented cases

22 Opinions Devan Bryson

23 Summary  Crude oil is a big part of our world  Our methods of extraction can have befits as well as harmful aspects  Our transportation systems, though efficient, are not always good for the environment

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