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CORAF – Collective Rights

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1 CORAF – Collective Rights
Social 9 Textbook: chapter 4

2 What are collective rights?
“Rights held by groups (peoples) in Canadian society that are recognized and protected by Canada’s constitution”

3 What are collective rights?
Unique to Canada! Are different than individual rights ALL Canadian citizens have individual rights However, collective rights are specific to one of several groups of people in Canadian society Who holds collective rights? Aboriginal Groups: First Nations, Métis & Inuit Language Groups: Francophones & Anglophones

4 Why do some people have collective rights, while others don’t?
Recognize the founding people of Canada Recognizing their contribution Come from Canadian roots Aboriginal, French, English


6 As best as I can do…it’s complicated…
Chapter 4 in your textbook Canada’s History of Collective Rights (For groups of people not language)

7 7 Years’ War

8 7 Years’ War Also called the “French and Indian War”
The first “world war” In North America, mainly fought between: British & Aboriginal supporters French & Aboriginal supporters Aboriginal groups for the most part, supported the French The war forced aboriginal groups to take sides in a European conflict

9 7 Years’ War Why the French? What was the result?
French primarily there for fur, not large-scale settlement A large number of Jesuit missionaries were focusing on conversion (thus trying to relate to aboriginal culture and learn aboriginal languages) What was the result? France lost its North America holdings Aboriginal groups can no longer play the British off of the French

10 Royal Proclamation – 1763 Goals
Ensure the British laws are followed in North America Encourage British settlers to come to Quebec Control westward expansion Attempt to men relationships with aboriginal tribes

11 Royal Proclamation – 1763 Results
One of the causes of the American Revolution We see the early beginnings of some recognition of aboriginal rights in Canada In fact, see section 25 of your CORAF! The proclamation line was meant to allow for an orderly expansion westward This may seem as an “organized theft of native lands” OR It established a precedent that “the indigenous population had certain rights to lands they occupied”

12 Royal Proclamation – 1763 Thus the Royal Proclamation is the first example of the recognition of aboriginal collective rights in Canada!

13 Quebec Act – 1774 Passed by Britain to pacify their newly acquired French-North American subjects Allowed the Canadiennes to maintain: French civil law Catholic religion & freedom of religion It worked – the people in the Province of Quebec were happy to be a part of the British Empire Can be considered the first set of collective rights for French Canadians

14 American Revolution But, as a result of the American revolution, a large portion of British loyalists abandoned the newly formed USA and came to British North America Why? They were loyal to the crown Around 500,000 people were loyalists Around 70,000 fled the USA With 46,000ish coming to British North America

15 American Revolution Changes in British North America
Around 33,000 went to Nova Scotia, but they weren’t liked. So “New Brunswick” was created from Nova Scotia for these loyalists Around 10,000 went to Quebec They wanted the Protestant Church They DID NOT want French Civil Law

16 The Constitution Act – 1791 It was decided that the English and French speaking settlers should be separated. They could not peacefully co-exist Upper Canada (Ontario) would be English Lower Canada (Quebec) would be French

17 Constitution Act 1791 Upper Canada Lower Canada English speaking
Protestant British civil law & institutions Worried that French Canadians still had too much power French speaking Roman Catholic French civil law & institutions Worried that they would be eclipsed by growing English power

18 War of 1812 Aggressors Causes United States
British Empire (mainly North America) Causes Trade restrictions by Britain on the new USA, due to continued war with France Impressment of American merchant sailors British support of aboriginal tribes against American expansion Possible USA desire to annex Canada

19 War of 1812 Clockwise from top:
Damage to the US Capitol after the Burning of Washington; The mortally wounded Isaac Brock spurs troops on at the Queenston Heights; USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere; The death of Tecumseh at Moraviantown; Andrew Jackson leads the defence of New Orleans

20 War of Great Britain was only able to offer minimal support, being tied up in Europe due to the Napoleonic Wars until 1814 However, in 1815 they were able to offer much more support This war is unique in that it has no clear “victor” Americans view it as a second ‘war of independence’ English Canadians view it as a successful defense against possible USA annexation Part of the collective identity of English-speaking Canadians

