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Berlin - Friday, 18.07.2003 „Transboundary Watermanagement“ 14 - 24 July Workshop on.

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Presentation on theme: "Berlin - Friday, 18.07.2003 „Transboundary Watermanagement“ 14 - 24 July Workshop on."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Berlin - Friday, „Transboundary Watermanagement“ July Workshop on

3 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH ”Political Implications of Transfrontier Ground and Surface Water Pollution with the Potentially Result of Significant Losses of Productive Agricultural Land"

4 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH source: Autorite du Bassin du Niger Le Modele Mathematique du Fleuve Niger Novembre 1982 Transboundary Waters - Common Pool Resources The 1997 UN-Convention on International Watercourses (Law of the non-navigational uses of internationally shared fresh water resourses - surface and ground water) This definition calls the attention of states to the interrelationship between all parts of the system of surface and ground waters that form an international watercourse. “Thus it should be clear immediately that an effort on one part of the system will generally transmitted to other parts” (Stephen McCaffrey, Int. J. Global Environmental Issues, Vol. 1, Nos. 3/4,p.251)

5 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH Transboundary Waters - Common Pool Resources The 1997 UN-Convention on International Watercourses (Law of the non-navigational uses of internationally shared fresh water resourses - surface and ground water) source: UNESCO Article 2 defines watercourse "as a system of surface waters and ground waters constituting by virtue of their physical relationship a unitary whole..."

6 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH The 1997 UN-Convention on International Watercourses Transboundary Waters - Common Pool Resources Nile River Basin Article 5 provides that watercourse states shall in their respective territories utilise an international watercourse in an Equitable and Reasonable Manner. Riparian Nations

7 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH The 1997 UN-Convention on International Watercourses Transboundary Waters - Common Pool Resources Article 6 provides that in pursuing these ends all Relevant Factors and Circumstances are to be taken into account and contains a list of Factors and Circumstances that come within that category.

8 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH The 1997 UN-Convention on International Watercourses Transboundary Waters - Common Pool Resources Article 7 provides that watercourse States shall, in utilising an international watercourse in their territories, take all appropriate measures to prevent the causing of Significant Harm to other watercourse states.

9 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH The 1997 UN-Convention on International Watercourses Transboundary Waters - Common Pool Resources Article 7 provides also that where Significant Harm nevertheless is caused to another watercourse state, the state whose use causes such harm shall, in the absence of agreement to such use, take all appropriate measures having due regard for the provisions of Articles 5 and6, in consultation with the affected state, to eliminate and mitigate such harm, and where appropriate discuss the question of Compensation. etc.

10 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH The United Nations Convention on the Non- Navigational Uses of International Watercourses adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in March by104 votes in favour, 3 against and 26 abstentions brings new dimensions to the dispute over the sharing of the waters of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers between Turkey, Syria and Iraq. The situation of Today The 1997 UN-Convention on International Watercourses

11 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH source: Aaron T. Wolf Bonn 2001 „There are 261 watersheds which cross the political boundaries of two or more countries. These internatioal basins cover 45,3% of the land surface of the earth, affect about 40% of the world‘s population, and account for approximately 60% of global river flow. The situation of Today The 1997 UN-Convention on International Watercourses According to Wolf (2000)

12 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH According to Wolf (2000) These basins have certain characteristics that make their management especially difficult, most notable of which is the tendency for regional politics to regularly exacerbate the already difficult task of understanding and managing complex natural systems. The situation of Today The 1997 UN-Convention on International Watercourses source: Aaron T. Wolf Bonn 2001

13 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH The situation of Today The 1997 UN-Convention on International Watercourses According to Wolf (2000) The Convention entails a transition from the prudence of a single watercourse state to the shared prudence of watercourse states. source: Aaron T. Wolf Bonn 2001

14 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH The situation of Today The 1997 UN-Convention on International Watercourses According to Wolf (2000) source: Aaron T. Wolf Bonn 2001 To many analysts, this is one essence in which the Convention imposes constraints on Unilateral Development raising the old question of water and sovereignty: Unlimited Territorial Integrity & Unlimited or Absolute Sovereignty theories.“

15 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH Precondition Transboundary Waters Common Pool Resources In general, ecosystems, especially transboundary rivers don‘t ask for national boundaries. There is a long history of conflicts over water, including in regions such as: Paul Klee Jordan River Basin (shared by Syria, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine)Nile River Basin (shared by 10 nations)Ganges / Brahmapudra River Basin (shared by 6 nations)Euphrates / Tigris River Basin (shared by Turkey, Syria and Iraq)Colorado River Basin (shared by 7 U.S. states and Mexiko) etc.

16 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH Precondition Transboundary Waters Common Pool Resources Water related disputes and conflicts are going to get worse, because of: Paul Klee Population growth and higher demandCombination of politics and geostrategic issuesGrowth in irrigation demand for food productionDifferent interpretation of environmental values etc.

17 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH What can be done? Transboundary Waters Common Pool Resources Cooperation & Negotiations to share benefits. Long-term commitment towards international conventions. Early implementation of supranational watershed management commisions. Capacity Building: Implementation of Development Assistance Agencies, because water-related needs must be coordinated and focused, relating quality, quantity, ground water, surface water, and local socio-political settings in an integrated fashion. Enhancing the capacities of regional, national and local level institutions.

18 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH What can be done? Transboundary Waters Common Pool Resources Integration of universities & agencies. Enabling of stakeholder participation Involvement of civil societies for conflict management. Inventory control & ecosystem monitoring with remote sensing, and use of Geographical Information Systems for analysis of indicators of conflict and cooperation over international freshwater resources. Education and training for interdisciplinary research.

19 Ecosystem Analysis and Integrated Ground Water Management Dr. H. Kehl Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH What could be the results? Transboundary Waters Common Pool Resources Enhancement of surface and ground water quality for agriculture. Fair supply and distribution of common pool resources. Reduction of political disputes about transboundary water. And last but not least, international protection and sustainable ecosystem management. Reduction of salt dilemma in irrigation water (ground & surface water pollution), especially for riparian states. Source: D.Wolfe Salinization of agricultural land as the result of changes in vegetation and water requirement


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