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1 Bahan kajian MK. Agroekologi PENGELOAAN SUMBERDAYA ALAM UNTUK PRODUKSI PANGAN Prof Dr Ir Soemarno, pslp-ppsub-2009.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Bahan kajian MK. Agroekologi PENGELOAAN SUMBERDAYA ALAM UNTUK PRODUKSI PANGAN Prof Dr Ir Soemarno, pslp-ppsub-2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Bahan kajian MK. Agroekologi PENGELOAAN SUMBERDAYA ALAM UNTUK PRODUKSI PANGAN Prof Dr Ir Soemarno, pslp-ppsub-2009

2 2 Perkembangan Produksi Pangan Saat ini di dunia timbul kekawatiran mengenai keberlanjutan produksi pangan sejalan dengan semakin beralihnya lahan pertanian ke non pertanian untuk kebutuhan perumahan, perkatoran, lokasi industri yang diakibatkan semakin meningkatnya pertumbuhan penduduk dan industri. Dalam rangka antsipasi untuk menyediakan pangan di Indonesia mendatang, maka berikut disajikan tentang perkembangan produksi pangan. Laju pertumbuhan produksi pangan ini relatif rendah, bahkan untuk produksi padi cenderung konstan. Keadaan ini terjadi karena luas areal produksi pangan yang cenderung menurun.

3 3 Sustainable Food Production: Developing the Principles There are several related principles of sustainable food production, but probably the most central, is not to use resources faster than they renew. A common example I´ve used is that if you want to cut one 50-year-old tree a year, you need to have 50 trees growing of that kind, from seedling to 49 years old. As long as you have all these trees growing, you can cut one 50-year-old tree a year indefinitely, and sustain the forest in its present size. That might seem more important for forestry than food production, but when we look at the problems of maintaining fertile soil in many areas of the world, trees become a logical source of food, as they produce fruit, nuts, and fodder for animals. The plant nutrients of soil are a resource, than can easily be used faster than they will renew under the plow. Perennial plants like trees can help to solve this problem, as well as reducing needed energy use to pull cultivating tools. Which is once more, following the principle of not using resources faster than they renew, to avoid using too much energy, whether from fossil fuel, or anything else.

4 4 Sejumlah petani di Kab.Bandung mempercepat masa penanaman padi musim kedua, dengan memanfaatkan cadangan air yang masih mencukupi pada musim kemarau ini. Mereka berharap dapat memanen pada bulan Oktober, sehingga dalam setahun dapat kembali melakukan penanaman sampai tiga kali. Sejumlah petani padi di Kec.Soreang, Selasa (30/6) tengah membajak lahan- lahan sawah mereka. Cadangan air diperhitungkan akan mencukupi sampai dua bulan ke depan, sehingga diharapkan tanaman padi mereka selamat dipanen. Hanya saja, banyak petani mengeluhkan berkurangnya pasokan air, walau musim hujan tahun ini lebih panjang. Pasalnya, banyak oknum perusahaan pengembang dan calo tanah, menyabotase irigasi sehingga banyak sawah menjadi kekurangan air sehingga terkesan kurang produktif lagi.

5 5 Land and water management Two of the most important agricultural resources, land and water, are crucial for the well being of the Asia-Pacific region, which is home to nearly three-fourths of the world’s agricultural population. However, Asia-Pacific tillers have to depend on about 28 percent of the world’s cropland with the land available per person for cultivation being just one-sixth of the average in the rest of the world.

6 6 A growing population is adding to pressure on arable land. To meet its increasing food needs, the region will have to produce more food largely from the existing farmlands because there is very little land available for physical expansion. This can be done only by increasing crop yields and stepping up cropping intensity. Land and water management

7 7 PENGELOLAAN LAHAN DAN AIR While new farm technologies can bring about dramatic gains in crop yields, much depends on the state of land and water resources. A major problem is land degradation, which is caused in the region largely by water and wind erosion. A joint study of land degradation in South Asia by FAO, the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) found that water and wind erosion respectively damage 25 and 18 percent of the subregion’s total land. Latest estimates show that in China water erosion affects 34 percent of the total cultivated land and wind erosion a further 2 percent. In Thailand, approximately 34 percent of the total land area is affected by water erosion. Deforestation, excessive use of chemical fertilizers, soil erosion and excessive extraction of groundwater are major causes of land degradation in the region. With more than half of the world’s 30 largest cities located in the region, rapid industrialization and urbanization are also responsible for swallowing up and affecting arable land.

8 8 PENGELOLAAN LAHAN DAN AIR Farms in the Asia-Pacific region account for more than half of the world’s agricultural water use with 60 percent of the world’s water being consumed by the region in The region has some of the wettest and driest spots on earth. Irrigation systems are not only costly, but they are also inefficient. It is estimated that up to 60 percent of the water diverted or pumped for irrigation is not used for plant production. The region must give priority attention to modernizing water delivery and irrigation systems.

9 9 PENGELOLAAN LAHAN DAN AIR Countries in the region need conservation techniques to combat land degradation. Integrated watershed management is one of the best ways of developing rainfed areas. This has conservation and development aspects, arresting and reversing land and ecological degradation while producing material benefits to local communities in the form of food, fodder and forest and livestock products. Appropriate technologies should also be adopted to reduce and prevent soil erosion, which is a serious problem in hilly areas. These include correct tillage practices, land formation techniques and stabilization structures. The Integrated Plant Nutrition System (IPNS) to increase soil fertility can also help in reducing soil erosion.


11 11 PENGELOLAAN LAHAN DAN AIR Priority areas have been (1) improved management and sustainable use of land and water resources for food security; and (2) enhanced livelihoods, with emphasis on supporting improved irrigation systems, sustainable land management and soil conservation, biodiversity and fertility. In collaboration with national institutions, a workshop and project were carried out to promote land evaluation and land-use planning systems and tools, and to promote sustainable agricultural systems to address land degradation and desertification, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration and reduced emissions.

12 12 PENGELOLAAN LAHAN DAN AIR The FAO regional office has launched a new Web site dedicated to the modernization of irrigation systems - visit The Web site focuses on design, performance, operation, management and upgrading of medium- or large-scale irrigation systems. Tools for use in the appraisal, benchmarking and upgrading of irrigation systems for modernization and their upgrading are provided as well as training materials and programmes on the operation and management, modernization and benchmarking of irrigation schemes. Training materials can be consulted online and downloaded from the Web site. Two projects were carried out to promote the development of location-specific standards on nutrient management, and the establishment and implementation of bio-organic fertilizer standards. Investment in land and water (RAP 2002/09) explains the urgent need for arresting and reversing the decline in investment in land and water development in Asia- Pacific countries. Irrigation needs about one-third of the US$30.7 billion additional annual investment required in agriculture in developing countries to ensure food security.

13 13 PENGELOLAAN LAHAN DAN AIR How design, management and policy affect the performance of irrigation projects (RAP 2002/20) is a contribution to an emerging understanding that physical and institutional reforms of the irrigation sector should be combined, and that irrigation management transfer is not only about transferring operation functions but also governance to the irrigation users and a combination of the two at different levels.

14 14 PENGELOLAAN LAHAN DAN AIR In September 2003, an agreement was signed in Bangkok, Thailand between the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives (MoAC) and FAO for the introduction and demonstration of new techniques for the sustainable use of soils for crop production. The project will introduce appropriate techniques for the rehabilitation and management of problem soils, particularly in rainfed agriculture. Essential and validated information on land use and land cover will contribute to improved analysis, planning and decision-making with regard to food security and poverty alleviation.

15 15 PENGELOLAAN LAHAN DAN AIR The project is introducing drought- and salt-tolerant crops and assisting farmers in sharing the available irrigation water in an equitable and efficient manner. Farmers and related government officials are being trained on drainage management and on-farm irrigation, irrigation technology, field levelling, water accounting and modification of local farm machinery for conservation agriculture for small independent farmers in KK.

16 16 PENGELOLAAN LAHAN DAN AIR The Asia Soil Conservation Network for the Humid Tropics (ASOCON) was formed with UNDP/FAO support in 1989 and became a quasi-legal entity in June The ultimate objective is to help small-scale farmers use their land sustainably and productively.

