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Evaluating Information Literacy Process Models

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Presentation on theme: "Evaluating Information Literacy Process Models"— Presentation transcript:

1 Evaluating Information Literacy Process Models
ISTC 651 CLAIRE DEROSE

2 13 Information Literacy Process Models
PLUS Model 8Ws of Information Inquiry Louisiana Information Literacy Model for Lifelong Learning Big6 Research Steps to Success Stripling and Pitts Research Process Model SAUCE Seven Steps of the Research Process Digital Information Fluency Model Super3 Seven Pillars Research Cycle Alberta Model for Teaching the Research Process

3 Additional Information
Category PLUS MODEL Creator J. E. Herring Grade Level Used Middle and high Steps to Process Purpose Location Use Self- evaluation Additional Information Emphasis on thinking skills and self evaluation not linear (can go back to steps when needed)

4 8Ws of Information Literacy
Category 8Ws of Information Literacy Creator Annette Lamb Grade Level Used Middle school Steps to Process Watching (exploring) wondering (questioning) webbing (searching) wiggling (evaluating) weaving (synthesizing) wrapping (creating) waving (communication) wishing (assessing) Additional Information Similar to Eisenberg, McKenzie, Kuhlthau, Pappas, and Tepe alliteration was added to stimulate student interest

5 Louisiana Information Literacy Model for Lifelong Learning
Category Louisiana Information Literacy Model for Lifelong Learning Creator Louisiana Department of Education Grade Level Used All levels Steps to Process Defining/ focusing selecting tools and resources extracting and recording processing information organizing information presenting findings evaluating efforts Additional Information - Each step is broken down into further sub steps and objectives

6 Additional Information
Category Big6 Creator Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz Grade Level Used K- higher education Steps to Process Task definition information seeking strategies location and access use of information synthesis evaluation Additional Information Most widely-known and widely- used approach to teaching information and technology skills in the world. Not necessary to complete in linear order Given stage does not have to take a lot of time

7 Research Steps to Success
Category Research Steps to Success Creator Sandra Hughes Grade Level Used Elementary level Steps to Process Preparing for research accessing resources processing information transfer your learning Additional Information Recommends the Big6 for more detailed process model Acknowledges the correlation between this model and a curriculum

8 Stripling and Pitts Research Process Model
Category Stripling and Pitts Research Process Model Creator Stripling and Pitts Grade Level Used K-12 Steps to Process Choose a broad topic get an overview of the topic narrow the topic develop a thesis or statement of purpose formulate questions to guide research plan for research and production find/ analyze/ evaluate sources evaluate evidence/ take notes/ compile bibliography establish conclusions/ organize information into an outline create and present final product Additional Information - Reflection points direct students to evaluate the work they have just completed

9 Additional Information
Category SAUCE Creator Trevor Bond Grade Level Used High school Steps to Process Set the scene acquire use celebrate understanding evaluate Additional Information Uses Bloom’s taxonomy for higher thinking levels in the using stage Learners formulate the information seeking questions during the acquiring stage

10 Seven Steps of the Research Process
Category Seven Steps of the Research Process Creator Michael Engle Cornell University Library Grade Level Used College Steps to Process Identify and develop your topic find background information use catalogs to find books and media use indexes to find periodical articles find internet resources evaluate what you find cite what you find using a standard format Additional Information -Steps can be rearranged or recycled depending on topic being researched and student’s familiarity to the library

11 Digital Information Fluency Model
Category Digital Information Fluency Model Creator 21st Century Information Fluency Grade Level Used 6-12 Steps to Process What information am I looking for?  Where will I find the information?  How will I get there?  How good is the information?  How will I ethically use the information? Additional Information “Digital Information Fluency (DIF) is the ability to find, evaluate and use digital information effectively, efficiently and ethically.”

