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Conditions In The Great Depression 1929-1939. BIG 3 REVIEW QUIZ Who were the two Prime Ministers during the Depression? What parties were they from? (/2)

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Presentation on theme: "Conditions In The Great Depression 1929-1939. BIG 3 REVIEW QUIZ Who were the two Prime Ministers during the Depression? What parties were they from? (/2)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Conditions In The Great Depression 1929-1939

2 BIG 3 REVIEW QUIZ Who were the two Prime Ministers during the Depression? What parties were they from? (/2) In the Supply and Demand concept, if Demand goes down and Supply remains constant, what happens to prices? (/1) Name one initiative taken to try to solve the depression by each Prime Minister. (/2) Bonus: What years was Bennett in office?

3 1933- The worst year GNP in 1933 had dropped 40% from pre-crash levels Canada ’ s exports declined by half Over-dependence on natural resource exports 26.6% unemployment In some regions of Canada unemployment was 30-50%

4 Richard Bedford Bennett

5 Relief Most relief funds came in the form of public works Disorganized attempt meant that only $4 million of the $20 million went in direct relief to people Registering for relief was humiliating and difficult Relief usually came in vouchers (food stamps)

6 Soup Kitchens

7 Depression in the Prairies Record low prices for grain Most severe and prolonged drought in history 1929-1937 drought in Palliser’s Triangle WWI $2 a bushel for wheat 1932-33: 39.375 cents

8 The Dustbowl

9 Labour Camps Riding the Rails made government nervous Work camps for unemployed, single men Under the jurisdiction of the Department of National Defence 20 cents a day 1932 saw the establishment of the first labour camps Lack of funds Single men could not get relief

10 Relief Camps

11 Unrest in the camps In the four years of the camps there were 359 strikes, riots and disturbances RCWU was associated with the Communist party and began to organize protests for decent wages On to Ottawa began in BC

12 On to Ottawa Trek

13 The On to Ottawa Trek April 1935 - 3000 relief camp workers converged on Vancouver riots and protests for weeks 1800 got on trains for Ottawa June 14, 1935 - 2000 men converged on Regina Arthur “Slim” Evans and seven of his men agreed to a meeting with the Prime Minister

14 The Six Demands of the workers 50 cents an hour wage for unskilled labour and union rates for skilled labour All workers must be covered by the Compensation Act and adequate first aid for the jobs Elected committee of relief workers Department of National Defence no longer be in charge of the camps A genuine system of social and unemployment insurance All workers guaranteed the right to vote

15 Regina Riot The meeting ended in a stalemate Evans returned to Regina July 1, 1935 rally in Market Square Riot ensued 1 police office dead and 100 protesters arrested 8, including Evans were sent to jail

16 Regina Riot

17 Confronting the Depression Tariffs for protection Smoot-Hawley tariff devastated Canada (30-60%) In July 1932 Bennett makes a half hearted attempt at free trade at the Imperial Conference in Ottawa

18 Bennett ’ s New Deal 1935 election year Proposed a “ New Deal ” like FDR ’ s in the US Proposed a government program of unemployment insurance Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act The Canadian Wheat Board The Natural Products Marketing Board

19 New Deal Thwarted in the courts, but also proposed UI and national health insurance Bank of Canada Act- created a central bank Canadians did not trust Bennett

20 1935 Election Mackenzie King made few promises Promised to disband the work camps 1935 the Conservatives lost 3/5 of the vote capturing only 40 seats King won 125 seats King adopted some New Deal policies, but not much changed for Canadians

21 New Political Parties Social Credit- William Aberhart $25 a month to make up for the lack of purchasing power 56/63 Albertan seats 15/17 seats in Ottawa from Alberta “Bible Bill” (William) Aberhart

22 New Political Parties The Co-operative Commonwealth Federation formed in 1932 Regina Manifesto- social democracy Government control of key industries Welfare state- medicare, welfare and UI J.S. Woodsworth 1944 Tommy Douglas elected in Saskatchewan

23 New Political Parties In Quebec the Church pushed for reform Anti-socialist but proposed programs to regulate monopolies and improve conditions Some Liberals broke away and formed the Action Liberale nationale Maurice Duplessis of the Conservative party formed an alliance to create the Union Nationale in 1935

24 Maurice Duplessis

25 The Communist Party Tim Buck leader Communist Party found an audience during the Great Depression The Party was outlawed in 1931 Tim Buck and other leaders jailed from 1932-1934 Protests, marches and hunger strikes

26 The Communist Party of Canada

27 Aboriginal Peoples in the Depression Services cut back to bare minimum as outlined by Treaties Birthrate twice as high Death rate 4x as high Metis had it worse as there were no treaties 1934 90% of Metis in Alberta had TB, paralysis, blindness or syphilis

28 Confronting the Outsider Relief for Chinese $1.12 versus $2.50 a week for non-Chinese Sections 40 and 41 of the Immigration Act allowed for deportation of unemployable recipients of relief In Alberta 1930-1934 2547 immigrants were deported This discouraged many from applying for relief

29 Immigration Even before the Depression, immigration was discouraged Jews were especially discouraged Canada not welcoming to Jews escaping Nazi Germany Frederick Blair “ none is too many ”

30 Jewish Refugees Country admitting Jewish Refugees from the Nazis 1933-45 Number of Refugees United States240 000 Great Britain85 000 China25 000 Argentina25 000 Brazil25 000 Columbia and Mexico40 000 Canada5000 (pathetic)

31 Conclusion The demand for goods in World War II finally pushed Canada out of the Great Depression The growth of the welfare state and gov ’ t supervision of vital aspects of the economy continued into the 1980s as a result of the Great Depression

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