17 17 PENGELOLAAN LAHAN DAN AIR The Third International Vetiver Conference was held in Guanzhou, Guangdong Province, in southern China in October The theme of the conference was "Vetiver System’s (VS) application to improve water quality and distribution in the environment". Topics included application of VS for: runoff control, groundwater recharge, erosion control and slope stabilization, pollution control and water quality protection, purification of landfill and mining lactates, earthworks, stabilization, plant production, extension strategies, and other grasses for water and soil conservation. The network is concerned mainly with the rational use, management and conservation of problem soils within the Asia-Pacific region in a sustainable and environmentally sound manner.

18 18 PENGELOLAAN LAHAN DAN AIR Pertumbuhan tanaman di lahan kering sangat dipengaruhi oleh keadaan curah hujan. Untuk menghindari resiko kegagalan panen, pemilihan waktu tanam dan varietas harus tepat. Apabila waktu tanam pada suatu lokasi pengembangan telah diketahui, maka langkah selanjutya adalah menyusun pola tanam. Dalam penyusunan pola tanam, selain aspek biofisik, pola tanam yang telah berkembang pada masyarakat setempat juga harus diperhatikan, sehingga pola tanam yang dikembangkan bukan merupakan sesuatu yang baru sama sekali tetapi merupakan pengembangan dari pola tanam yang telah ada. Pola tanam di lahan tegal di wilayah Banjarnegara pada MH I adalah ubi kayu monokultur, tumpangsari antara ubikayu-jagung atau ubikayu- padi gogo atau ubikayu-kacang tanah dengan populasi masing-masing 100%. Dengan mengubah tata letak tanaman ubikayu menjadi baris ganda, maka memungkinkan kacang tanah ditanam kembali pada MH II di antara tanaman ubikayu baik setelah jagung, padi gogo atau kacang tanah pertama. Hal ini berarti akan terjadi penambahan luas pertanaman kacang tanah. Dengan menambah intensitas tanam berarti akan meningkatkan produksi dan sekaligus menambah pendapatan petani.

19 19 PRODUKSI TANAMAN & PROTEKSI Fertile land and favourable weather conditions make the Asia-Pacific region a major producer of cereals (rice, wheat and maize), legumes, vegetables, fruits and industrial crops like rubber, coconut, pepper and oil-palm. The region produces 90 percent of the world’s rice, which is Asia’s most important food crop and the staple diet for three-fifths of the global population. Rice provides more than half the daily dietary energy of over three billion people in the region. A number of Asian countries are now self-sufficient in rice production; the current annual harvest of 524 million tonnes is expected to grow to 700 million tonnes by However, the region is adding 51 million rice consumers to its population annually while the land and water resources that are available for rice farms are declining steadily; increasing numbers of marginal farmers in the Asia-Pacific region are depending on degraded farmlands. The key to future food security in Asia lies in boosting farm yields without damaging the natural resource base, reducing the rate of population increase and diversifying the food basket. FAO is helping to increase rice outputs in Asian countries where paddy yields are lower compared to the region’s efficient rice- farming nations.

20 20 PRODUKSI TANAMAN & PROTEKSI Also, FAO is encouraging Asian rice farmers to combine their harvests with new crop types, including hitherto neglected species, vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices, medicinal plants and cash crops. Crop and farming system diversification that includes, inter alia, livestock husbandry, will not only increase food variety, but also help to reduce the environmental, economic and nutritional risks associated with planting only one type of crop. Expanding rice production has, moreover, reduced profits from paddy farming. FAO advocates farming diversification by rearing livestock, planting higher value horticultural and cash crops and marketing value-added products of all commodities as the best protection against falling farm produce prices. In Asia and the Pacific, higher value crops produce 10 to 15 times the net returns per hectare of rice. The region produces over 50 percent of the world’s industrial crops mainly via smallholders. Industrial crops cover about 20 percent of available land in the region.

21 21 PRODUKSI TANAMAN & PROTEKSI Effective plant quarantine measures keep farm pests and diseases from spreading. Developing countries in the region have to conform to new international plant quarantine standards being developed under the new world trade rules. While protecting farm harvests from pests and crop diseases, it is important to ensure that the methods used do not cause irreparable damage to the agrarian ecology and human health. FAO is promoting IPM techniques to eliminate the use of expensive chemical pest killers that are known to be harmful for farms and consumers. In addition, FAO is encouraging organic farming such as organic coffee, pepper, vegetables and fruits.

22 22 Potensi ladang jagung di Indonesia sengatlah besar, karena tanaman jagung merupakan tanaman yang tergolong kuat dan dapat ditanam di berbagai jenis tanah. Selain sebagai bahan baku pakan ternak, jagung juga sebagai cadangan pangan pengganti beras disebagian wilayah di Indonesia. Setelah olah lahan, berikan pupuk kandang sebanyak 10 ton/ha diberikan sepanjang larikan tanaman sebelum tanam. Kemudian berikan larutan Golden Harvest (1 liter Golden Harvest : air max 200 liter) pada setiap titik tanam. Tahap ini diperlukan 2 liter Golden Harvest per hektar. Dengan budidaya yang baik dan menggunakan teknologi Golden Harvest, potensi yang sedemikian besar tersebut akan dapat diraih. Tanaman mengikuti alur bajak, jagung ditanam sistem baris ganda dengan jarak tanam 40 x 25 cm, 1 tan/rumpun sebanyak 2 baris, dan jarak antar baris ganda berikutnya 3 m.

23 23 PRODUKSI TANAMAN & PROTEKSI For food and horticultural crops, the focus has been on cropping systems that promote high value crops; more effective management of resources in smallholders’ cropping systems; higher productivity and sustainable crop production in tropical environments; sustainable intensification of urban and peri-urban agricultural production systems; integrated crop management; IPM; and support to the International Rice Commission. For industrial crops, activities targeted the development of underutilized species; improved cropping systems and crop diversification; IPM; and support to regional institutions. A technically sound, environmentally friendly and farmer-focused IPM strategy with corresponding participatory training activities will be developed and implemented.

24 24 PRODUKSI TANAMAN & PROTEKSI An on-farm grain storage project was formulated for Timor-Leste with the support of UNDP/EU. Support was also provided in reviewing the prospects for industrial crops, the formulation of a coconut oil project and a feasibility study for palm oil production. An upgraded soil analysis facility for rice and maize production in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) has resulted in cost- effective fertilizer use recommendations. A bio-organic fertilizer standard has been established in Lao PDR, contributing to better quality fertilizer for farmers.

25 25 Rural Asia-Pacific: Inter-disciplinary strategies to combat hunger and poverty. The rice-based livelihood-support systems (RAP 2002/12) identifies sustainable strategies to yield more food, incomes and livelihoods in line with the vision of eradicating hunger and rural poverty in the Asia-Pacific rice lands over the next three decades. The publication examines the potential of the wide range of rice- based farming systems in the region to meet the food and livelihood security demands that will be made on them in the coming decades. It outlines a menu of interdisciplinary strategies and interventions to enable the rice-based systems to live up to the challenge and the role that FAO can play. From farmer field school to community IPM: Ten years of IPM training in Asia (RAP 2002/15) is a comprehensive account of IPM as a farmer-centred and local needs-responsive approach, which was developed on the rice farms of Southeast Asia to tackle the risks arising from excessive pesticide use promoted by the green revolution. The publication includes step-by-step instructions on organizing and running farmers’ field schools along with detailed case studies of farmers’ field schools in Southeast Asia as well as several personal experiences of farmers who gained from the programme. A separate section outlines the IPM programme activities in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Viet Nam.

26 26 PRODUKSI TANAMAN & PROTEKSI The lychee crop in Asia and the Pacific (RAP 2002/16) provides a comprehensive account of the origin, distribution, production and trade of different species of this commercially important fruit crop that is cultivated mainly in Bangladesh, China, India, Nepal, Thailand and Viet Nam. These countries produce more than 1.8 million tonnes of the about two million tonnes of lychee crop cultivated annually in Asia, which accounts for over 95 percent of the world lychee harvest. The Technical Consultation on Biological Risk Management in Food and Agriculture met in Bangkok, Thailand in January The aim was to consult governments on the possibilities to harmonize, where appropriate, methods of risk analysis to enhance capacity building, where needed, particularly in developing countries and countries with economies in transition and to establish an official information exchange system on biological risk management in food and agriculture ("biosecurity"). FAO has established a Priority Area for Interdisciplinary Action on Biosecurity to coordinate this process within the organization. The first regional consultation of the FAO project Capacity building in biosafety of genetically modified crops in Asia, which was convened in Bangkok in July 2003, identified country-specific strengths and weaknesses relating to national capacities, including legislation, regulations and policies for the biosafety of GM crops. It also addressed the prioritization of the support needed in enhancing the biosafety capacities of the participating countries.

