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An Evaluation of the Infant with Motor Delays: When and How Much? Sarah Winter, MD Neurodevelopmental Pediatrician Division of General Pediatrics University.

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Presentation on theme: "An Evaluation of the Infant with Motor Delays: When and How Much? Sarah Winter, MD Neurodevelopmental Pediatrician Division of General Pediatrics University."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Evaluation of the Infant with Motor Delays: When and How Much? Sarah Winter, MD Neurodevelopmental Pediatrician Division of General Pediatrics University of Utah Terry Holden, PT CHSCN February 23, 2010

2 Objectives Discuss hallmarks of motor delays in infants such as tone patterns, primitive reflexes, milestone delays, and deviances Using cases to prompt discussion, compare differences in the approach to evaluation Review brain MRI abnormalities with patterns of motor impairment Review the purpose of the Neuromotor Team

3 Developmental Disorders in Children Cognition : MR/LD Movement : Cerebral Palsy Sensation : Hearing / Vision Impairment Behavior : ADHD Social skills: Autism Disorders of brain function

4 Neuromotor Team Children with Special Health Care Needs Specialty team within the “Child Developmental Clinic” Types of patients seen –Typically birth to 36 months –Older children with motor impairment with case management needs Team members: –Sarah Winter, MD, Terry Holden, PT, Scott Jerome, PT, and Alison Seppi, RN –Oversight: Jim Taliaferro, LCSW

5 My developmental path to understanding gross motor delay

6 But how do you apply this disparate knowledge and be helpful to this child and family?

7 Developmental Progress A systematic approach of identification, evaluation, and intervention Move from chaotic pieces of knowledge To

8 A Systematic Approach Screen ExamineDiagnose Treat

9 References for Screening 2001 AAP Policy Statement: Developmental Surveillance and Screening of Infants and Young Children EPSDT: Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment 2006 AAP Policy Statement: Identifying Infants and Young Children with Developmental Disorders in the Medical Home: An algorithm for Developmental Surveillance and Screening

10 References to Screening and Surveillance Society for Development and Behavioral Pediatrics website: Grand Rounds by Paul Young and Charlie Ralston Podcast produced by Dr. Paul Carbone

11 Features of a Good Developmental History Parents describe gross motor skill delays well People; both parents and medical care providers, don’t tend to pay attention to fine motor skills e.g. when are kids supposed to have a hand preference? Ask about language, it is a clue to cognitive development

12 The Pediatric Neurodevelopmental Exam Gross Motor findings Fine Motor findings Language findings –Expressive –Receptive Social/Behavioral findings

13 Focused exam findings Tone patterns –Low tone: mild or severe? –High tone: is it symmetric?, is it typical (LE>UE)? –“weird” tone : ataxia, tremor, fluctuating (dystonia)

14 Gross Motor Exam Findings

15 Focused exam Reflexes; –High or absent –Primitive reflexes – see figure Postural or protective responses –Lateral, anterior, posterior supports –parachute

16 Examples of primitive reflexes The Moro is normal in a newborn and should be gone by 4 months The ATNR is normal in a newborn and should be gone at 6 months

17 Postural (or protective) responses Anterior (comes 1 st ), lateral (2 nd ), and posterior (3 rd ) support responses Parachute response Lateral support: (appears at 6 months) Parachute response: (appears at 10 months)


19 Increased tone

20 gross motor examination This child presents with delays in gross motor milestones. His tone is likely low Differentiate between tone and strength

21 Focused Exam “Deviant” (atypical but not always delayed) motor patterns –“Bottom scooters” –Circling hands and feet while balanced on the bottom (hypotonia) Some confuse this for a sign of autism –Commando crawling (hemiplegia)

22 Gross motor testing: standardized measures of gross motor function Purpose –Further diagnostic information –Qualifying children for therapeutic services –Developmental measure or mark in time Frequently used tools –Peabody Developmental Motor Scales –Bayley Scales of Infant Development –Gross Motor Function Scale –TIMP –Alberta Infant Motor Scales

23 Motor Assessment Tools TestAge RangeDescriptionSens/SpecTime frame/cost Test of Infant Motor Performance (2002) Preterm (>34 weeks) to 4 months adj age Early identification of infants with neuromotor dysfunction Sens 83-96% Spec 78 – 65% 30 minutes Alberta Infant Motor Scales (1994) 0 – 18 monthsUseful in high risk infants for screening gross motor function Sens 74 – 86% Spec 81 – 93% 20 minutes Peabody Developmental Motor Scale 2 nd ed. (2000) Birth – 6 yearsMeasures of gross and fine motor skills, has subtests, gives age equivalent At 4 mo: sens 25%, spec 73% At 8 mo: sens 86% spec 46 – 60% minutes for each subtest Bayley Scales of Infant Development: (PDI) 1 – 42 monthsFrequently used by NICU follow- up programs and outcome studies minutes