12 Additional Information
Category Super3 Creator Tami J. Little Mike Eisenberg and Bob Berkowitz Grade Level Used K-2 Steps to Process Additional Information -based on Big6 -Teachers can use vocabulary that children understand

13 Additional Information
Category Seven Pillars Creator Moira Bent Society of College, National and University Libraries Grade Level Used College, graduate school Steps to Process Recognize information need distinguish ways of addressing gap construct strategies for locating locate and access compare and evaluate organize, apply, and communicate synthesize and create Additional Information -combines ideas about the range of skills involved with both the need to clarify and illustrate the relationship between information skills and IT skills

14 Additional Information
Category Research Cycle Creator Jamie McKenzie Grade Level Used 6-12 Steps to Process questioning planning gathering sorting and sifting synthesizing evaluating reporting Additional Information -requires students to make up their own minds, create their own answers, and show independence and judgment - forced to cycle back repeatedly through the stages so the more skill they develop, the less linear the process

15 Focus on Research: the Alberta Model for Teaching the Research Process
Category Focus on Research: the Alberta Model for Teaching the Research Process Creator Dianne Oberg with Alberta Education Grade Level Used k-12 Steps to Process Planning Information Retrieval Information Processing Information Sharing Evaluation Throughout researching: Reviewing the process Additional Information develops students’ metacognitive abilities develops emotional literacy invests time in exploration supports students during their work teaches role of librarian

16 Claire’s Three Choices:
Level Information Literacy Process Model Why Elementary BIG6 -clear, easy to understand - widely used and recommended Middle FOCUS ON RESEARCH has self-reflection at every stage of the process clear, easy to understand, but with more depth than the BIG6 High DIGITAL INFORMATION FLUENCY MODEL - guides students throughout the process with extra focus on ethically using the information found in research (important to learn in high school when starting to research more in-depth topics)

17 Similarities and Differences
Research Step BIG 6 FOCUS ON RESEARCH DIGITAL INFORMATION FLUENCY MODEL 1. Task Definition Planning What information am I looking for? 2. Information Seeking Strategies Where will I find the information? 3. Location and Access Information Retrieval How will I get there? 4. Use of Information Information Processing How good is the information? 5. Synthesis Information Sharing How will I ethically use the information? 6. Evaluation

18 Instructional Generalizations
all three models start with a planning stage; place to organize thoughts elementary model is the one with the most steps- is clear, and regimented to guide student(s) to success while the elementary and middle models use broad terms that are more clearly defined in each model, the high school model uses more open-ended questions, to allow for individual interpretation and use

19 Poetry through k-12 in HCPS and MSDE Language Arts Curriculum

20 AASL STANDARDS FOR THE 21ST CENTURY LEARNER
To inquire, think critically, and gain knowledge To draw conclusions, make informed decisions, apply knowledge to new situations, and create new knowledge To share knowledge and participate ethically and productively as members of our democratic society Pursue personal and aesthetic growth

21 MSDE VOLUNTARY STATE CURRICULUM
“In English Language Arts, the alignment of curriculum, instruction, and assessment is needed if our students are going to experience success. The essential English Language Arts that should be taught in every classroom throughout Maryland can be found in the State Curriculum. Teaching the curriculum in a way that helps students make sense of what they are learning helps them to view English as a useful subject as opposed to a set of rules to memorize. Finally, formative and summative assessments should reflect the instruction while spanning the various levels of cognitive demand in reading.”

22 Curriculum Used in Evaluation: HCPS

23 Language Arts in HCPS “The Harford County English/language arts curriculum, kindergarten through grade twelve, is structured so that students recognize the authentic relationships among reading, writing, listening, and speaking in the real world. In child-centered, positive learning environments, students strive to master developmental and sequential learning expectations to become self- directed, productive life-long learners.”

24 ILA in HCPS: Elementary Level
“In the elementary Integrated Language Arts program, teachers model the processes of reading, writing, listening, and speaking while integrating instruction which supports appropriate expectations for the development of basic skills as well as higher level thinking and learning skills. Teachers, students, and parents work collaboratively to accomplish instructional goals that prepare students to move on to the middle school experience.”