27 27 PRODUKSI TANAMAN & PROTEKSI Pacific PestNet: Meeting plant protection needs in the 21st century ( ): The objective of the project is to develop and promote an effective network ("PestNet") among Pacific Island countries (PICs) by effectively addressing farmers’ plant protection needs and enhancing delivery of pest diagnoses, quarantine information and advice to farmers. PestNet will facilitate the identification of pests and diseases by means of digital photos, which are to be linked to existing databases such as EcoPort. Relevant training on pest identification and database management will be provided and a participatory rural appraisal (PRA) survey will assess farmers’ perceptions and needs in the participating countries. FAO’s assistance will contribute to improving plant protection decision-making at the farm level through better access by farmers to demand-driven services for the identification and control of crop pests and diseases.

28 28 PRODUKSI TANAMAN & PROTEKSI The 7th international IFOAM organic trade conference and the seminar on production and export of organic fruit and vegetables in Asia (jointly convened by FAO, IFOAM [International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements] and Green Net from Thailand) were conducted from 1 to 10 November 2003 in Bangkok. The plenary sessions, workshops and seminars addressed a broad spectrum of important themes necessary for the further development of organic markets. In addition to numerous presentations and discussions surrounding the Organic Guarantee System and the movement’s efforts to harmonize standards and certification, the conference also emphasized the importance and benefits of interlinking fair trade and organic agriculture.

29 29 Animal production and health

30 30 PRODUKSI TANAMAN & PROTEKSI Millions of rural households in Asia-Pacific countries depend on domesticated animals for food, draught power and income. The region has 30 percent of the world’s livestock species. Though livestock food products are still not a significant part of the diet in developing Asia-Pacific countries, consumption is growing rapidly. Developing Asian countries now have the world’s highest growth rates of production and consumption of food derived from livestock. Meat production in the region grew from about nine million tonnes in 1961 to more than 90 million tonnes by the end of the twentieth century. Small farmers account for the bulk of the livestock production, combining this with cropping and other agricultural activities. Traditionally, income from the sale of milk, meat, manure and other basic livestock products has protected small farmers from the shock of crop failure and provided a steady livelihood for marginal farmers who do not have other agricultural resources. Ownership of livestock also helps to alleviate hunger among the poor. Possession of livestock, which feed on open grazing lands, allows the rural poor to take advantage of common property resources to earn income. Livestock also provide a substantial amount of draught power on Asia-Pacific farms. According to one estimate in 1985, the 30 million draught animals then in use on Asia’s small farms did work equivalent to the same number of tractors.

31 31 PRODUKSI TANAMAN & PROTEKSI The considerable growth in the region’s poultry and pig meat industries - the latter accounted for 55 percent of all meat production in is promoting a shift from pasture-based production systems to feed cropping. Some countries have to depend on feed imports to meet the needs of the livestock industry. Prevention, control and eradication of communicable livestock diseases are central to FAO’s livestock development priorities. Some animal diseases can also be transmitted to humans such as the Nipah virus, which devastated Malaysia’s pig industry and claimed more than 100 human lives in 1998 and A number of emerging diseases with the potential to infect humans have been identified in the past ten years. Over the past 25 years, developing Asian countries have introduced several exotic livestock species in a bid to increase productivity. However, most of these introductions - usually through crossbreeding - have not been successful. Reasons range from increased feed consumption, lower reproductive rates and greater disease susceptibility of the new breeds, to the debts of local farmers who are unable to repay loans taken to procure the exotic species.

32 32 Peternakan Bebek Peternakan bebek yang ada di desa ini ada 2 jenis, yaitu bebek musiman dan bebek yang selalu ada setiap saat. Bebek musiman yang dimaksud di sini adalah jika ada orang yang menitipkan bebeknya di peternakan tersebut. Bebek yang ada di desa ini adalah jenis bebek petelur.

33 33 PRODUKSI TANAMAN & PROTEKSI Livestock development is also threatened by the disappearance of indigenous breeds. Every week, the world loses two breeds of domestic animals, according to a joint study by FAO and UNEP. The Asia-Pacific region is home to 99.6 percent of the world’s buffalo breeds; other common livestock comprise pigs (56.3 percent), goats (62.7 percent), chickens (46.4 percent) and ducks (85.3 percent). Some livestock species risk extinction, in particular the H’mong cattle of Viet Nam, which numbered only head in The coming years are a critical period for livestock production in Asia and the Pacific. Poorly planned animal-breeding strategies and the loss of indigenous breeds threaten the region’s ability to meet future food and livelihood demands. At the same time, the growing demand for livestock products now offers the opportunity to launch a new food revolution to reduce poverty and hunger among small farming households that constitute 80 percent of all farming families in Asia and the Pacific.

34 34 PRODUKSI TERNAK DAN KESEHATANNYA RAP 2002/01 - Manual on the diagnosis of nipah virus infection in animals, contains information on the emergence of the virus and provides general principles and detailed instructions for dealing safely with it. It includes information on risk assessment in field investigations, safety procedures during field and laboratory investigations, all aspects of control and eradication along with guidelines for action by the pig industry and governments to keep the virus out. A series of appendices list hands-on safety instructions and essential safety equipment. FAO supports the Animal Production and Health Commission for Asia and the Pacific (APHCA) - visit - and the South Asia Rinderpest Campaign. The 27th session of APHCA was convened in Lahore, Pakistan in August 2003. Recent APHCA publications issued by the FAO-RAP are: Some issues associated with the livestock industries of the Asia-Pacific region. (RAP 2002/06); A basic laboratory manual for the small-scale production and testing of 1-2 Newcastle disease vaccine (RAP 2002/22); The livestock industries of Thailand (RAP 2002/23); Report of the 26th Session of the Animal Production and Health Commission for Asia and the Pacific (APHCA) (RAP 2002/24).

35 35 Peternakan kambing Peternakan kambing ini biasanya terletak di rumah-rumah penduduk. Kambing yang ada di rumah-rumah penduduk ini umumnya merupakan kambing lokal. Di desa ini, hanya melakukan penggemukan kambing, sedangkan untuk pemasarannya dilakukan di luar desa Peniwen. Kambing yang ada di desa ini tidak makan rumput, melainkan makan konsentrat.

36 36 PRODUKSI TERNAK DAN KESEHATANNYA Priorities encompassed economic and environmental sustainability; food safety; risk analysis of marginalizing smallholder farmers from market opportunities; threats related to the spread of transboundary and zoonotic diseases (and concomitantly the development of newly emerging diseases generated by high animal density and international trade in live animals and livestock products); and the alarming loss of domestic animal diversity. The threat of endemic diseases, pests and newly emerging diseases - resulting in food shortages, destabilization of markets and periodically triggering trade barriers - was addressed jointly by FAO and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), particularly in the context of FAO’s Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES) through the preparation of the Asia component of the Global Framework for the Progressive Control of Foot and Mouth Disease and other transboundary diseases.

37 37 PRODUKSI TERNAK DAN KESEHATANNYA FAO’s Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS) assists in the conservation and promotion of animal genetic diversity. In the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources process, country report preparation and convening of regional meetings are essential. Regional meetings identify regional needs for animal genetic resources and aim at reaching agreement on priorities for action at the regional level, in accordance with major production system characteristics. The regional office also publishes the quarterly Asian livestock on the Internet. A regional training workshop was convened in Fiji to assist the PICs in the preparation of their country reports as inputs for the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources. The potential loss of animal diversity was addressed under the umbrella of FAO’s Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources. Member countries have agreed to prepare country reports as input to the first report on the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources.

