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Ground Motion Scaling Based on 1-D Rock Simulations N. Abrahamson NGA Workshop #5 March 24, 2004

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Issues to be Addressed by 1-D Rock Simulations Period Extrapolation: to T=10 sec Mag Extrapolation: to M8.5 (SS) Distance Extrapolation: to 200 km Distance Extrapolation: to 0 km Stress-Drop Scaling Directivity Scaling Shallow Slip Effects HW/FW Effects

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Strike-Slip Simulations

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Dip-Slip Simulations

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Strike-Slip Simulations

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Dip-Slip Simulations

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Period Extrapolation Normalize by T=2 spectral value for each simulation Plot scaling of normalized spectra vs period

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Period Extrapolation M6.5, Ave Stress-drop

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Period Extrapolation M7.0, Ave Stress-drop

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Period Extrapolation M7.5, Ave Stress-drop

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Period Extrapolation M7.8, Ave Stress-drop

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Period Extrapolation M8.2, ave stress-drop for 4/3 scaling

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Mag Extrapolation Removed distance dependence (over 0-100 km) using simple model for M=7 case Evaluate residuals –Residuals will contain mag scaling from the reference M7 case

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Remove distance attenuation (based on simply model)

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Mag Extrapolation (D< 100 km) pga, Constant stress-drop model

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Mag Extrapolation (D< 100 km) T=0.1 sec, Constant stress-drop model

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Mag Extrapolation (D< 100 km) T=0.2 sec, Constant stress-drop model

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Mag Extrapolation (D< 100 km) T=1 sec, Constant stress-drop model

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Mag Extrapolation (D< 100 km) T=3 sec, Constant stress-drop

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Mag Extrapolation (D< 100 km) T=10 sec, Constant stress-drop

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Mag Extrapolation (D< 100 km) pga, 4/3 Slope for Mag-area

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Mag Extrapolation (D< 100 km) T=0.2, 4/3 Slope for Mag-area

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Mag Extrapolation (D< 100 km) T=1 sec, 4/3 Slope for Mag-area

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Mag Extrapolation (D< 100 km) T=3 sec, 4/3 Slope for Mag-area

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Mag Extrapolation (D< 100 km) T=10 sec, 4/3 Slope for Mag-area

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Distance Extrap (M6.5, PGA)

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Distance Extrap (M6.5, T=1)

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Distance Extrap (M7.0, PGA)

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Distance Extrap (M7.0, T=0.2)

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Distance Extrap (M7.0, T=1)

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Distance Extrap (M7.8, PGA)

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Distance Extrap (M7.8, T=0.2)

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Distance Extrap (M7.8, T=1)

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Stress-Drop Scaling (M6.5, PGA)

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Stress-Drop Scaling (M6.5, T=1)

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Stress-Drop Scaling (M6.5, T=10)

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Stress-Drop Scaling (M7.5, PGA)

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Stress-Drop Scaling (M7.5, T=1)

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Stress-Drop Scaling (M7.5, T=10)

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Directivity Scaling, M7.0 T=3 sec

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Directivity Scaling, M7.0 T=5 sec

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Directivity Scaling, M7.5 T= 3 sec

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Directivity Scaling, M7.5 T=5 sec

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FN/FP Scaling, M7.5 T=5 sec

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