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North-West Mounted Police. NWMP Origins Established on May 23, 1873 Queen Victoria established the force at the request of John A MacDonald Bring law.

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Presentation on theme: "North-West Mounted Police. NWMP Origins Established on May 23, 1873 Queen Victoria established the force at the request of John A MacDonald Bring law."— Presentation transcript:

1 North-West Mounted Police

2 NWMP Origins Established on May 23, 1873 Queen Victoria established the force at the request of John A MacDonald Bring law and order to the West Assert sovereignty (control) over, the Northwest Territories Need was particularly urgent because of the American whiskey traders Established on May 23, 1873 Queen Victoria established the force at the request of John A MacDonald Bring law and order to the West Assert sovereignty (control) over, the Northwest Territories Need was particularly urgent because of the American whiskey traders

3 Fort Hamilton “Fort Whoop-Up” Officially Fort Hamilton, near what is now Lethbridge, Alberta HBC abandoned the fort Fort Whoop-Up was the nickname given to a whiskey trading post Late 1800s, the post served as a centre for various illegal activities such as the sale of whisky. Officially Fort Hamilton, near what is now Lethbridge, Alberta HBC abandoned the fort Fort Whoop-Up was the nickname given to a whiskey trading post Late 1800s, the post served as a centre for various illegal activities such as the sale of whisky.

4 History of Fort Hamilton First built in 1869 by J.J. Healy and A.B. Hamilton who were two traders from Montana— to serve as a trading post Within the first year it was destroyed by a fire but it was rebuilt One type of alcohol was known as Whoop-Up Bug Juice, a highly-priced alcohol spiked with ginger, molasses, and red pepper, then coloured with black chewing tobacco Was famous for the Whisky trades First built in 1869 by J.J. Healy and A.B. Hamilton who were two traders from Montana— to serve as a trading post Within the first year it was destroyed by a fire but it was rebuilt One type of alcohol was known as Whoop-Up Bug Juice, a highly-priced alcohol spiked with ginger, molasses, and red pepper, then coloured with black chewing tobacco Was famous for the Whisky trades

5 Fort Whoop-up Was the amongst the worst Whiskey Forts Represented everything that was wrong in the West Lawless American desperadoes dealing noxious "whiskey" to an Indian population unaccustomed to alcohol Buffalo hides by the hundreds of thousands being left as rotting carcasses General atmosphere of anarchy with no accountability Was the amongst the worst Whiskey Forts Represented everything that was wrong in the West Lawless American desperadoes dealing noxious "whiskey" to an Indian population unaccustomed to alcohol Buffalo hides by the hundreds of thousands being left as rotting carcasses General atmosphere of anarchy with no accountability

6 NWMP Control The outlaws and the supposed flying of an American flag on Canadian Soil prompted the NWMP to arrive Arrived in October, 1874 Their task was to establish Canadian sovereignty in the territory and control the alcohol trade The outlaws and the supposed flying of an American flag on Canadian Soil prompted the NWMP to arrive Arrived in October, 1874 Their task was to establish Canadian sovereignty in the territory and control the alcohol trade

7 Traders continued to smuggle their hooch across the frontier and set up trading posts throughout the area that is now southern Alberta and Saskatchewan At any given time there was as many as 30 whiskey posts in the area Traders continued to smuggle their hooch across the frontier and set up trading posts throughout the area that is now southern Alberta and Saskatchewan At any given time there was as many as 30 whiskey posts in the area

8 The Impact of these Posts Was just as damaging as the Small Pox Epidemic Buffalo were disappearing due to the voracious appetite of eastern industries for their huge, tough hides Natives couldn't even take the carcasses left behind because the hated "wolfers" poisoned the meat to kill wolves and coyotes for their fur Another reason for Natives to turn to the alcohol Was just as damaging as the Small Pox Epidemic Buffalo were disappearing due to the voracious appetite of eastern industries for their huge, tough hides Natives couldn't even take the carcasses left behind because the hated "wolfers" poisoned the meat to kill wolves and coyotes for their fur Another reason for Natives to turn to the alcohol

9 ”As they keep the Indians poor, and kill directly or indirectly more Indians of the most warlike tribe on the continent every year, at no cost to the United States' Government, than the entire regular army did in ten years.” American Trader commented that the whiskey traders were doing a great service

10 Cypress Hills Massacre Took place in ‘wolfers’ believed their horses had been stolen by a group of Assiniboine camped nearby 22 Assiniboine including women and children were killed When the Dominion of Canada found out they were outraged Took place in ‘wolfers’ believed their horses had been stolen by a group of Assiniboine camped nearby 22 Assiniboine including women and children were killed When the Dominion of Canada found out they were outraged

11 Force Creation Was the result of the Cypress Hills Massacre Originally was to be called the North West Mounted Rifles Name changed to NWMP because it sounded less militaristic First NWMP commissioner, Colonel George Arthur French Was the result of the Cypress Hills Massacre Originally was to be called the North West Mounted Rifles Name changed to NWMP because it sounded less militaristic First NWMP commissioner, Colonel George Arthur French

12 George Arthur French

13 March to the Alberta Foothills Set out from Fort Dufferin, Manitoba, on July 8, 1874 to Fort Hamilton Group comprised 22 officers, 287 men – called constables and sub-constables – 310 horses, 67 wagons, 114 ox-carts, 18 yoke of oxen, 50 cows and 40 calves The ‘Wolfers’ fled, sold or buried their supplies If this march had failed, it would have set back Canada’s plans for the West by many years Set out from Fort Dufferin, Manitoba, on July 8, 1874 to Fort Hamilton Group comprised 22 officers, 287 men – called constables and sub-constables – 310 horses, 67 wagons, 114 ox-carts, 18 yoke of oxen, 50 cows and 40 calves The ‘Wolfers’ fled, sold or buried their supplies If this march had failed, it would have set back Canada’s plans for the West by many years

14 NWMP Early Activities Containing the whiskey trade Enforcing agreements with the First Nations peoples Force's dedication to enforcing the law on behalf of the First Nations peoples impressed all Containing the whiskey trade Enforcing agreements with the First Nations peoples Force's dedication to enforcing the law on behalf of the First Nations peoples impressed all

15 Evolution of the force NWP jurisdiction was extended northward to the Yukon Territory in 1895 Then again in 1903 to the Arctic coast Extended to the new provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan in 1905 During WWI the NWMP was responsible for "border patrols, surveillance of enemy aliens, and enforcement of national security regulations. " NWP jurisdiction was extended northward to the Yukon Territory in 1895 Then again in 1903 to the Arctic coast Extended to the new provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan in 1905 During WWI the NWMP was responsible for "border patrols, surveillance of enemy aliens, and enforcement of national security regulations. "

16 Creation of the RCMP NWMP was called in to repress the general strike in Manitoba's capital, Winnipeg, where officers fired into a crowd of strikers, killing two and causing injury to thirty others. Damaged the image of the NWMP Viewed as an out-dated institution in early 20th Century Industrial Canada Saved in 1920 when it merged with the Dominion Police and was renamed as the "Royal Canadian Mounted Police” NWMP was called in to repress the general strike in Manitoba's capital, Winnipeg, where officers fired into a crowd of strikers, killing two and causing injury to thirty others. Damaged the image of the NWMP Viewed as an out-dated institution in early 20th Century Industrial Canada Saved in 1920 when it merged with the Dominion Police and was renamed as the "Royal Canadian Mounted Police”

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