38 38 PRODUKSI TERNAK DAN KESEHATANNYA A consultation, jointly organized by FAO and the International Feed Industry Federation in Bangkok in April 2002, discussed changes in livestock systems; enhanced requirements for protein in the tropics and the potential of ruminants on limited protein intake to utilize available forage; food safety issues related to animal feed derived from biotechnology crops, including GMOs; current issues relating to the use of animal by-products in feed; adaptation of European laws and regulations on animal feed use, to conditions in developing countries and countries in transition. Presentations were made by animal production and health experts on developments and issues relating to livestock production, protein supplies and the feed industries of selected countries including Australia, Botswana, China, India, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, Viet Nam and countries of the EU. Under the Livestock, Environment and Development Initiative (LEAD), three pilot studies in China, Thailand and Viet Nam were conducted to assess the impact of industrial livestock production on the environment and the area-wide integration of specialized crop and livestock activities; they have led to the formulation of a World Bank/ Global Environment Facility (GEF) project.

39 39 Peternakan Ayam Peternakan ayam di desa Peniwen ini juga hampir ada di setiap rumah-rumah penduduk. Ayam tersebut biasanya diambil daging dan telurnya. Selain itu ada juga telur ayam Arab yang bisa digunakan sebagai obat (jamu).

40 40 PRODUKSI TERNAK DAN KESEHATANNYA LEAD is also investigating the impact of changes in the formal market on poor and small-scale producers. In the Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative (PPLPI), the social consequences of the transformation of the livestock sector were addressed. The potentials and constraints of small-scale dairy production for poverty reduction were studied in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan. PPLPI contributed to the reform of livestock services in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. In December 2003, FAO published the preliminary results of the first livestock census ever conducted in Afghanistan. Data covered around three million families. The project was carried out by FAO and funded by the Government of Italy. The results show that there are 3.7 million cattle, 8.8 million sheep, 7.3 million goats, 1.6 million donkeys, camels, horses and 12.2 million poultry. Comparisons with earlier livestock surveys showed that the number of farm animals per family had plummeted. The number of families without livestock has increased from 11.4 to 14.4 families per community due to the drought. The number of cattle per family has fallen from 3.7 in 1995 to 1.22 in 2003, while the number of sheep decreased sharply from 21.9 to 2.9 over the same period. The final results of the Afghan livestock census are expected early in They will contain detailed results from household and gender surveys.

41 41 Animal production and health The Yak, second edition (RAP 2003/ 06) traces briefly the development of this animal and then describes in some detail its characteristics and performance and its products. There is also a discussion of the more recent research and development projects that may provide a basis for improvements in yak performance and in the utilization of rangelands. The research and development may also lead to a wider distribution for the yak and to the better utilization of yak products. Eighty-two piglets were airlifted from the United Kingdom to Bhutan in September 2003, during a significant logistic operation carried out by FAO. The nucleus for a pig-breeding programme in land-locked Bhutan, all the piglets survived the journey and arrived in good health. The importation of live piglets was needed as pigs in Bhutan are largely in-bred and their numbers are too small to act as a resource for an expanded breeding programme. The importation of animals of both sexes of three different breeds will allow the development of adequate breeding schemes and enhancement of the pig genetic resources of the country. Funded by FAO within the context of a technical cooperation programme for improving food security and rural income, the project aims to improve food production and access to animal proteins in Bhutan.

42 42 Animal production and health In Bangladesh a training programme for the small-scale dairy sector has been underway since August The objective is to develop short-term, tailor-made training courses at the Savar Dairy Farm of the Ministry of Feed and Livestock (MoFL) for persons and organizations involved in milk production, collection, processing and marketing in the small-scale sector to improve efficiency and quality throughout the farm to consumer milk chain. Low-cost technologies for collecting milk from remote rural areas and for efficient small-scale processing of milk and traditional dairy products are being promoted. An action plan will be elaborated to sustain and commercialize future training activities and for the expansion of the approach to other regions. Small-scale milk producers, collectors and processors will be able to improve milk production representing a promising way to raise family income and improve food security.

43 43 Peternakan Babi Di desa ini, terdapat dua buah peternakan babi yang terletak di Dusun Kalongan. Peternakan ini memiliki kira- kira ekor babi. Babi dititipkan dan dibesarkan di tempat ini, namun pembibitan dan pemasarannya dilakukan di Surabaya.

44 44 Animal production and health Protection against rinderpest and other major diseases of farm livestock through emergency preparedness planning and new vaccine technology is a project being conducted in Nepal. The objective is to build up the technical capacities of the veterinary field services to increase their emergency preparedness by means of improved contingency planning and disease detection, surveillance, reporting and data storage/ management. The dialogue between Nepal, India and China with respect to transboundary animal disease early warning and early reaction will be strengthened. Strengthening national veterinary services will contribute to improved animal disease control and thus improved livelihoods of poor livestock farmers.

45 45 PERIKANAN Fish and rice constitute the traditional diet of most Asian and Pacific people. Per caput fish consumption ranges from the world’s highest level in the Maldives to among the lowest in Pakistan and parts of northern India. In the Pacific, subsistence fisheries make an important contribution to often high levels of per caput supplies. Fish provide nutritious food, employment and income for millions of people. In 1998, capture fishery production from this region accounted for half of the world’s production, and the production from aquaculture reached 88 percent of the global aquaculture production of fish and shellfish. The fishery sector thus plays a valuable role for food security in most countries in the region. However, in general, marine fishery resources are exploited fully (for example in the Gulf of Thailand, the Bay of Tonkin and the Bay of Bengal) and many heavily fished stocks will need to be rehabilitated. It is unlikely that future demands from an increased population in the region will be met from the seas. Aquaculture, and to a lesser extent inland fisheries, may provide considerable opportunities for further development to increase fish production, but the region will probably need to rely more on imports of fishery products for its future supplies.

46 46 PERIKANAN For many countries in the region, the central issue remains that of management and sustainability of the marine resources. Generally, coastal resources are overfished severely by an overcrowded small-scale fishery sector. In these domains, catch rates, fish size and quality and, in some cases, fisherfolk incomes, are declining. Conflicts between small-scale fisheries and trawlers in the coastal zones are frequent and fishery management is complicated. Increasingly, partnerships between local communities and the central government are evolving to develop community-based fishery management systems for local resources. The prime concern is the need to increase the supply of fish and the economic benefits from fishing by the introduction and enforcement of better management.

47 47 PERIKANAN Aquaculture is an increasingly important supplier of food and sustainer of food security in many Asian countries. Considerable benefits may be gained by the better integration of aquaculture into overall rural and agricultural development programmes. Also, the supply of fish from aquaculture could be increased by the wider application of technological advances and better management of fish health. Diversification and genetic improvement of cultured species needs to be promoted, together with a wider application of semi-intensive production systems. Governments and FAO are addressing these issues by promoting appropriate policies and programmes. The implementation of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries remains the primary goal for FAO in Asia and the Pacific. The Code raises awareness from top officials to local fisherfolk, creating a responsible fishery system that stands on the principles of protection for living aquatic resources, environmental and coastal areas. Central to a responsible fishery system is the development of fishery and aquaculture techniques, as well as conservation measures, in complementation with enhanced food security and food quality, by all people engaged in the industry.

48 48 Indonesia adalah negara yang memiliki produksi perikanan tangkap terbesar ke-4 dunia setelah China, Peru, Amerika Serikat, dan Chile.

49 49 PERIKANAN The thrust has been on the sound management and sustainable use of resources in fisheries and aquaculture; responsible aquaculture development; and the conservation of marine and inland fisheries’ resources within the framework of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries via the strengthening of regional institutions and international collaboration. On 20 February 2003 FAO announced that aquaculture is growing more rapidly than all other animal food-producing sectors; its contribution to global supplies of fish, crustaceans and molluscs had increased from 3.9 percent of total production by weight in 1970 to 27.3 percent in 2000, according to FAO’s State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2002 report (SOFIA). The contribution from aquaculture increased further to 29 percent in SOFIA, presented at the 25th session of FAO’s Committee on Fisheries (COFI), stated that global fish production remains pushed by aquaculture. COFI is the only global technical forum for debating international fisheries’ issues.

