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PENGELOLAAN EKOLOGI PERKOTAAN Smno.pdip.pdkl.ppsub.2013 MK. LANDUSE PLANNING & LAND DEVELOPMENT.

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Presentation on theme: "PENGELOLAAN EKOLOGI PERKOTAAN Smno.pdip.pdkl.ppsub.2013 MK. LANDUSE PLANNING & LAND DEVELOPMENT."— Presentation transcript:

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2 PENGELOLAAN EKOLOGI PERKOTAAN Smno.pdip.pdkl.ppsub.2013 MK. LANDUSE PLANNING & LAND DEVELOPMENT

3 The Ecosystem Concept Sir Arthur G. Tansley ( ) Sumber: Principles of Urban Ecology - Steward T.A. Pickett. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

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5 Cities have multiple and changing forms. Sumber: Principles of Urban Ecology - Steward T.A. Pickett. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

6 Central Business District Transitional zone: recent immigrants, deteriorating housing, factories, abandonment Working class zone: single family tenements Residential zone: single family homes with yards and garages Commuter zone: suburbs Burgess Model Sumber: Principles of Urban Ecology - Steward T.A. Pickett. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

7 Lahan pertanian di pinggiran kota sedang mengalami “alih fungsi”

8 Patch dynamics 1.Applies to cities 2.Hierarchical 3.Gradients and fields Sumber: Principles of Urban Ecology - Steward T.A. Pickett. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

9 Pickett, Cadenasso Sumber: Principles of Urban Ecology - Steward T.A. Pickett. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

10 Komponen Perubahan 1.Urban design 2.Urban planning 3.Topography 4.Ecology 5.Social-cultural 6.Economic Sumber: Principles of Urban Ecology - Steward T.A. Pickett. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

11 Komponen Kompleksitas Sosial 1.Property regimes 2.Households and individuals 3.Social status 4.Economic status 5.Lifestyle grouping 6.Social identity 7.etc. Sumber: Principles of Urban Ecology - Steward T.A. Pickett. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

12 IKONOS Image Vegetation Parcels PROW Vegetation PROW Vegetation Private Land Vegetation Private Land Vegetation Fine Scale Analysis Grove, Troy, O’Neil-Dunne Sumber: Principles of Urban Ecology - Steward T.A. Pickett. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

13 Nitrogen retention SuburbanForestedAgriculture kg N ha -1 y Inputs Atmosphere8.7 Fertilizer TOTAL Outputs Streamflow Retention Mass Percent Groffman, Belt, Fisher Sumber: Principles of Urban Ecology - Steward T.A. Pickett. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

14 Phoenix, Arizona Ppt: ~180 mm/yr Watershed area = 12,000km 2 Study area = 6,400 km 2 Population growth 1950 = 300, > 3 million Baltimore, Maryland Ppt: ~ 1200 mm/yr Watershed area = 17,000 km 2 Study area = Population million Sumber: Principles of Urban Ecology - Steward T.A. Pickett. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

15 Pickett, Cadenasso (2008) Sumber: Principles of Urban Ecology - Steward T.A. Pickett. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

16 N. Law and L. Band Sumber: Principles of Urban Ecology - Steward T.A. Pickett. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

17 Water principle Sites of cities Urban design Future demands. Sumber: Principles of Urban Ecology - Steward T.A. Pickett. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

18 G. Brush et al. in prep Sumber: Principles of Urban Ecology - Steward T.A. Pickett. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

19 P15 City form and shared needs –Role of elites –Non-stationary roles –Non-overlapping agency –Environmental injustice. Sumber: Principles of Urban Ecology - Steward T.A. Pickett. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

20 Prinsip-prinsip 1.Human ecosystem 2.Multiple forms 3.Extensive spatial mosaics 4.Intention, opportunity, incidental, constraint 5.Design as experiment 6.Role of social pattern and process 7.Social complexity … Sumber: Principles of Urban Ecology - Steward T.A. Pickett. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

21 1.Retain remnant soils, waters, vegetation 2.Biodiversity multifaceted, value 3.Urban definitions various 4.Abstract gradients of urbanization 5.Human perceptions and actions 6.Flux of water, water infrastructure 7.Exotics and function 8.City form: equity and control 9.Application through dialog. Prinsip-prinsip Sumber: Principles of Urban Ecology - Steward T.A. Pickett. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

22 KESIMPULAN 1.Transdiciplinary concern 2.Heterogeneous, changing subject 3.Suggests emerging framework 4.Open to new insights 5.Context for specific tests. Sumber: Principles of Urban Ecology - Steward T.A. Pickett. Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies

23 Urban ecosystem is an artificial habitat with unnatural plants and animals to provide an environment for human relaxation. Apakah Ekosistem Urban ?

24 1.Parks and playgrounds are the examples of urban ecosystem. 2.This ecosystem is unstable because it is artificial. CIRI-CIRI EKOSISTEM URBAN

25 They can only kept in their desirable conditions by constant effort. Fertilizers and water are constantly added to the soils for plant growth. Some weak plants will be protected and supported in a greenhouse. CIRI-CIRI EKOSISTEM URBAN

26 1.The plant and animal species are limited and fixed since they are introduced by man. 2.The plants are artificial as they are planted by man. CIRI-CIRI EKOSISTEM URBAN

27 Pentingnya Ekosistem Urban 1. For human a. Provide an area for people to play, relax and entertain and to relieve their stress. b. Let people know more about the ecosystem though the plants and animals in the parks and playground.

28 1.Green plants can minimize the human eye strain because trees can reduce light glare. 2.Plants help to balance oxygen and carbon dioxide level and provide more oxygen for all other organisms. 3.Parks and country parks can also provide a beautiful and comfortable view for people. Pentingnya Ekosistem Urban

29 2. For animals a.Provide a place for different kinds of animals to perch. For example, birds can perch on the trees. b.It also provide a micro-habitat for different kinds of insect. For example, grasshoppers live in the clump. Pentingnya Ekosistem Urban

30 Problems on urban ecosystem In a city, there are : 1.many tall buildings 2.surrounding the parks. 3.So light intensity is greatly reduce and the rate of photosynthesis is low.

31 In addition, the wind speed also reduces and decreases the chance of dispersal of plants. The temperature of an urban area is higher than the countryside because a lot of hot air is given out by air-conditioners and factories. These increase cloudiness and the plants and animals in the parks are difficult to respire. Pentingnya Ekosistem Urban

32 There are many polluted air from vehicles and factories. The dirty dust will block up the stomata of plants and affect their gaseous exchange.

33 Some soil in the playgrounds and parks are compacted by the tramping effect of human feet. Then the air space in the soil becomes lessened and less oxygen to support plant respiration.

34 The surface of road is waterproof and there are drainage pipes on both sides of the road. Rain water is easy to run-off and the plants are difficult to absorb the water.

35 1.Add fertilizers to the soil frequently. 2.Add enough water to the plants. 3.The location of parks should not be close to any tall buildings. 4.Add fences to separate the plants from trampling of man. SOLUSI: Ekosistem Urban


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