24 Narrowing the Differential Diagnosis Patient A: in top graph 18 months with negative past medical history. Patient B: 12 month old with history of failure to thrive

25 Medical Diagnostic Considerations

26 Case # 1 10 month old not sitting or rolling Pregnancy/Labor/birth HX: Uncomplicated pregnancy, NSVD, BW 8# 3 oz. Apgars normal FHx: noncontributory

27 #1 Physical exam: cute blonde, fair skinned, growth parameters: weight >>95%, hgt 75%, OFC, 75% rest of exam normal Neuro exam: low trunk tone, high extremity tone upper extremities more involved than lower extremities. Hyperreflexia throughout Neurodevelopmental exam: GM: no sitting balance, prominent extensor thrust, FM: fisted hands, language: smiling, babbling

28 What is an appropriate work-up? Imaging? –CT vs. MRI Metabolic Studies? Genetic Studies?


30 Case # 2 24 month old with language delay, not using left arm as well as right arm Pregnancy.labor /delivery: uncomplicated Family History: negative Physical exam: Neuro exam: reflexes, tone, strength intact Neurodevelopmental exam: walking, asymmetric use of hands L


32 How helpful is imaging? Practice Parameter: Diagnostic assessment of the child with cerebral palsy…” Ashwal and Russman et al, Neurology (2004) –Yield of abnormal brain CT in children with CP: 77% –Yield of abnormal brain MRI in kids with CP: 89% and it is helpful in determining timing of injury –Depended on type (n=264) (dyskinetic CP 100%, quadriplegia 98%, hemi 96%, diplegia 94% ataxic 75%)

33 How helpful are metabolic and genetic studies? In children with dx of CP –0 – 4% of children have a metabolic or genetic cause (Ashwal, Russman) –In almost all cases there were atypical features Hx suggestive of regression Neuroimaging suggesting genetic or metabolic injury Family history of childhood neurologic disorder “If clinical history or findings on neuroimaging do not determine a specific structural abnormality or if there are atypical or additional features on the history or clinical exam, metabolic and genetic testing should be considered.”

34 What if the child doesn’t have CP but a broader presentation of global developmental delay? Moeschler J, Shevell M and the Committee on Genetics Pediatrics, 2006 –Describes what pediatricians can anticipate as an optimal clinical genetics evaluation Karyotype, FISH for subtelomere abnormalities, Frag X, molecular genetic testing, imaging, metabolic testing –Report on the usefulness of high resolution chromosome studies (9 – 36%) in patients evaluated for DD/MR –Routine metabolic screening of all patients with DD/MR is not required

35 Gross motor delay and its relationship to other brain functions Cognition function and CP, depends of the type For children with spastic quadriplegic CP (Strauss, DMCN, 2005) –95% with MR If had dyskinetic CP only 40% with profound MR and 20% no MR

36 Cognitive Function and Developmental Coordination Disorder or mild motor delays –No good epidemiologic data Gross motor delay and its relationship to other brain functions

37 Using CP as a paradigm… Children Who Outgrew CP 229 infants age 12 months with diagnosis of CP Examined again at 7 y. o. 118 free of motor handicap 13% of white children and 25% of black children with MR Nonfebrile sz, abnormalities of speech, behavior, and extraocular movements were more frequent than controls Nelson, Ellenberg Pediatrics, 1982

38 When do you not need a brain MRI when evaluating a child with motor delays? Mild delay Looking for an inutero infection that would leave calcifications (CT is better) Ultrasound in the NICU showed cystic encephalomalacia and development is consistent with this pattern of CP (generally SQ CP but can have mixed tone)

39 Treatment/Intervention Cure vs. maximize functional abilities Only one “cure” in my clinical years

40 National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research Model to assist in the direction of research Paradigm for chronic disorders Good fit for persons with motor disorders such as CP, muscular dystropy, spinal cord injury or birth defect (SB) (1995)

41 Neuromotor Team Evaluations Medical Evaluation and Diagnosis Therapy: PT performs PDMS for evaluation Educational Concerns: frequent referrals to EI Technology: assistive devices Social Supports: referrals to programs as needed

42 Questions?? Sarah Winter, MD Phone :

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