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CROP PRODUCTIVITY INDEX CPI SOIL ROOT SHOOT CROP YIELD.

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Presentation on theme: "CROP PRODUCTIVITY INDEX CPI SOIL ROOT SHOOT CROP YIELD."— Presentation transcript:

1 CROP PRODUCTIVITY INDEX CPI SOIL ROOT SHOOT CROP YIELD

2 ABOVE AND BELOWGROUND ORGANIC MATTER AND ROOT:SHOOT RATIO IN A CERRADO IN CENTRAL BRAZIL. Guilherme C. Abdala 1, Linda S. Caldas 2, M. Haridasan 1 & George Eiten 2 Brazilian Journal of Ecology, Rio Claro, SP, Brazil, Vol.02 Number 01, 1998 Sumber:http://www.seb-ecologia.org.br/revista2/art2.html. Kedalaman tanah mempengaruhi pertumbuhan akar Total biomasa akar (variable tergantung) sebagai fungsi dari kedalaman tanah (variable bebas) yg diukur dalam blok- blok tanah.

3 ABOVE AND BELOWGROUND ORGANIC MATTER AND ROOT:SHOOT RATIO IN A CERRADO IN CENTRAL BRAZIL. Guilherme C. Abdala 1, Linda S. Caldas 2, M. Haridasan 1 & George Eiten 2 Brazilian Journal of Ecology, Rio Claro, SP, Brazil, Vol.02 Number 01, 1998 Sumber:http://www.seb-ecologia.org.br/revista2/art2.html. Distribusi akar menurut diameternya merupakan fungsi dari kedalaman akar pada lapisan tanah 100 cm dari permukaan. Very fine = material collected by washing/floating sieved soil samples; fine = diameter < 2 mm; medium = diameter 2-10 mm; thick = diameter > 10 mm.

4 ABOVE AND BELOWGROUND ORGANIC MATTER AND ROOT:SHOOT RATIO IN A CERRADO IN CENTRAL BRAZIL. Guilherme C. Abdala 1, Linda S. Caldas 2, M. Haridasan 1 & George Eiten 2 Brazilian Journal of Ecology, Rio Claro, SP, Brazil, Vol.02 Number 01, 1998 Sumber:http://www.seb-ecologia.org.br/revista2/art2.html. Percentage of total root biomass in each diameter class as a function of depth from the surface to 100cm, measured in soil blocks. Very fine = material collected by washing/floating sieved soil samples; fine = diameter 10mm.

5 ABOVE AND BELOWGROUND ORGANIC MATTER AND ROOT:SHOOT RATIO IN A CERRADO IN CENTRAL BRAZIL. Guilherme C. Abdala 1, Linda S. Caldas 2, M. Haridasan 1 & George Eiten 2 Brazilian Journal of Ecology, Rio Claro, SP, Brazil, Vol.02 Number 01, 1998 Sumber:http://www.seb-ecologia.org.br/revista2/art2.html. Stocks of biomass in different compartments of the cerrado sense strict. Aboveground biomass includes standing dead. Root diameter classes are as follows: Very fine = material collected by washing/floating sieved soil samples; Fine = diameter < 2 mm; medium = diameter 2-10 mm; Thick = diameter > 10 mm. Rhizomes of grasses were included in the class of medium size roots. Humus refers to soil organic matter.

6 . Woody Versus Herbaceous Plants Sumber: Representation of herbaceous (shallow, fibrous root system) and woody (deeper, coarse root system) plants. Taken from Walter (1985).

7 Control of Shoot-root Balance in Trees Kim D. Coder. Professor, Silvics/Ecology. Warnell School of Forest Resources. The University of Georgia January Sumber: A critical feature of tree growth regulation involves functionally balancing the top of the tree with the bottom. Concepts of shoot / root ratios and how a tree can maintain a resource balance between apparently competing needs have been proposed and tested for accuracy. Of all the working models examined, one form has proven over the last two decades to serve in describing regulatory partitioning between shoot and root. The type of model proven to be most effective is called a ``Thornley" model, although many derivations and more refined systems exist. The result is a means of understanding tree functions in a holistic sense and predicting resource allocation patterns between shoot and root. Generically, shoot size and function is equated with root size and function.

8 Control of Shoot-root Balance in Trees Kim D. Coder. Professor, Silvics/Ecology. Warnell School of Forest Resources. The University of Georgia January Sumber: Estimating Balance To calculate the proportional change patterns seen in trees, or their ``functional balance," only four components are required: sapwood shoot mass, sapwood root mass, photosynthesis rate, and nitrogen uptake rate. Trees will attempt to balance shoot mass and Ps rates against root mass and nitrogen uptake. A tree will adjust the mass of roots or shoots to correct any deficiency in photosynthesis rates or nitrogen uptake. Carbohydrate shortages will initiate more shoots and nitrogen shortages will initiate more roots. Note that the photosynthesis rate and nitrogen uptake rates are highly susceptible to both external and internal environmental changes.

