2MENU Metode Alokasi Sumber Daya Demand, Willingness to Pay, and Value Individual Demand and Market DemandConsumer Surplus and Producer SurplusKurva Lorentz dan GiniEquity and Equality
3PENDAHULUANWhen making choices, people strive for efficiency, trying to do the best they can given their limited resources.The notion of efficiency applies to all sorts of decisions.A household decides how much to spend on consumer goods, how much to save, and how much to spend on a college education.The household tries to do the best it can given its limited income.As we ll see, economics provides a framework to guide us from inefficient choices to efficient ones.
4DEFINISIEFISIENSIA situation in which people do the best they can, given their limited resources (O’Sullivan et.all,2011).The property of a resource allocation of maximizing the total surplus received by all members of society (Mankiw, 2011)
5DEFINISI Pareto Efficiency or Pareto Optimality A condition in which no change is possible that will make some members of society better off without making some other members of society worse off.When the net benefits of all economic activities are maximized, economists say the allocation of resources is efficient
6METODE ALOKASIBecause resources are scarce, some mechanism must allocate them.Trading in markets is just one of several alternative methods.
7METODE ALOKASI The alternative allocation methods : market price; command;majority rule;contest;first-come, firstserved;lottery;personal characteristics;force.
8Benefit, Cost, and Surplus Resources are allocated efficiently and in the social interest when they are used in the ways that people value most highly.We’re now going to see whether competitive markets produce the efficient quantities.
9WILLINGNESS TO PAYThe maximum amount a consumer is willing to pay for a product.The maximum amount that a buyer will pay for a good.
11WILLINGNESS TO PAYImagine that you own a mint-condition recording of Elvis Presley’s first album.Because you are not an Elvis Presley fan, you decide to sell it. One way to do so is to hold an auction.
12WILLINGNESS TO PAYEach buyer’s maximum is called his willingness to pay, and it measures how much that buyer values the good.Each buyer would be eager to buy the album at a price less than his willingness to pay, and he would refuse to buy the album at a price greater than his willingness to pay.At a price equal to his willingness to pay, the buyer would be indifferent about buying the good: If the price is exactly the same as the value he places on the album, he would be equally happy buying it or keeping his money.
13Demand, Willingness to Pay, and Value In everyday life, we talk about “getting value for money.” When we use this expression, we are distinguishing between value and price.Value is what we get, and price is what we pay.
14Demand, Willingness to Pay, and Value The value of one more unit of a good or service is its marginal benefit.We measure marginal benefit by the maximum price that is willingly paid for another unit of the good or service.But willingness to pay determines demand.A demand curve is a marginal benefit curve.
15Demand, Willingness to Pay, and Value In Fig. 5.1(a), Lisa is willing to pay $1 for the 30th slice of pizza and $1 is her marginal benefit from that slice. In Fig. 5.1(b), Nick is willing to pay $1 for the 10th slice of pizza and $1 is his marginal benefit from that slice
16Individual Demand and Market Demand The relationship between the price of a good and the quantity demanded by one person is called individual demand.And the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity demanded by all buyers is called market demand.
17Individual Demand and Market Demand The market demand curve is the horizontal sum of the individual demand curves and is formed by adding the quantities demanded by all the individuals at each priceFigure 5.1(c) illustrates the market demand for pizza if Lisa and Nick are the only people in the market.Lisa’s demand curve in part (a) and Nick’s demand curve in part (b) sum horizontally to the market demand curve in part (c).
18Consumer SurplusWe don’t always have to pay as much as we are willing to pay. We get a bargain.When people buy something for less than it is worth to them, they receive a consumer surplus.Consumer surplus is the excess of the benefit received from a good over the amount paid for it.
19Consumer SurplusConsumer surplus is The amount a buyer is willing to pay for a good minus the amount the buyer actually pays for it.We can calculate consumer surplus as the marginal benefit (or value) of a good minus its price, summed over the quantity bought.Consumer surplus = Value to buyers - Amount paid by buyers.
22Individual Supply and Market Supply The relationship between the price of a good and the quantity supplied by one producer is called individual supply.And the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity supplied by all producers is called market supply.
23Individual Supply and Market Supply The market supply curve is the horizontal sum of the individual supply curves and is formed by adding the quantities supplied by all the producers at each price.
24Producer SurplusWhen price exceeds marginal cost, the firm receives a producer surplus.Producer surplus is the excess of the amount received from the sale of a good or service over the cost of producing it.Producer surplus : the amount a seller is paid for a good minus the seller’s cost of providing it
25Producer SurplusIt is calculated as the price received minus the marginal cost (or minimum supply- price), summed over the quantity sold.Producer surplus = Amount received by sellers - Cost to sellers.
26Cost and the Willingness to Sell Imagine now that you are a homeowner and you want to get your house painted.You turn to four sellers of painting services: Mary, Frida, Georgia, and Grandma.Each painter is willing to do the work for you if the price is right.You decide to take bids from the four painters and auction off the job to the painter who will do the work for the lowest price.Each painter is willing to take the job if the price she would receive exceeds her cost of doing the work.
29Equity System of justice based on conscience dan fairness Equality is the state of being equalEquality bagian dari equity
30EqualityThe property of distributing economic prosperity uniformly among the members of society
31Tujuan EquityParkin and colleagues identified two objectives of equity:a) The distribution of outcome or end- state is fair.b) People have the same opportunities even if the outcomes are unequal. This allows differences in tastes, differences in skills, and differences in diligence to influence outcomes.
32Equity or Equality Membagi sama banyak (sama rata) apakah salah?? Alokasi subsidi fairnessTujuan outcome yang sama rata (equal health status)Equity: variabel need, geografi, sosioekonomi
33Equality adalah bagian dari equity ex: equal access for equal needEquity : horisontal dan vertikalEquity : libertarian dan egalitarian
34Kurva LorentzUntuk mengetahui tingkat pemerataan distribusi pendapatan suatu negara dapat diketahui dari grafik yang dinamakan Kurva Lorenz, artinya kurva yang menggambarkan hubungan antara distribusi jumlah penduduk dengan distribusi pendapatan.The Lorenz curve provides a direct visual clue about the degree of income inequality by comparing it with the line of equality (Parkin, 2011).
35Kurva LorentzThe distribution of income in Fig and the quintile shares in Fig tell us that income is distributed unequally.But we need a way of comparing the distribution of income in different periods and using different measures.A clever graphical tool called the Lorenz curve enables us to make such comparisons.
37Koefisien GiniSedangkan indikator untuk mengukur tingkat ketimpangan distribusi pendapatan adalah Koefisien Gini atau Indeks Gini.Semakin tinggi atau besar indeks gini, semakin tinggi tingkat ketidakmerataannya (distribusi pendapatannya tidak merata) dan semakin kecil indeks gini semakin rendah tingkat ketidakmerataannya (distribusi pendapatannya semakin merata).Koefisien Gini mempunyai rentang 0 sampai merepresentasikan perfect equality dan 1 total inequality.