Presentation on theme: "P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 1 Final results on galactic dark matter from the EROS-2 microlensing survey ~ 850 000 images processed - 55 million."— Presentation transcript:
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 1 Final results on galactic dark matter from the EROS-2 microlensing survey ~ 850 000 images processed - 55 million stars monitored Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC)Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) EROS-2 Expérience de Recherche d’Objets Sombres Observation : 1996-2003 at La Silla (Chile) CEA/DAPNIA/SPP-Saclay Patrick Tisserand Mount Stromlo Obs., Australia Microlensing formalism History and the EROS-2 experiment Situation before this analysis Microlensing Background Analysis and Candidates status Final Result of EROS-2 Discussions Astro-ph/0607207
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 2 A large amount of dark matter exists at the galaxy’s scale Van Albada et al., 1985 Problem : Galaxy rotation curve Disc Surface luminosity (mag/arcsec 2 ) Rotation velocity (km.sec -1 ) Halo One hypothesis: A halo full of machos... Characteristics: - spherical isothermal distribution - Radius between 50 and 200 kpc - Mass : M(r) α r - Total Mass ~ 10 12 M - Density : (r) α 1/r 2 Machos « Massive Astronomical Compact Halo Objects » _ Planets _ Brown dwarfs _ Stellar remnants _ Unknown compact matter
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 3 Tool : lensing effect Lensing effect : Indirect detection For 1 M : Image Separation ~ 0.2 milli arcsec Σ ~ milli arcsec~ arcsec EROS MACHO OGLE Exp:
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 4 t E ~ 70 ( ) ½ days 1986ApJ...304....1P, B.Paczyński Light curve characteristics: Symmetric Achromatic Unique ( ~1 evt / 10 6 ) M M Microlensing effect : t E t E (M, D d, V t ) Degeneracy !
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 5 MACHO – LMC#1 Appeared in 1993 t E = 17 days, Amplification ~ 7.5 OGLE2-99-LMC#1 Alert 1999 t E ~66 days, Amplification ~ 50 EROS2-LMC#8 Increase by 3.5 magnitudes ! Appeared in 2000 t E ~10 days Some microlensing events observed :
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 6 Event rate predictions from «standard» isothermal halo model Typical Value (in the case of a dark halo 100% machos) LMC 0.45 10 -6 SMC 0.65 10 -6 Virialised System: ~ ( v / c ) 2 τ depends mainly on the halo density Independent of machos velocity and mass τ = Probability that, a given time, a source star is inside one Einstein disk (Amplification > 1.34) Probability ( τ = Optical Depth ) :
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 8 1986 : B. Paczyński propose microlensing effect to probe the halo. 1990-92 : EROS1/MACHO/OGLE start the adventure. 1993 : First candidates ! 1994-95 : First alert system by MACHO & OGLE Detection of exotic events (binary lenses) 1994-98 : EROS1/MACHO : No short timescale events discovered (10 -7 M
"name": "P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 8 1986 : B.",
"description": "Paczyński propose microlensing effect to probe the halo. 1990-92 : EROS1/MACHO/OGLE start the adventure. 1993 : First candidates . 1994-95 : First alert system by MACHO & OGLE Detection of exotic events (binary lenses) 1994-98 : EROS1/MACHO : No short timescale events discovered (10 -7 M
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 9 Collaboration: CEA/DAPNIA, LAL-IN2P3, IAP-INSU, Observatoire de Marseille, Collège de France (PCC), OHP B Eros ~ between V and R & R Eros ~ I EROS-2 : Expérience de Recherche d’Objets Sombres Blue filter Red filter Second Phase : July 1996 - February 2003 Dedicated telescope 1m Ø (Marly), at La Silla (Chile) 2 cameras : test for achromaticity 2×8 CCDs : wide field (~1deg²)
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 10 Status before this analysis
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 11 Toward the Galactic center …. Only Clump giant stars have been used !! EROS2 : 120 MACHO : 62 OGLE : 33 Hundreds of microlensing effect have been observed Galactic latitude (deg)
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 12 Halo constraints in 2003: Exclusion diagram at 95% C.L. Excluded at 95% C.L. Microlensing halo candidates: EROS1 : 1 LMC EROS2 : 4 LMC + 3 SMC MACHO : 13 LMC
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 13 Physical Microlensing Background
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 14 « BLUE BUMPER » Bright stars of the upper main sequence Amplification < 2 + Chromatic Variation Easy to reject ! known physical background : (discovered by MACHO)
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 15 Candidates follow-up : longer baseline ( + 3 yrs) EROS 1 – LMC#1 : MACHO – LMC#23 : ~ 1992 ~ 1998 ~ 2001 ~ 1995 3 candidates show a new bump a few years later !! Variable Stars = Background Withdrawn !
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 16 (Probable) New background: Be type Stars. EROS1-LMC#1 source star have emission features. ZOOM on the 2 nd fluctuation:
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 17 Supernovae : ~ 590 Supernovae detectable If : Appeared close to a cataloged star. or SN cataloged. 26 Supernovae detected at low S/N. (Similar rate for MACHO) == Serious background !
