2NWMP Origins Established on May 23, 1873 Queen Victoria established the force at the request of John A MacDonaldBring law and order to the WestAssert sovereignty (control) over, the Northwest TerritoriesNeed was particularly urgent because of the American whiskey traders
3Fort Hamilton “Fort Whoop-Up” Officially Fort Hamilton, near what is now Lethbridge, AlbertaHBC abandoned the fortFort Whoop-Up was the nickname given to a whiskey trading postLate 1800s, the post served as a centre for various illegal activities such as the sale of whisky.
4History of Fort Hamilton First built in 1869 by J.J. Healy and A.B. Hamilton who were two traders from Montana—to serve as a trading postWithin the first year it was destroyed by a fire but it was rebuiltOne type of alcohol was known as Whoop-Up Bug Juice, a highly-priced alcohol spiked with ginger, molasses, and red pepper, then coloured with black chewing tobaccoWas famous for the Whisky trades
5Fort Whoop-up Was the amongst the worst Whiskey Forts Represented everything that was wrong in the WestLawless American desperadoes dealing noxious "whiskey" to an Indian population unaccustomed to alcoholBuffalo hides by the hundreds of thousands being left as rotting carcassesGeneral atmosphere of anarchy with no accountability
6NWMP ControlThe outlaws and the supposed flying of an American flag on Canadian Soil prompted the NWMP to arriveArrived in October, 1874Their task was to establish Canadian sovereignty in the territory and control the alcohol trade
7Traders continued to smuggle their hooch across the frontier and set up trading posts throughout the area that is now southern Alberta and SaskatchewanAt any given time there was as many as 30 whiskey posts in the area
8The Impact of these Posts Was just as damaging as the Small Pox EpidemicBuffalo were disappearing due to the voracious appetite of eastern industries for their huge, tough hidesNatives couldn't even take the carcasses left behind because the hated "wolfers" poisoned the meat to kill wolves and coyotes for their furAnother reason for Natives to turn to the alcohol
9”As they keep the Indians poor, and kill directly or indirectly more Indians of the most warlike tribe on the continent every year, at no cost to the United States' Government, than the entire regular army did in ten years.” American Trader commented that the whiskey traders were doing a great service
10Cypress Hills Massacre Took place in 1874‘wolfers’ believed their horses had been stolen by a group of Assiniboine camped nearby22 Assiniboine including women and children were killedWhen the Dominion of Canada found out they were outraged
11Force Creation Was the result of the Cypress Hills Massacre Originally was to be called the North West Mounted RiflesName changed to NWMP because it sounded less militaristicFirst NWMP commissioner, Colonel George Arthur French
13March to the Alberta Foothills Set out from Fort Dufferin, Manitoba, on July 8, 1874 to Fort HamiltonGroup comprised 22 officers, 287 men – called constables and sub-constables – 310 horses, 67 wagons, 114 ox-carts, 18 yoke of oxen, 50 cows and 40 calvesThe ‘Wolfers’ fled, sold or buried their suppliesIf this march had failed, it would have set back Canada’s plans for the West by many years
14NWMP Early Activities Containing the whiskey trade Enforcing agreements with the First Nations peoplesForce's dedication to enforcing the law on behalf of the First Nations peoples impressed all
15Evolution of the forceNWP jurisdiction was extended northward to the Yukon Territory in 1895Then again in 1903 to the Arctic coastExtended to the new provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan in 1905During WWI the NWMP was responsible for "border patrols, surveillance of enemy aliens, and enforcement of national security regulations. "
16Creation of the RCMPNWMP was called in to repress the general strike in Manitoba's capital, Winnipeg, where officers fired into a crowd of strikers, killing two and causing injury to thirty others.Damaged the image of the NWMPViewed as an out-dated institution in early 20th Century Industrial CanadaSaved in 1920 when it merged with the Dominion Police and was renamed as the "Royal Canadian Mounted Police”