21 1837 – Canada Rebellions Saint-Eustache Patriotes. By Lord Charles Beauclerk

22 1837 – Canada Rebellions Two armed uprisings that took place in Lower and Upper Canada Causes Frustrations in political reform. Both groups had a great desire for responsible government The governments in the colonies were based on the British model: a monarchy and an aristocracy However, there was NO monarchy or aristocracy in the colonies

23 1837 – Canada Rebellions Lower Canada
Primarily caused by: Ineffective and unfair colonial government Economic disenfranchisement of French-speaking businessmen & workers Led by the Parti Canadien (parti patriote) Collective Rights These rebellions are a clear example of French Canadians fighting for their collective rights The rebellion remains significant to Quebecers to this day: National Patriotes Day

24 1837 – Canada Rebellions Upper Canada
Caused by anger of the oligarchic government of Upper Canada However, it was the Lower Canada rebellion that prompted the Upper Canada one Also issues over the family Compact A group of businessmen in government who governed for their own sake Led by William Lyon Mackenzie Compared to Lower Canada, this rebellion was far less bloody

25 1837 – Canada Rebellions Aftermath
Upper and Lower Canada are merged under the Union Act: The Province of Canada French Canadians barely keep a majority in the new political entity However, the new government was unstable and would ultimately lead to the Great Coalition and Confederation

26 Confederation In 1867, after a lengthy battle, the founding fathers of Canada were able to bring about the “British North America Act” also known as the “Constitution Act, 1867” This made Canada its own country, with the monarch of Britain being the monarch of Canada Confederation was well received by both the British and the Canadians Note: we will be studying Confederation in much greater detail later in the course

27 Confederation Enshrined fundamental collective rights between English and French speaking Canadians Distinct, yet working together In addition, it fostered unity between the two Both languages are equally recognized The desire for a trans-continental railway was also reflected in Confederation This influenced the numbered treaties with aboriginal peoples Led to BC joining Confederation

28 1869 – Red River Rebellion The newly formed Canadian government bought Rupert’s Land from the Hudson’s Bay Company Would facilitate Canadian expansion The land would be surveyed in the same way that Ontario was surveyed This included the Red River Colony in Manitoba There was a problem though – the Métis, led by Louis Riel did not want the land to be surveyed, especially by an English-speaking surveyor

29 1869 – Red River Rebellion

30 1869 – Red River Rebellion Riel created a provisional government and sought to work with the federal government to establish the Métis territory of Assiniboia as a province In the meantime, Riel’s government also tried and executed an Orangeman named Thomas Scott Why would Riel do this?

31 1869 – Red River Rebellion Nevertheless, in 1870 the provisional and federal governments passed the Manitoba Act which created the province of Manitoba Shortly thereafter, the government sent troops under the Wolseley Expedition to maintain security (and prevent American expansion) Furious Ontarians, over the execution of Scott, viewed this as a suppression of the Métis The Métis, however view the Manitoba act as an enshrinement of their rights

32 1870 – Manitoba Act Métis collective rights in the Manitoba Act:
Separate French schools for Métis Protection of the practice of Catholicism Note: In 1875, Louis Riel was exiled for his execution of Thomas Scott

33 1876 – Indian Act (page 137) Was enacted in 1876 under the 1867 Constitution Act All authority to legislate in relation to “Indians and Lands Reserved for Indians” is given to the federal government . Defines who is an “Indian” and contains certain legal rights and disabilities for registered aboriginals The rights that aboriginal groups gained through this cannot be challenged under the CORAF (section 25)

34 1876 – Indian Act This leads to the creation of the “Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development” This department (which still exists) is responsible for administering the act

35 1876 – Indian Act Up until 1985, the act listed several ways in which an “Indian” could lose their status Marrying a man who was not a status Indian Enfranchisement (in other words, they were not allowed to vote) Having at the age of 21, a mother and paternal grandmother who did not have status before marriage Being born out of wedlock to a mother with status and a father without The big issue, was that these provisions interfered with the matrilineal culture of many First Nations