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 18 and / or Supernovae elimination : Galaxies seen on reference images Fit of an “asymmetric” microlensing light curve : Elimination of the 3 remaining EROS-2 LMC candidates (#5, #6 et #7) : Better Photometry! Elimination if |S| > 0.3 EROS2-LMC#5 : S = 0.5EROS2-LMC#7 : S = 0.62
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 19 Halo microlensing candidates status EROS MACHO EROS1-LMC#1 : Variable star EROS2-LMC#3 : Variable star EROS2-LMC#5 : Supernovae EROS2-LMC#6 : Supernovae EROS2-LMC#7 : Supernovae EROS2-SMC#1 EROS2-SMC#2 : Long Period Variable EROS2-SMC#3 : Long Period Variable EROS2-SMC#4 : Long Period Variable MACHO-A-LMC#1 MACHO-A-LMC#4 MACHO-A-LMC#5 : galactic red dwarf lens MACHO-A-LMC#6 MACHO-A-LMC#7 MACHO-A-LMC#8 MACHO-A-LMC#13 MACHO-A-LMC#14 : self-lensing MACHO-A-LMC#15 MACHO-A-LMC#18 MACHO-A-LMC#21 MACHO-A-LMC#23 : Variable star MACHO-A-LMC#25 Only 1 on 9 candidates remain 10 on 13 could be considered as halo candidates
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 20 Data Analysis
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 21 Principe of the analysis: Detection efficiency controlled by a MONTE-CARLO simulation: => False microlensing effects added on real light curve (~ 99% stable) They passed the same selection cuts!
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 22 MACHO : estimate an additional 30% error due to blending EROS2 : With HST LMC luminosity function weighted with the probability to generate an observable event. → ~1% Blending problem Star cataloged and surveyed Fainter star located in the seeing disk (less than 2”) Optical depth estimate : Using bright star, we considerably reduce that problem under-estimated
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 23 Crowded field:
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 24 Better resolution → better rejection of variable stars Statistics still excellent due to a better Largely reduce the Blending problem Remember galactic center ! Bright Star Sample Magnitude cut different for each field : Mag [16-R max ] with R max [18.2-19.7] Homogeneous sample : ~uniform photometric resolution (~7%) LMC : ~6 Million SMC : ~0.9 Million First time in LMC ! On our 33.4 Million stars sample, we retained : CLUMP Efficiency LMC
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 25 Number of events expected Macho mass Duration t E Number Magellanic events (full halo) effi. = 100%Real effi. 10 -3 M ~ 2.2 days~ 2500~63 10 -2 M ~ 7 days~ 785~173 1 M ~ 70 days~ 78~35 10 M ~7.4 months~ 25~9 100 M ~ 2 years~ 8~0.4 in the case of a dark halo 100% machos τ LMC ~ 0.45 10 -6 τ SMC ~ 0.65 10 -6 For 6.9 million bright stars monitored during 6.7 years × Efficiency t E ~ 70 ( ) ½ days M M We need ~13 events to confirm the positive signal of MACHO at 20%
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 26 No new microlensing event detected Known since 1997 (EROS+MACHO) → Probably due to SMC lens (for a halo lens, earth motion would distort the light curve visibly) t E = 120 days EROS2-SMC#1 Duration expected for SMC self-lensing 1 candidate in the SMC still selected
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 27 _3% at 10 -2 M Final EROS combined limit (1990-2003) _7% at 0.4 M _10% at 1 M LMC data set / No event LMC + SMC data set with 1 SMC halo candidate Domain excluded from all EROS data ZOOM
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 28 Comparison : EROS-2/MACHO 2 different strategies : 2 different data sets EROS2 : ~ 7 Million Bright stars in sparse wide field (~84 deg2 LMC + ~10deg2 SMC) MACHO: ~ 11 Million faint and bright stars in dense field (~13.4 deg2, LMC bar) ~2 Million bright stars in common ! MACHO field EROS2 field LMC Our Measurement is mainly based on a less crowded area Photometry easier and result less affected by blending Remark : A positive result must be seen everywhere, not be concentrated in a special area
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 29 Our analysis is conservative : - Use only bright-well measured sub-sample of Magellanic stars (~20% total) - Largely reduce the blending effect Measurement obtained mainly with stars in the outer part of the LMC (sparse field) Machos in the mass range 10 -7 M < M < 5 M are ruled out as the primary occupants of the Milky Way Halo. Result compatible with the Optical depth expected from the known star distribution (self- lensing + galactic disk stars) 2 different Monte-Carlo have been computed to estimate our detection efficiency: _ simulated microlensing effect on true light curve _ fake images that pass all the photometric chain with simulated microlensed star ► they are in excellent agreement for the bright star sample. An all star sample analysis (33.4 millions) has been done with stricter cuts. Only 5 microlensing candidates have been selected : for one, the lens is a galactic red dwarf star located at about 300pc. (result also compatible with self-lensing) Serious background : Supernovae & Variable stars Many former candidates died for these reasons (ex: EROS2-LMC#1 and MACHO-LMC#23 ) Discussion of the EROS2 result
P.Tisserand Rencontres du Vietnam 2006 30 Difference between MACHO/EROS2 2 completely different data sets : _Most of the MACHO stars are considered too faint for us : ~9 millions. _MACHO observation concentrated in the LMC bar : crowded region Blending effect : MACHO suggest an additional 30% systematic error on the result. Our limit is at f<7% for 0.4 M , about 13 events would have been necessary to confirm the MACHO signal. The higher MACHO optical depth may be due, in part, to self-lensing in central part of the LMC. But this would contradict LMC models (Mancini et al., 2004) which suggest that only 1- 2 MACHO candidates should be expected to be due to self-lensing (#9 and #14 are already known to be self-lensing). 5 MACHO candidates are really convincing : #1, #5, #9, #14 and #21. 3 are explained by LMC self-lensing or due to a galactic lens. Possible confirmation : _ OGLE III and SuperMACHO _ AGAPE, MEGA and WeCaPP (toward M31) _ Photometric follow-up of candidates