25 Poetry at the Elementary Level:
Standard 3.0 Comprehension of Literary Text: Students will read, comprehend, interpret, analyze, and evaluate literary text Indicator 4. Use elements of poetry to facilitate understanding Objectives: Use structural features such as structure and form including lines and stanzas, shape, refrain, chorus, rhyme scheme, and types of poems such as haiku, diamonte, etc., to identify poetry as a literary form and distinguish among types of poems Identify and explain the meaning of words, lines, and stanzas Assessment limit: Literal versus figurative meaning Identify and explain sound elements of poetry Assessment limits: Rhyme, rhyme scheme, Alliteration and other repetition Identify and explain other poetic elements such as setting, mood, tone, etc., that contribute to meaning Assessment limit: Elements of grade-appropriate lyric and narrative poems that contribute to meaning

26 IL Standards Applied to Language Arts Curriculum: Elementary Level (Grade 4)
Curriculum Objective IL Standard (s) Identify and explain other poetic elements such as setting, mood, tone, etc., that contribute to meaning To draw conclusions, make informed decisions, apply knowledge to new situations, and create new knowledge

27 IL and Diverse Populations: Elementary Level
Using the BIG6 with diverse populations: students with special needs: BIG6 can be broken down into sub steps to help chunk any research activity enrichment students: BIG6 allows for students to move through the research process independently, or to spend as much time on one step but not another as needed non-motivated students: BIG6 can be used for any research topic, and focuses on the student’s involvement. Students could use it for relevant topics to foster motivation. Student can also become invested in the project by being able to check off steps and feel accomplished.

28 ILA in HCPS: Middle School Level
The middle school language arts program continues to focus on the development of student skills in the areas of reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Through an integrated, thematic approach, students explore the richness of the human literacy experience. They refine basic skills and strive to accomplish a higher level of skill development in all areas of the language arts. Instruction targets success for all students by the time they leave middle school and enter high school.

29 Poetry at the Middle School Level:
Standard 3.0 Comprehension of Literary Text: Students will read, comprehend, interpret, analyze, and evaluate literary text. Indicator 4. Analyze elements of poetry to facilitate understanding and interpretation Objectives Use structural features to distinguish among types of poetry such as ballad, narrative, lyric Analyze language and structural features to determine meaning Assessment limit: Literal versus figurative meaning Analyze sound elements of poetry that contribute to meaning Assessment limits: Rhyme, rhyme scheme, Alliteration and other repetition, Onomatopoeia Identify and explain other poetic elements such as setting, mood, tone, etc., that contribute to meaning Assessment limit: Elements of grade-appropriate lyric and narrative poems that contribute to meaning

30 IL Standards Applied to Language Arts Curriculum: Middle School Level (Grade 7)
Use structural features to distinguish among types of poetry such as ballad, narrative, lyric To inquire, think critically, and gain knowledge To draw conclusions, make informed decisions, apply knowledge to new situations, and create new knowledge

31 IL and Diverse Populations: Middle School Level
Using Focus on Research with diverse populations: Using the Focus on Research with diverse populations: students with special needs: The reviewing the process stage helps students who are not confident in their research skills to make sure they have completed the step thoroughly before moving on. The fact that reviewing the process is included at each step makes the reflection mandatory and does not single any student out. enrichment students: Enrichment students can have more freedom in the planning stage when figuring out what to research. They can also have more control over their project by doing the reviewing the process stages independently instead of with the teacher or librarian. non-motivated students: The information sharing stage can help motivate students by knowing in advance that not only will the teacher see their finished product, but other members of the class will as well.

32 ILA in HCPS: High School Level
“High school English is a four-year, sequential program of study through which students earn credits toward graduation, as well as a broad selection of electives through which students enrich their learning experiences. Learning expectations for high school students are aligned with the Maryland Core Learning Goals for English. As curriculum undergoes revision, this alignment will be clarified and strengthened in order to support success on the Maryland High School Assessments in English. Electives in drama, journalism, public speaking, humanities, and creative writing offer students a variety of avenues for creative expression and authentic performance. The high school program strives to prepare all students for success in college and the world of work.”