36 1876 – Indian Act There have been many amendments over the years, and there continue to be amendments, but the most significant was Bill C-31 in 1985 Ends discriminatory provisions of the act (especially against women) Changes the meaning of “status”. Allowed some aboriginals to regain their status Allows the band to define their own membership rules

37 1876 – Indian Act & Numbered Treaties
Part of the Indian act was a series of numbered treaties between the federal government and aboriginal groups In Alberta: Treaty 6 ( ) Treaty 7 ( ) Treaty 8 (1899) Please copy the chart of treaty provisions from page 125

38 1879 – Residential Schools Begin
As a part of the Indian Act, the federal government was required to provide education to the Indian Bands MP Nicholas Davin was assigned the task of deciding how to educate aboriginal children He argued that residential schools would be the best system. They did two things Educate aboriginal children Assimilate children to Canadian ideals

39 1885 – North West Rebellion In 1885, Riel returned to Canada, and went to the Métis people in modern-day Saskatchewan The Métis believed that: Canada had failed to address the protection of their rights They would soon die out as a distinct people

40 1885 – North West Rebellion Riel and the Métis gained some early victories, however they were outgunned Canada’s Advantage: The North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) The Canadian Pacific Railroad Riel’s belief that he was a prophet sent by God to defend the Métis

41 1885 – North West Rebellion The Métis and aboriginal allies were defeated fairly quickly Riel was tried and executed for his actions The North-West Rebellion is another example of the tensions between English and French Canadians It is an example of collective rights attempting to be gained militarily

42 1938-1960 – Métis Population Betterment Act
Métis groups lobbied the Alberta government to set aside land for their use The government established 12 settlements This was the first time in Canada’s history that a government had given land to the Métis Ultimately four were unsuitable for farming, fishing, or even hunting, and lands were returned to the government

43 1939 – Indian Association of Alberta
Organized by the First Nations in Alberta, to emphasize treaty 6, 7, 8 rights Goals: To maintain treaty rights To advance the social and economic welfare of Indian peoples To secure better educational facilities and opportunities To cooperate with federal, provincial and local governments for the benefit of Indians

44 1969 – Official Languages Act
Reasserts the equality of French and English as official languages of Canada, as established at Confederation Four main provisions May receive services from federal departments in either language (French/English) May be heard in court in either language Parliament publishes everything in both languages Languages have equal status as “working” languages

45 1980 / 1982 – Repatriation of Canada’s Constitution
“We, the First Nations, proclaim our dedication and commitment to the recognition of our unique history and destiny within Canada by entrenching our treaty and Aboriginal rights within the constitution. Only in this way can we truly fulfill the sacred obligation handed down to us by our forefathers for the future generations. Anything less would result in the betrayal of our heritage and destiny” – Federation of Saskatchewan indians

46 1980 / 1982 – Repatriation of Canada’s Constitution
“I speak of a Canada where men and women of Aboriginal ancestry, of French and British heritage, of the diverse cultures of the world, demonstrate the will to share this land in peace, in justice, and with mutual respect.” – Pierre Trudeau, 1982 Note: Trudeau viewed the aboriginal treaties as obstacles to equality, whereas aboriginal peoples viewed them as affirmations of their identity We see the beginnings of an overarching Canadian ideal in this quote. What is it?

47 1980 / 1982 – Repatriation of Canada’s Constitution
The Métis also lobbied for a recognition of their rights When the Constitution was adopted, the Métis were recognized as one of Canada’s aboriginal peoples! This is the first time they are formally recognized

48 1990 – Alberta Métis Settlements
In 1990, Alberta passed legislation which granted permanent lands to Métis in Alberta They were granted autonomy over their lands They Métis were also permitted to participate in the development of oil and gas industries on their lands

49 A Few Additional Métis rights
2003 – Supreme court rules that the Métis have a right to hunt & fish under the constitution 2004 – Alberta’s government recognizes Métis rights to hunt/fish without licenses 2006 – Métis in Manitoba launch a land claims action for land promised, but not delivered, in the Manitoba Act (think back to Riel) 2007 – Alberta’s government withdraws some of these rights

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