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Southern European Neighborhood: Realities in the Middle East and North Africa Region European Health Forum 2003, Gastein, Austria October 4, 2003 Akiko.

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Presentation on theme: "Southern European Neighborhood: Realities in the Middle East and North Africa Region European Health Forum 2003, Gastein, Austria October 4, 2003 Akiko."— Presentation transcript:

1 Southern European Neighborhood: Realities in the Middle East and North Africa Region European Health Forum 2003, Gastein, Austria October 4, 2003 Akiko Maeda, Ph.D. Lead Health Specialist The World Bank (

2 Middle East and North Africa Region

3 The Region in Brief…..  Some 20 countries, 307 millions population (2001):  Relatively wealthy, highly dependant on oil  Diverse income levels, wide disparities  30 % of the population (87 millions) live under $2 per day  Geopolitically volatile region (5 % of world population, 25 % of conflicts)

4 Proportion of oil reserves and production of crude oil Sources: Crude Oil Production: IEA Oil Market Report Annual Statistical Supplement for 2001, August 2002, Table 11 (Bahrain information provided by DECPG); Petroleum Reserves: US Department of Energy Notes: Les pays de la région MENA inclus dans le graphique :’Arabie saoudite, Iran, Irak, Emirats Arabes Unis, Koweit, Bahrein, Qatar, Libye, Algérie, Oman, Syrie, Yémen, Egypte, et la zone neutre. Crude oil production (million barrels per day, 2001) Oil reserves (billion barrels, 2001) (MENA) 69 % 31 % (MENA) 29 % 71 % Reste du Monde Irak MENA Irak

5 Exports as percentage of GDP, 2000 MENA and Rest of the World MENA East Asia Europe/ High Latin South SubSaharan Pacific Central Income/ America Asia Africa Asia OECD Carib.

6 The Region in Brief….. Young population, high unemployment rate, growing demand for social services "Arab Development Report" (ADR 2002) a "mismatch between aspirations and their fulfillment has in some cases led to [Arab] alienation, apathy and discontent."

7 EU and MENA Demographics Population share by age groups, 2000 Population share by age groups, EU MENA Source: United Nations Population Division

8 Since 1989, net migration is a main component of annual population change in EU. In 2000, the annual net migration rate was 2.0 per population, representing 65% of total population growth. Around 5% of the EU population are non- nationals (3.4% non-EU nationals including MENA nationals). EU and Labor Migration

9  MENA Region suffers from the three «deficits »  Lack of participation  Lagging in knowledge economy  Delays in women’s rights Source: UNDP Report on Human Development 2002 for Arab Region The Region in Brief…..

10 Unemployment Rates, 1997 * MENA MENA MENA East Asia Latin OECD South Sub-Saharan Total Non-GCC GCC & Pacific America High Asia Africa & Carib. income Note: * or more recent estimates. Iran Algérie Libye Liban Israel Maroc / Yémen (officiel) Tunisie Bahrein Jordanie Syrie Egypte Oman Koweit

11 Adult Illiteracy Rates (% aged 15 & above, 1998) Source: World Bank

12 Poverty National (% of population) 1980s1990s MENA Asie de l’Est Amérique Latine Asie Afrique sub- et Pacifique & Caraïbes du Sud Saharienne Source : Enquêtes sur la Pauvreté

13 Deaths per 1000 live births Infant Mortality Rates, 2000 Source: World Bank, WDI, 2002; UNICEF, The Situation of the Children in Iraq, 2002

14 Maternal Mortality Ratios Source: World Bank, WDI, 2002

15 Per Capita Health Spending Source: World Bank, WDI, 2002

16 Per Capita GDP vs. Per Capita Health Expenditure Source: World Bank, WDI, 2002

17 Share of government health expenditure (%) Gwatkin, 2001 Inequities in Public Spending

18 Middle East and North Africa: Strategic Neighbor for EU Major producer and exporter of oil Major source of labor migration Potential markets and trading partners Politically volatile region in need of Human Development and institutional reforms


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