33 Poetry at the High School Level:
Standard 2: The student will analyze and evaluate a variety of print, non- print and electronic texts, and other media. Indicator 2.1: The student will analyze and evaluate a variety of texts, including fiction, nonfiction, poetry, drama, and informational texts. Objective: The student will analyze stylistic elements in a text or across texts that communicate an author’s purpose. Determine the tone or voice of a text or a portion of a text or across texts Determine and/or explain the significance of the following as each contributes to the author’s purpose o repetition and/or exaggeration, parallelism, allusion, analogy, figurative language, imagery, symbolism, a particular speaker or point of view, transitions, choice of details (e.g., specific examples, events, dialogue), features of language that create tone and voice Explain the effectiveness of stylistic elements in accomplishing a purpose Evaluate an author’s choice of words, phrases, and sentences for a particular audience or effect, for a given purpose, to extend meaning in a context, or to provide emphasis Distinguish among types of irony (e.g., verbal, situational, dramatic)

34 IL Standards Applied to Language Arts Curriculum: High School Level
Determine and/or explain the significance of the following as each contributes to the author’s purpose o repetition and/or exaggeration, parallelism, allusion, analogy, figurative language, imagery, symbolism, a particular speaker or point of view, transitions, choice of details (e.g., specific examples, events, dialogue), features of language that create tone and voice To inquire, think critically, and gain knowledge To draw conclusions, make informed decisions, apply knowledge to new situations, and create new knowledge

35 Metacognitive Implications
Elementary Middle High students look at poetry and analyze why specific words were picked by the author students reflect on how the words effect themselves as the reader - students start analyzing their own poetry and how using different literary elements and styles reveal their emotions and feelings towards a subject or theme. - students analyze more lengthy and classic works of poetry to develop a deeper knowledge base of poetry types and styles - more discussion oriented to allow students to reflect on how they and other students react to different kinds of poetry and why

36 IL and Diverse Populations: High School Level
Using the Digital Information Fluency Model with diverse populations: Using the Digital Information Fluency Model with diverse populations: students with special needs: each question is supplemented with specific objectives to guide students in understanding what to do in each step enrichment students: questions are focused on independent work questions are open-ended to allow for creative interpretation and ability to cater each question to fit the students’ needs ethic oriented question will challenge students to make sure they research appropriately- could also allow for peer teaching the appropriate way to cite/ use sources non-motivated students: general questions will not overwhelm the students basic outline will not overwhelm the students

37 Interpretations and Conclusions
Models with less steps are clearer and easier to understand Just because an alliteration is used doesn’t make it easier to use More open-ended questions work better with higher level students Elementary students need a mix of a flexible but still structured model

38 References Bent, M. (2007, Nov). The seven pillars of information literacy model. Retrieved from Bond, T. (2009, April 23). Sauce. Retrieved from (1997, June 11). Brainstorms & blueprints teaching library research as a thinking process. Retrieved from Callison, D. & Lamb. A. (2009). 8Ws of information inquiry. Retrieved from Eisenberg, M. (2007, Oct 6). What is the big6? Retrieved from Engle, M. (2010, Nov 23). The seven steps of the research process. Retrieved from Heine. C. & O’Connor. D. (2009, Dec 13). Digital information fluency model. Retrieved from Herring, J. E. (2004). The plus model. Retrieved from Hughes, S. (2009, Feb 26). Research steps to success. Retrieved from Little, T. The super3. Retrieved from Louisiana information literacy model for lifelong learning. Retrieved from McKenzie, J. (2000). The research cycle. Retrieved from Needham, J. (2010). Meeting the new aasl standards for the 21st-century learner via big6 problem solving. Library Media Connection, Oberg, D. (1999, June 9). Teaching the research process- for discovery and personal growth. Retrieved from


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