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Medier og kommunikation VIII Virtualitet. Dagens program Fremlæggelse af gruppearbejde: Gruppe 12 Dagens emne: Virtualitet Gruppearbejde: Undersøgelse.

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Presentation on theme: "Medier og kommunikation VIII Virtualitet. Dagens program Fremlæggelse af gruppearbejde: Gruppe 12 Dagens emne: Virtualitet Gruppearbejde: Undersøgelse."— Presentation transcript:

1 Medier og kommunikation VIII Virtualitet

2 Dagens program Fremlæggelse af gruppearbejde: Gruppe 12 Dagens emne: Virtualitet Gruppearbejde: Undersøgelse af et communitysite på nettet Fremlæggelse af gruppearbejde: Gruppe 12 Dagens emne: Virtualitet Gruppearbejde: Undersøgelse af et communitysite på nettet

3 Videnskabelige artikler The Media Book: A textbook. Forsøger at sige bedre, hvad andre har sagt før Computer Media and Communication: A Reader. Originale artikler, som sagde først, hvad andre måske havde tænkt, men ikke fået sagt The Media Book: A textbook. Forsøger at sige bedre, hvad andre har sagt før Computer Media and Communication: A Reader. Originale artikler, som sagde først, hvad andre måske havde tænkt, men ikke fået sagt

4 The virtual Virtual modeling is crucial in –forecasting (e.g., economics, meteorology) –design (e.g., car design, web design) –scientific research (e.g., nano technology, computational linguistics) –entertainment (e.g., computer game design, computer graphic imaging) Virtual modeling is crucial in –forecasting (e.g., economics, meteorology) –design (e.g., car design, web design) –scientific research (e.g., nano technology, computational linguistics) –entertainment (e.g., computer game design, computer graphic imaging)

5 The virtual The same material used for virtual modeling can be used for artistic purposes in, e.g., software art, and digital imaging We might think of the virtual as perpetual and transcendental Conversely, we might think of each physical object as an imperfect copy of the digital original The same material used for virtual modeling can be used for artistic purposes in, e.g., software art, and digital imaging We might think of the virtual as perpetual and transcendental Conversely, we might think of each physical object as an imperfect copy of the digital original

6 virtual 1. almost or nearly as described, but not completely or according to strict definition. 2. (Computing) not physically existing as such but made by software to appear to do so. 3. (Optics) relating to the points at which rays would meet if produced backwards. 4. (Mechanics) relating to or denoting infinitesimal displacements of a point in a system.

7 "virtual adj." The Concise Oxford English Dictionary. Ed. Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2004. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Royal Library. 23 October 2005 DERIVATIVES virtuality /-j 'al ti/ n. ORIGIN ME (also in the sense ‘possessing certain virtues’): from med. L. virtualis, from L. virtus ‘virtue’. DERIVATIVES virtuality /-j 'al ti/ n. ORIGIN ME (also in the sense ‘possessing certain virtues’): from med. L. virtualis, from L. virtus ‘virtue’.

8 virtual adjective (feature or device) which does not actually exist but which is simulated by a computer and can be used by a user as if it did exist;

9 virtual circuit = link established between a source and sink (in a packet-switching network) for the duration of the call; virtual desktop or screen = area that is bigger than the physical limits of the monitor, and which can contain text, images, windows, etc.; virtual circuit = link established between a source and sink (in a packet-switching network) for the duration of the call; virtual desktop or screen = area that is bigger than the physical limits of the monitor, and which can contain text, images, windows, etc.;

10 virtual disk = section of RAM used with a short controlling program as if it were a fast disk storage system; virtual image = complete image stored in memory rather than the part of it that is displayed; virtual machine = simulated machine and its operations; virtual disk = section of RAM used with a short controlling program as if it were a fast disk storage system; virtual image = complete image stored in memory rather than the part of it that is displayed; virtual machine = simulated machine and its operations;

11 virtual memory or virtual storage (VS) = large imaginary main memory made available by loading smaller pages from a backing store into the available main memory only as and when they are required; –virtual address = an address referring to virtual storage; virtual memory or virtual storage (VS) = large imaginary main memory made available by loading smaller pages from a backing store into the available main memory only as and when they are required; –virtual address = an address referring to virtual storage;

12 virtual reality = simulation of a real-life scene or environment by computer; this new virtual reality software can create a three-dimensional room that you can navigate around; –virtual reality modeling language = see VRML; virtual terminal = ideal terminal specifications used as a model by a real terminal virtual reality = simulation of a real-life scene or environment by computer; this new virtual reality software can create a three-dimensional room that you can navigate around; –virtual reality modeling language = see VRML; virtual terminal = ideal terminal specifications used as a model by a real terminal

13 QUOTE: “Autodesk suggests that anyone wishing to build Virtual Reality applications with the Cyberspace Developer’s Kit should have solid knowledge of programming in C++ along with general knowledge of computer graphics.” Peter Collin Publishing Staff. English Dictionary of Computing (Fourth Edition). Oak Park, IL, USA: Peter Collin Publishing, Limited, 2000. p 377. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/royallibrary/Doc?id=10022158&ppg=382 Copyright © 2000. Peter Collin Publishing, Limited. All rights reserved.