50 50 PERIKANAN Commissioned by FAO-RAP, a review of inland capture fisheries in eight Southeast Asian countries showed that statistics about the sector are underestimated severely and fail to give an adequate idea of its real importance. The actual production from inland capture fisheries in these countries is likely to be at least three times as much as that reported for freshwater aquaculture production. RAP 2002/11 provides a regional overview of statistics’ collection and reporting methods used, the sources of error in the official statistics, other constraints to data collection and recommends strategies for improvement. A second section reviews the current state of inland capture fisheries’ statistics in the eight countries that were reviewed. RAP 2002/13 Pacific Island fisheries: regional and country information reviews small-scale commercial and subsistence fisheries, which are crucial for the national economies, food security and rural livelihoods in the Pacific. A regional overview provides detailed information about fisheries in the subregion as issues of coastal fisheries’ management. There are detailed country profiles with national fisheries’ data, an overview of marine and inland fisheries and aquaculture and utilization of the catch. Development prospects, the institutional arrangements and international issues relevant to the sector are also reviewed.

51 51 PERIKANAN Inland capture fisheries make a valuable contribution to food security in many parts of the world and especially in the Mekong Basin. However, the contribution that inland fishery resources make to rural livelihoods is often unknown or underestimated due to a lack of basic production and consumption information. Accurate information on the contribution of inland fisheries is essential for responsible development. Key uses of accurate information identified by the meeting were: (1) to determine the status and trends of the fishery and the environment; (2) to assess correctly the value of inland fisheries; (3) to allocate appropriate resources to the inland fisheries’ sector; and (4) to fulfill international obligations. New approaches for the improvement of inland capture fishery statistics in the Mekong Basin. Ad- hoc expert consultation (RAP 2003/01) details these issues. Kabupaten Sumenep memiliki

52 52 PERIKANAN Experts from eight countries met in Bangkok in February 2002 to share experiences and discuss ways of making aquaculture an effective tool for poverty alleviation in the region. The consultation - jointly organized with the Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia-Pacific (NACA) - responded to the growing awareness within the aquatic resource sector of the need to address poverty more directly. The session noted that user-friendly aquaculture technologies for the poor are largely in place and aquaculture development for poverty alleviation should focus on the effective extension of low-cost technologies, appropriate management practices and securing access and control to the poor. Myanmar aquaculture and inland fisheries (RAP 2003/8) reports the outcome of two missions, one to coastal areas and one to inland areas, fielded by FAO-RAP, NACA and the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). The purpose of the missions was to review the status of aquaculture and small-scale inland fisheries; to identify areas for technical assistance related to the sustainable development of coastal and inland aquaculture and management of aquatic resources; and to identify immediate assistance opportunities. The report includes the findings of the missions as well as conclusions and recommendations in support of the long-term sustainability of fishery resources in Myanmar.

53 53 PERIKANAN Collaborative activities with regional partners (NACA, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center [SEAFDEC], Mekong River Commission [MRC] and Worldfish Centre) included a regional donor consultation on the Role of Aquaculture and Living Aquatic Resources (the Philippines), the Second International Symposium on the Management of Large Rivers for Fisheries (Cambodia), a regional seminar on Accessing and Meeting Requirements of Markets for Aquaculture Products (the Philippines) and a regional workshop on Use of International Mechanisms for the Control and Responsible Use of Alien Species in Aquatic Ecosystems (China). FAO provided technical and financial assistance in organizing the collaborative FAO- ASEAN Strategic Planning Workshop on Harmonization of Standards for Shrimp Import- Export in Thailand from 4 to 6 November 2003 in Bangkok.

54 54 PERIKANAN Tambak udang Sebuah tambak udang adalah sebuah bisnis "aquaculture" dirancang untuk meningkatkan dan memproduksi udang laut atau prawn untuk konsumsi manusia.udangprawn Pertambakan udang komersial dimulai pada 1970-an, dan produksi tumbuh dengan cepat, terutama untuk memenuhi pertumbuhan permintaan Amerika Serikat, Jepang, dan Eropa barat. Produksi global total dari udang tambak mencapai lebih dari 1,6 juta ton pada 2003, mewakili hampir 9 milyar dolar AS.1970-anAmerika SerikatJepangEropatondolar AS Sekitar 75% udang tambak diproduksi di Asia, terutama di China dan Thailand. 25% sisanya diproduksi di Amerika Latin, di mana Brazil merupakan produsen terbesarnya. Negara pengekspor terbesar adalah Thailand. AsiaChinaThailandAmerika Latin

55 55 Pertambakan udang telah berubah dari bisnis tradisional, skala-kecil di Asia Tenggara menjadi sebuah bisnis global. Kemajuan teknologi telah mendorong pertumbuhan udang dengan kepadatan yang lebih tinggi, dan broodstock dikapalkan ke seluruh dunia. Hampir seluruh udang yang dikembangkan adalah penaeid (yaitu, udang dari famili Penaeidae) dan hanya dua spesies udang -- Pacific White Shrimp dan Giant Tiger Prawn; hampir mencakup 80% dari seluruh udang yang dikembangkan. Industri monokultur ini sangat mudah terserang penyakit, yang menyebabkan beberapa pemusnahan dari populasi pertambakan udang. Peningkatan masalah ekologi, terjadinya penyebaran penyakit berkali-kali, dan tekanan dan kritikan dari NGO dan negara konsumen mengubah industri ini pada akhir 1990-an dan biasanya pengaturan yang lebih ketat dari pemerintah. Pada 1999, sebuah program yang ditujukan pada pengembangan dan promosi praktek pertambakan yang lebih terjamin dilaksanakan, termasuk badan pemerintah, wakil industri, dan organsiasi lingkungan.Asia Tenggarabroodstockpenaeidfamili Penaeidae Pacific White ShrimpGiant Tiger Prawn monokultur penyakitekologiNGO 1990-an

56 56 PERIKANAN The project Poverty alleviation through improved aquatic resources management in Asia ( ) has been established to identify aquatic resource management issues impacting on the livelihoods of the poor; monitor and evaluate different management approaches; extend information; network within and between sectors and countries; and help with learning and communications to support agencies and institutions to (a) utilize existing and emerging information more effectively; (b) better understand poor people’s livelihoods; and (c) enable poor people to exert greater influence over policies and processes that impact on their lives. The project will contribute to enhancing the livelihoods of rural people through the improved management of aquatic resources.

57 57 PERIKANAN Covering one-quarter of the world’s land area, the Asia-Pacific region is home to about 15 percent of the world’s 3.8 billion hectares of forest. The green cover has to meet the diverse environmental, economic, cultural and social needs of more than half the world’s population who live in these countries. Asia’s forests provide food, fodder, fuelwood, timber and livelihoods to hundreds of millions of people. The forests also sustain one of the world’s richest storehouses of biodiversity. The forestry sector provides formal and informal employment for millions of people and continues to act as a food reserve in times of hardship. Forests play an important role in supporting agriculture in the mainly rural Asian nations by protecting watersheds and water quality. Furthermore forestry is a significant contributor to export earnings in many countries. In recent decades, many countries in Asia and the Pacific have realized the importance of forests and there is growing awareness of and commitment to sustainable forest management and public involvement in forest management decisions. This has resulted in a significant impact on forest conservation, and the problem of destructive logging practices is being addressed in several countries.

58 58 PERIKANAN The use of plantation forests to substitute for wood from natural forests is increasing with Asia-Pacific countries leading the world in forest plantation development. However, deforestation continues because of weak regulations and law enforcement, and continuing incentives for competing land uses; juxtaposed with forest degradation, wasteful use and sharp inequalities in the distribution of forest benefits, these are serious problems that require novel solutions and joint action by all those with an interest in forests. Forest crime and corruption are also serious threats to the region’s forests. Many countries in the region are now decentralizing forest management into the hands of local communities that are directly in touch with the forests. This fundamental shift from large-scale government forestry to small-scale, community- based forestry management - often called devolution - is proving increasingly to be an effective way of using forests sustainably and conserving biodiversity. A key concern is the sustainable use of wood and non-wood forest products. FAO gives high priority to the production, trade and marketing of these products to support livelihoods in the rural areas of Asia and the Pacific.

59 59 KEHUTANAN Many other factors come into play as we consider trees. Many other things will kill trees, animals like deer, goats, beavers, and diseases and insects and fire and weather events. The animals represent valuable resources themselves, and even if they are not directly valuable to us, they often are indirectly valuable in that they are vital parts of the ecosystem in which they live. For the ecosystem to sustain itself, we can´t use them faster than they replace themselves. Fortunately, trees will usually produce very large numbers of seeds, and if a seedling gets established and grows beyond the reach of browsing animals, it is not so vulnerable to being killed by them. Mature trees are also usually less vulnerable to wind and fire. Too many animals will prevent any seedlings from growing up, and the forest will soon have an uneven generational pattern: too many older trees, no seedlings or saplings. Yet if too few mature trees are killed, the forest floor may not get enough light to grow vegetation to support many browsing animals at all.

60 60 KEHUTANAN Very often, we can find a tree that is dying or dead from these other factors, and still get good use from it. This looks good, we might think to just be scavengers, but we want to remember, though, that other animals are also scavengers of dying and dead wood, and that they can be valuable to the overall health of the forest. Woodpeckers dig holes in dead trees, looking for insects burrowing in the wood, these holes can be nesting sites for birds that keep insects in check. Whatever we do needs to be considered, all activities need to be kept in balance. The tops of dead trees provide nesting sites, as well as perches for birds of prey. Trees tend to follow secessions, where one sort of tree grows best in a certain set of circumstances, and when it dies or is killed, the circumstances are changed and a different variety will do better.

61 61 KEHUTANAN How can we possibly keep track of all these factors? It isn´t impossible. We have needs, too, and we belong. Ideally, we can take our share of what grows, and we can watch for things that are getting out of balance and work to restore that balance. It is possible, in many woodland situations, that we might cut a whole section of trees in long paths each year. Each year, we cut away more trees on one edge of this long narrow clearing, and leave the other side alone. Grass will grow in this clearing, followed naturally by low growing bushes and trees, of which we encourage the fruit bearers. As we go farther in distance and time from each year´s cut, finally the forest trees are growing among the fruit trees, and get taller and more numerous as we get further away, and bearing nuts of various kinds, eventually shading out the shorter varieties. Our cutting goes like a long wave through the forest, on a 50 or 100 year or longer cycle. The cutting is easier for us than to cut selectively in a standing forest, this practice is very difficult, trees get hung up, it can be a very dangerous situation for us, and can do a lot of damage to surrounding trees that we don´t want to hurt. The long path gives us a way to move the wood, the grassland supports the grazing animals that can pull the wood. We have a rotation of many kinds of plants, bushes and trees, and support a large variety of animals.

62 62 KEHUTANAN Nature often does this, but usually in more haphazard fashion. A storm or fire takes out a section of trees, and you have a natural clearing for a few years. In countries that have elephants, these will kill big trees, and they create many openings in forest. Where elephants are in balance with the environment, there are often many islands of trees and bushes in a shifting mosaic with grass. People can take the place of elephants in more northern climates, and help to manage elephants, where they live. By cutting in lines like this, we should control fires more easily, each cut is a potential fire stop. While fire is a natural and needed force in many places, letting it rage out of control seldom seems like a good idea. Left alone, fire is it´s own control, burning frequently enough that fuel seldom builds up to high levels. We can let this happen, or we might also use fallen dead wood as fuel for our own needs. Where fire is needed to open seeds, we have to be aware of the need, and either let fires burn, or open seeds artificially and plant them.

63 63 KEHUTANAN Where steep hills are involved, the way we cut has to take into account possible erosion of soil, we don´t want paths running up and down, even if the location of the path is shifting every year, we need to be careful about this. Even in flat land, there may be good reasons to make our cuts in curves, and sometimes we might not want to cut a section of trees, want to give them more time to grow, and end the cut and start it again further on. A long straight cut can give the wind a place to get going fast, this might be an asset to work with, if done carefully. Simple windmills could cut wood, and sails might help move it, but it is also something to be wary of, since the wind can also be destructive, knocking down young growth, breaking off branches.

64 64 KEHUTANAN Dalam UU No.41/1999, hutan rakyat dimaksudkan sebagai hutan yang tumbuh di atas tanah yang dibebani hak milik. Hutan rakyat telah lama dikenal dan memberikan manfaat ganda kepada masyarakat luas, yaitu berupa manfaat jasa lingkungan, seperti pencegahan erosi dan banjir, meningkatkan kesuburan tanah, dan disamping itu juga dapat memberikan manfaat sosial ekonomi seperti dalam menciptakan kesempatan kerja dan meningkatkan pendapatan masyarakat melalui perdagangan kayu. Wilayah Kalimantan Selatan memiliki luas hutan rakyat sebesar Ha dengan perkiraan potensi m³. Sistem pengelolaan hutan rakyat yang coba dikembangkan di Kalimantan Selatan adalah dengan menanam salah satu jenis tanaman prospektif diantaranya Mahoni (Swietenia macrophylla King), Mahoni ditanam pada Desember tahun 2003, dengan jarak tanam 5 x 4 meter. Sistem penanaman dilakukan dengan tumpang sari dengan setiap tahun dibua pergiliran tanaman palawija.

65 65 KEHUTANAN With the land resources that we can use sustainably, we will get water resources, and the combination of land and water food resources gives us the population that can be sustained. Looking at this from more long term perspectives, we understand that the world changes dramatically at times, and we shouldn´t run our own population at the limits of food production, but maintain a factor of safety. This gives a cushion of resources, in case of climate change either warmer or colder, drier or wetter, and all that might go with this. So we have three principles here so far. 1) Use resources no faster than they renew. 2) Treat ecosystems as ecosystems, and don´t break them up. And, 3) maintain a factor of safety in population, below that of the maximum theoretical. What that factor of safety is, is something to talk about in the future. Right now, just getting people to talk about these things is challenge enough. One last principle of sustainable food production, though, is that if we don´t figure right, and maintain the best level of population, nature will figure it for us, and carry it out for us. Those who refuse to think logically about the matter, aren´t likely to make the best choices for sustaining their lives.

66 66 KEHUTANAN Improved management, sustainable development and productive use of forests and forest resources for food security and improved rural livelihoods have received considerable attention. In line with the FAO Strategic Plan for Forestry and guidance provided by the Asia- Pacific Forestry Commission (APFC), priority was attached to better forest management and harvesting; balancing wood supply and demand; reforming forestry institutions; strengthening national forest policies and institutions; and improving forestry statistics.

67 67 Sustainable Forest Management Paradigm SFM can be viewed as a system which aims to satisfy the needs of society for various forest goods and services through the application of forestry, environmental management, ecological, social, economic and business principles and methods in the wise utilization, renewal and development of forest resources without significant degradation of the inherent capacity of the forests to provide goods and services on an uninterrupted basis. As a paradigm or framework, sustainable forestry is closely link to or intertwined with environmental conservation and socioeconomic development. This relationship implies that sustainable forestry, environmental conservation, and socioeconomic development are mutually reinforcing elements of sustainable development

68 68 Shifting Paradigms in Forest Resources Management Conceptual Categories Assumptions Old ParadigmNew Paradigm 1. ForestsSpecialized shops producing one (timber) or few products Emporium of multiple products and diverse services 2. ForestersThe technical experts and forestry authority. Manage forests by themselves Technical experts and competent social practitioners Leaders in forest resources management Manage forests in partnership with others 3. Forest Resource Management - Publics - Problem - Goal - Objective - Strategy - Program - Administration Single or Limited Technical Productivity and Efficiency One or limited Simplify Specialized Rigid/hierarchical organizational structure Centralized power, authority and decision making Communication - one way Many or plural Technical and social Equitability and sustainability Multiple Diversify Integrated Open/flexible organizational structure Devolved power and authority; shared or participatory decision-making Communication - two way 4. Forestry DisciplineBiological and physical scienceBio-physical and social science

69 69 KEHUTANAN HUTAN TANAMAN INDUSTRI Investor hutan tanaman industri dan rakyat bakal memiliki pasar yang lebih luas untuk produknya. Pemerintah saat ini tengah menyusun surat keputusan bersama Departemen Kehutanan, Departemen Perdagangan, dan Departemen Perindustrian yang melonggarkan aturan ekspor kayu gergajian. Aturan ini akan member peluang lebih besar ekpor kayu gergajian be rbentuk bantalan rel kereta api (surface four sides/ S4S). Aturan ini memprioritaskan kayu dari HTI dan HTR. Namun kayu produksi hutan alam pun bisa juga diekspor apabila kebutuhan bahan baku industri domestik terpenuhi.