14 Virtual reality Jaron Lanier 1989 Head mounted display og dataglove CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment) Jaron Lanier 1989 Head mounted display og dataglove CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment)

15 Virtual machine Simulering af en computer inden i en computer Eks: Simulering via software af en computers hardware: –Windows på en Mac Simulering af en computer inden i en computer Eks: Simulering via software af en computers hardware: –Windows på en Mac

16 Virtual community Se 21. november

17 Langdon Winner: ”digital liquification” = virtualization? Positive consequences of liquification –new products and services –computer-mediated collaborative work –new varieties of artistic expression –the spread of information machines inherently democratic Positive consequences of liquification –new products and services –computer-mediated collaborative work –new varieties of artistic expression –the spread of information machines inherently democratic

18 Negative consequences –livelihood of working class and middle class people eroded layoffs, downsizing vocations eleminated decline in real wages –what kind of society and political order will emerge? Negative consequences –livelihood of working class and middle class people eroded layoffs, downsizing vocations eleminated decline in real wages –what kind of society and political order will emerge?

19 Taylorism Principles of Scientific Management (1911): ”In the future the system must be first” –stable, predictable, reproducible identities –consumerism as a way of life Principles of Scientific Management (1911): ”In the future the system must be first” –stable, predictable, reproducible identities –consumerism as a way of life

20 Basic tendencies of (US) modernism according to Winner Unequal power over key decisions Concerted attempts to enframe and direct people’s lives Future presented as nonnegotiable Individual gratification instead of collective responsibility Design conceals and obfuscates complexity Unequal power over key decisions Concerted attempts to enframe and direct people’s lives Future presented as nonnegotiable Individual gratification instead of collective responsibility Design conceals and obfuscates complexity

21 Beyond the industrial age Identity threatened by expendability Lack of geographic attachment translates into lack of personal attachment Online identity: irascible, self- absorbed, white male cyber-boor Identity threatened by expendability Lack of geographic attachment translates into lack of personal attachment Online identity: irascible, self- absorbed, white male cyber-boor

22 A positive influence Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, Participatory Design Scandinavian social democracies(!), User Centered Design Open networks, many-to-many communication Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility, Participatory Design Scandinavian social democracies(!), User Centered Design Open networks, many-to-many communication

23 So the questions are Not only ’what to do,’ but also less obvious ones about ’who to be.’

24

25 Stone Haraway – cyborg identity Latour – actor/network theory Artifacts that speak Communities of people and (their) machines Haraway – cyborg identity Latour – actor/network theory Artifacts that speak Communities of people and (their) machines

26 Gender bending ’Virtual’ space – an imaginary locus of interaction created by communal agreement → ’Julie,’ a middle-aged male psychiatrist ’Virtual’ space – an imaginary locus of interaction created by communal agreement → ’Julie,’ a middle-aged male psychiatrist

27 Epochs 1.Texts (mid-1600s- ) 2.Electronic (1900- ) 3.Information technology (1960- ) 4.VR and cyberspace (1984- ) 1.Texts (mid-1600s- ) 2.Electronic (1900- ) 3.Information technology (1960- ) 4.VR and cyberspace (1984- )

28 Epoch One Virtual witnessing Absolutist public sphere → bourgeois public sphere Virtual witnessing Absolutist public sphere → bourgeois public sphere

29 Epoch Two Mass audience as virtual community –FDR’s ”fireside chats” –Adventure serials –Trekkies Mass audience as virtual community –FDR’s ”fireside chats” –Adventure serials –Trekkies

30 Epoch Three The computer as a tool for social transformation The terminal as a window into a social space –BBS’es; the CommuniTree Group –Shareware –Star Wars and the Force –Military simulations –Habitat, one of the first Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOG) The computer as a tool for social transformation The terminal as a window into a social space –BBS’es; the CommuniTree Group –Shareware –Star Wars and the Force –Military simulations –Habitat, one of the first Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOG)

31 Epoch Four Virtual reality as cyberspace (Neuromancer, William Gibson 1984) Virtual Reality (VR) (PARC, Atari, Apple, HP, Autodesk) ACM SIGGRAPH, HCI Virtual reality as cyberspace (Neuromancer, William Gibson 1984) Virtual Reality (VR) (PARC, Atari, Apple, HP, Autodesk) ACM SIGGRAPH, HCI

32 Krop og sjæl Descartes –Cartesian space Natur underlægges teknologi (hvis naturen overhovedet findes) Mestiza, ’boundary-subject’ Descartes –Cartesian space Natur underlægges teknologi (hvis naturen overhovedet findes) Mestiza, ’boundary-subject’


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