70 70 KEHUTANAN Hutan Produksi / Hutan Industri Hutan produksi yaitu adalah hutan yang dapat dikelola untuk men ghasilkan sesuatu yang bernilai ekonomi. Hutan produksi dapat dikategorikan menjadi dua golongan yakni hutan rimba dan hutan budidaya. Hutan rimba adalah hutan yang alami sedangkan hutan budidaya adalah hutan yang sengaja dikelola manusia yang biasanya terdiri dari satu jenis tanaman saja. Hutan rimba yang diusahakan manusia harus menebang pohon denga sistem tebang pilih dengan memilih pohon yang cukup umur dan ukuran saja agar yang masih kecil tidak ikut rusak.

71 71 KEHUTANAN Giants on our hands: Proceedings of the international workshop on the domesticated Asian elephant (RAP 2002/ 30) is the outcome of the first ever international workshop on domesticated elephants conducted by FAO-RAP. The workshop defined the situation of domesticated elephants; identified priority areas of work, especially on registration and laws; developed workplans for each identified priority area; and developed a networking mechanism. The publication should serve as a useful source of information and a good reference guide for elephant managers, specialists, NGOs and donors seeking opportunities to improve the management and utilization of Asian elephants. Under the National Forest Programme Facility, capacities were strengthened for implementing effective forest policies and programmes. The Facility established partnerships with China, Indonesia, Mongolia, the Philippines and Thailand. Practical guidelines for the assessment, monitoring and reporting on national level criteria and indicators for sustainable forest management in dry forests in Asia (RAP 2003/05) is a comprehensive instruction book on collecting and assembling national level information and reporting.

72 72 KEHUTANAN The guidelines provide tools or detailed information on (a) formulating aspects to be assessed for each individual indicator; (b) describing how to obtain, compile and process the relevant information; (c) identifying the means used for data collection; and (d) periodicity of measurement and measurements to be used. In addition, a format is provided for reporting on each individual assessment aspect and for monitoring the indicators using the information collected in two or more subsequent assessments.

73 73 KEHUTANAN Concerned with the severity of forestry problems, a number of countries in the region have implemented numerous forest rehabilitation projects to bring back the forests. While much knowledge and experience have been gained from these initiatives, they have not been widely publicized or adopted. There is an urgent need to bring this understanding to the natural resource managers and policy-makers so that appropriate action is taken and supporting policies are adopted. Bringing back the forests. Policies and practices for degraded lands and forests: Proceedings of the international conference (RAP 2003/ 14) is a collection of some of the most valuable papers that have been produced recently on the subject. Phase II of The Forestry Research Support Programme for Asia and the Pacific (FORSPA) concluded in FORSPA, established by FAO in 1991, was designed to assist research institutions in the Asia-Pacific Region to strengthen their science and technology capabilities in forestry research. Phase II was funded by the Netherlands’ government.

74 74 KEHUTANAN Departemen Kehutanan mengucurkan dana pendampingan kredit pengelolaan hutan tanaman rakyat (HTR) dan Hutan Tanaman Industri (HTI). Koperasi Madina berniat mengembangkan HTR di Sumatra Utara dan Koperasi Maluku Utara. PT Cipta Mas juga akan mengembangkan HTI di Provinsi Sumatra Selatan. Lembaga itu telah mengajukan kebutuhan dana sebesar Rp 7,2 miliar untuk membiayai sebagian lahan mereka, yang totalnya seluas hektare. Sedang Dilakukan verifikasi kelayakan usahanya

75 75 KEHUTANAN Forest resources in Mongolia are scarce and increasingly susceptible to insect pest infestations. It is estimated that if no immediate action is taken the country will lose around 30 percent of its forest resources within the next decade. The objectives of Emergency measures for control of Siberian caterpillar and other major forest pests ( ) are : (a)to reduce the pest population to an economically acceptable level by providing some of the necessary spray equipment and a limited amount of biological pesticide sufficient to spray the most heavily infested, high value forest and to cover the hire of fixed-wing planes for spray operations; and (b)to strengthen the national capacity to contain future pest outbreaks through in- country training on IPM and pesticide application. It is expected that the pest population will be reduced substantially and national capacities to control future pest outbreaks will be strengthened.

76 76 HUTAN TANAMAN PINUS Taman Hutan Pinus letaknya sekitar sekitar 35 km dari Kota Banjarmasin. Rekreasi di bawah Hutan Pinus yang rindang, sehingga sangat baik duduk di bawah pohon sambil menikmati hidangan yang telah disiapkan. Taman Hutan Pinus merupakan penghijauan kota dan kebun pembinaan.

77 77 KEHUTANAN Strengthening the institutional capacity of the Samoa Forestry Division (SFD) to effectively plan and manage forest resources. The objective of this project is to improve the institutional capacity of the SFD to plan and manage the country’s forest resources on a sustainable basis effectively. The development of an appropriate forestry information system is foreseen for SFD staff. Special emphasis will be given to monitoring aspects and to the application of tools to improve forest planning and decision-making processes. The capacity to assess and update information on the country’s forest resources to ensure its sustainable management will be strengthened. FAO and partner organizations convened a workshop and study on assisted natural regeneration (ANR) in the Philippines in April 2002 to highlight the potential and opportunities of ANR as a restoration strategy. The workshop underscored the importance of ANR in the broader context of SFM and the potential for cost-effective rehabilitation of forestlands through more aggressive implementation of ANR. Advancing assisted natural regeneration (ANR) in Asia and the Pacific (RAP 2003/19) includes selected papers dealing with the technical, environmental and social dimensions of ANR, as well as papers describing country initiatives.

78 78 AGROFORESTRY Agroforestry refers to combinations of trees, crops and livestock that are intentionally designed and managed as a whole production unit. Crop production can be optimized when crops are combined with trees and shrubs. The benefits include increased crop yields, improved soil and water quality, increased biodiversity, as well as lower greenhouse gas emissions and increased carbon sequestration. In addition, alternate crop uses related to trees and shrubs, including bio-energy, fruits, nuts, horticulture nursery stock, wood fibre and livestock shelter, could diversify farms and enhance their profitability. ions/Agr...

79 79 HUTAN RAKYAT adalah hutan-hutan yang dibangun dan dikelola oleh rakyat, kebanyakan berada di atas tanah milik atau tanah adat; meskipun ada pula yang berada di atas tanah negara atau kawasan hutan negara. Secara teknik, rakyat ini pada umumnya berbentuk wanatani; yakni campuran antara pohon- pohonan dengan jenis-jenis tanaman bukan pohon. Baik berupa wanatani sederhana, ataupun wanatani kompleks (agroforest) yang sangat mirip strukturnya dengan hutan alam.

80 80 AGROFORESTRY Hutan rakyat zaman sekarang telah banyak yang dikelola dengan orientasi komersial, untuk memenuhi kebutuhan pasar komoditas hasil hutan. Tidak seperti pada masa lampau, utamanya sebelum tahun 1980an, di mana kebanyakan hutan rakyat berorientasi subsisten, untuk memenuhi kebutuhan rumahtangga petani sendiri.

81 81 AGROFORESTRY Hutan milik, yakni hutan rakyat yang dibangun di atas tanah-tanah milik. Ini adalah model hutan rakyat yang paling umum, terutama di Pulau Jawa. Luasnya bervariasi, mulai dari seperempat hektare atau kurang, sampai sedemikian luas sehingga bisa menutupi seluruh desa dan bahkan melebihinya.

82 82 HUTAN JATI Hutan jati adalah sejenis hutan yang dominan ditumbuhi oleh pohon jati (Tectona grandis). Di Indonesia, hutan jati terutama didapati di Jawa. Akan tetapi kini juga telah menyebar ke berbagai daerah seperti di pulau-pulau Muna, Sumbawa, Flores dan lain-lain. hutanpohonJawaMunaSumbawa Flores Hutan jati merupakan hutan yang tertua pengelolaannya di Jawa dan juga di Indonesia, dan salah satu jenis hutan yang terbaik pengelolaannya.

83 83 In collaboration with partner organizations, FAO organized international conferences on community forestry and community-based forest fire management. Pro-poor approaches to forest management for food security and poverty alleviation were promoted through support to the model forest approach and community forestry. A series of seminars on managing forests to help alleviate poverty were organized in China, India and Republic of Korea.

84 84 Agricultural support systems Deregulation, liberalization and globalization of trade in agricultural products under the new World Trade Organization (WTO) regulations have a considerable impact on domestic agricultural producers in the region. Small farmers need support not only to be more productive, but also to make their produce more marketable in order to enhance their incomes. In the present era of globalization there is a critical need to strengthen the capabilities of small farmers to move from subsistence production to agricultural enterprises. Commercializing small farmers is a very complex process involving the cultural and psychological settings of the farmers themselves as well as the economic and market-oriented performance of the agricultural sector through increased efficiency of the farms and the private and public providers of related support services.

85 85 Agricultural support systems To effectively build the capacity of small resource-poor farmers to adopt market- oriented farm production generally will require some form of group action for the identification of appropriate commercial enterprise activities; relevant business management principles and practices; methods to add value and market agricultural products; and access services such as rural and microfinance. To accomplish this aim, FAO-RAP promotes market-oriented farm production and support to small farmers. It also works with the private sector to provide agricultural inputs to rural areas, and to develop efficient marketing chains for diverse agricultural products to meet both rural and urban needs.

86 86 Agricultural support systems Farmers in the region also need assistance to reduce heavy postproduction losses and add value to their produce. FAO is assisting Asia-Pacific countries to develop postproduction loss prevention programmes and agro-processing technologies, especially for cereals and horticultural crops. The aim is to enhance rural employment and incomes through the development of agro-industries, value-added products and the full utilization of raw materials. FAO helps to enhance rural employment and income opportunities both on and off farm; promotes a diversified and integrated market-oriented farming system approach for sustainable development; and enhances the managerial capacities of the smallholders in support of commercial agriculture through improved agricultural extension strategies.

87 87 Agricultural support systems Rural and microfinance are increasingly important tools of rural and agricultural development in Asia and the Pacific. FAO promotes viable rural banking, savings and agricultural credit schemes as tools to alleviate poverty. However, lack of proper administration, recording and accounting systems to process the huge number of transactions associated with this type of finance, is a common problem.

88 88 SISTEM PENUNJANG PERTANIAN The main thrust has been on rural finance juxtaposed with the increasing need for microfinance; the development of legal and regulatory procedures for national microfinance institutions; the development and upgrading of market information services; market-oriented production for small farmers’ households; the integration of rural areas in national and global markets; the judicious use of mechanization in agriculture; postharvest management; and value added through agroprocessing. In collaboration with GTZ, FAO Bangkok acts as the global development and support centre for the MicroBanking system, currently in use in more than offices worldwide. The MicroBanking System (MicroBanker) is a retail banking software product designed and developed by FAO for small- to medium-sized financial institutions. It is a unique software system that combines high performance features - real time transaction processing and integrated operation - and low cost computer hardware requirements.

89 89 SISTEM PENUNJANG PERTANIAN The MicroBanker is an integrated package consisting of the following modules: Loans, Savings Accounts, Current Accounts, Shares Accounts (for credit unions and cooperatives), Time Deposits, Customer Information and General Ledger. The new Windows-based version, called MBWin, is the system of choice for many rural finance and microfinance institutions. The IMFTL engages in group-based microfinance, employing Grameen technologies and also provides microfinance services to individuals. During the project, three branches were opened, more than 29 staff were trained, branch procedures, savings and loan products were designed and manuals prepared. The IMFTL mobilized more than one million US dollars in savings within 15 months.

90 90 SISTEM PENUNJANG PERTANIAN FAO maintains close collaboration with development partners dealing with rural and microfinance such as the Asia-Pacific Rural and Agricultural Credit Association (APRACA), the Association of Food and Agricultural Marketing Agencies in Asia and the Pacific (AFMA) and ESCAP. A project entitled Capacity building in farm management, marketing and agribusiness for young farmer groups is underway in Tonga. The objective of the project is to assist the ministry’s extension programme and the Future farmer project in the capacity building of young farmers’ groups and to enhance the recognition of the important role young farmers have for the future development of the agricultural sector. A wide range of training courses for extension workers and young farmers is being conducted and appropriate training material is being produced and made available. A national marketing and distribution network will be strengthened by relevant training on market data storage and analysis as well as by the supply of computer equipment. It is expected that extension staff, participating Peace Corps Volunteers and selected members of young farmers’ groups will apply relevant farm management tools for farm business analysis and will have improved knowledge and skills for the marketing of fresh products.

91 91 SISTEM PENUNJANG PERTANIAN To overcome land shortages in Nepal, the most appropriate way to increase feed production seems to be planting of winter fodder, e.g. fodder oats, in irrigated areas after the paddy rice harvest. The objective of the project Capacity building for fodder oat technologies ( ) is to build up the necessary technical capacity of technicians, extension staff and farmers in fodder oats’ (and accompanying forage legumes) technology to identify better multi-cut oat cultivars; to prepare and demonstrate fodder oat management packages, including haymaking, on farmers’ fields; and to assure seed supply through local production. indonesia/index.p...

92 92 SISTEM PENUNJANG PERTANIAN Rising agricultural production since the 1980s has not only increased the cropping area and crop yield in Jiangsu Province, China, but also the volume of crop straw, mainly wheat and paddy rice straw. Due to a shift in rural energy structure, an increasing amount of straw residues is not utilized anymore but burnt in the fields or discarded to rivers and roadsides. The objective of the project Promotion of advanced straw utilization technologies in Jiangsu province ( ) is to introduce, demonstrate and extend advanced on- farm technologies for efficient straw utilization such as conservation agriculture, recycling-straw-to-soil, feeding-straw-to-livestock and growing mushrooms on straw medium. Technical training for village-level technicians and farmers is being conducted to enable them to adopt key techniques and to increase their awareness of the harmful effects of the improper treatment of surplus straw. Appropriate straw utilization techniques will contribute to increasing crop production and farmers’ incomes while at the same time reducing straw surpluses.

93 93 In 2003, Empowering vulnerable groups through training on village level food processing assisted Cambodia in the social and economic integration of vulnerable groups of women, disabled persons, demobilized soldiers and their families into rural community life, through the improvement of their micro- enterprise management and marketing skills as well as the provision of vocational training and job opportunities. This has led to enhanced employment generation and income of vulnerable groups by processing and adding value to agricultural crops.

94 94 SISTEM PENUNJANG PERTANIAN Despite unprecedented rates of economic growth, food insecurity remains a major challenge for many countries in Asia-Pacific. Although the output of food grains and other agricultural commodities in many of these predominantly agricultural countries has recorded impressive gains, the incomes of small and marginal farmers have failed to improve to desired levels. Rural poverty and food insecurity at the household level remain pronounced, despite pervasive government interventions in agricultural markets. Apart from internal challenges, the countries of the region also face challenges posed by rapid changes in the international trade and economic environment. FAO brought together a mini roundtable meeting to seek the views of member countries and to establish priorities for its programme of work in agricultural marketing for the next few years. Participating countries were China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Nepal, the Philippines and Thailand. AFMA also participated. Proceedings of the mini roundtable meeting on agricultural marketing and food security (RAP 2003/02) outlines the outcome of the two-day roundtable meeting, including the main conclusions and recommendations that emerged.

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96 96 Food Production, Public Health, and the Environment Ketahanan pangan adalah suatu kondisi dimana setiap individu dan rumahtangga memiliki akses secara fisik, ekonomi, dan ketersediaan pangan yang cukup, aman, serta bergizi untuk memenuhi kebutuhan sesuai dengan seleranya bagi kehidupan yang aktif dan sehat. Selain itu aspek pemenuhan kebutuhan pangan penduduk secara merata dengan harga yang terjangakau oleh masyarakat juga tidak boleh dilupakan.

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