9 Recurrent Selection for Seedling Vigor in Kura Clover L. R. DeHaan, N. J. Ehlke * and C. C. Sheaffer Crop Science doi: /cropsci xVol. 41 No. 4, p July, 2001 Sumber: https://www.crops.org/publications/cs/abstracts/41/4/1034?access=0&view=article Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengkaji hubungan antara root/shoot ratio dengan pertumbuhan kecambah. Karakter ini akan digunakan sebagai kriteria seleksi tanaman.

10 Influence of integrated soil nutrient management on cowpea root growth in the semi-arid Eastern Kenya Kimiti, Jacinta M. African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 6(13), pp , 4 July, 2011 Available online at Sumber: Shoot/Root Ratio Biomasa akar pada saat 50% berbunga berkorelasi positif significantl (p < 0.05) dengan biomassa shoot pd saat 50% berbunga, di lokasi Kavuthu (R 2 = ) dan Ndunguni (R 2 = ) selama musim hujan yg panjang.

11 . Effects of catch crop type and root depth on nitrogen leaching and yield of spring barley Tek Bahadur Sapkota aTek Bahadur Sapkota a, b,,,, Margrethe Askegaard a, Mette Lægdsmand a, Jørgen E. OlesenbMargrethe Askegaard aMette Lægdsmand aJørgen E. Olesen Field Crops Research Volume 125Volume 125, 18 January 2012, Pages 129–138 Sumber: Measured (triangle) and simulated (circle) root frequency of three catch crops in September (filled symbols) and October (open symbols). Measured root frequency values are average of two replication, two systems, two years and two locations and simulated root frequency values are average of two systems, two years and two locations.

12 Sumber: Root intensity distribution at the end of the growing season of vegetables, cereals and fertility building crops in the rotation from the O2 system (open symbols) and the C system (closed symbols). Solid lines show main crops, dashed lines with diamond symbols show fertility building crops; fodder radish or green manure (GM). Crop yield, root growth, and nutrient dynamics in a conventional and three organic cropping systems with different levels of external inputs and N re-cycling through fertility building crops Kristian Thorup-Kristensen Kristian Thorup-Kristensen,, Dorte Bodin Dresbøll 1, Hanne L. KristensenDorte Bodin Dresbøll 1Hanne L. Kristensen European Journal of AgronomyEuropean Journal of Agronomy. Volume 37, Issue 1, February 2012, Pages 66–82Volume 37, Issue 1

13 Sumber: moisture/effects-of-moisture. Sistem akar tanaman Canola (Cyclone), Wheat (Katepwa) dan Field Pea (Grande) at Swift Current, SK in 1998 Canola and field peas are dicots and have a tap root system, while wheat is a monocot with a fibrous root system

14 Sumber: Maize root number in Exp. 1 (left) and 2 (right) under high (HC), medium (MC) and no compaction treatments following no cover crop (NCC), rye, forage radish (FR) and rapeseed cover crop treatments in Values within the same depth followed by the same letter(s) are not significantly different (F- protected LSD, P < 0.05).. Root growth and yield of maize as affected by soil compaction and cover crops Guihua Chen, Ray R. Weil. Soil and Tillage Research. Volume 117, December 2011, Pages 17–27Volume 117

15 SHOOT-ROOT RELATIONSHIPS. Sumber: Kesetimbangan Fungsional The shoot fixes C0 2 from the air, and the root extracts mineral nutrients and water from the soil. In this sense, there is a balance of shoot and root functions in a plant. After defoliation or root pruning, the plant acts so as to restore the balance of root and shoot functions.

16 SHOOT-ROOT RELATIONSHIPS. Sumber: Source-Sink Relations Growth of non-photosynthesizing organs (sinks) is controlled by transport of sugars from photosynthesizing organs (sources) via the phloem. Sugars (mainly sucrose) are released from cells into the leaf apoplast (outside of the cell membranes) and move towards the conducting system (veins). Sucrose is actively loaded into phloem tissue and flows to sink sites under a pressure gradient. At the sink site, sucrose is unloaded from the phloem and used in growth processes or stored. (Marschner 5.1 p. 131, and 5.4 pp ) During vegetative growth photosynthesis is often sink limited, while in the reproductive stages source-limitation usually becomes more important.

17 SHOOT-ROOT RELATIONSHIPS. Sumber: There is a characteristic shoot:root ratio for each species at each growth stage. Shoot:root ratios tend to increase with plant size (decrease for root crops), reflecting increasingly preferential assimilate partitioning above ground (below ground for root crops). Thus, shoot:root ratio comparisons should be made at equal dry weight, or at equal plant developmental stage, not at equal time. Shoot:root ratios are influenced by changes in environmental conditions, such as light, nutrient availability, temperature and water supply. These changes usually reflect an adaptive advantage for the plant in acquiring the limiting resource.

18 SHOOT-ROOT RELATIONSHIPS. Sumber: What factors affect root-shoot ratios ? The ratio of shoot to root growth varies widely between species, changes between phases in plant development, and can be modified by external conditions. Shoot and root growth of maize grown in hydroponics in the field (Miller et al, Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 69,

19 SHOOT-ROOT RELATIONSHIPS. Sumber: Kalau akar atau batangnya dipangkas, tanaman akan tumbuh kembali dnegan root/shoot ratio yang khas.

20 SHOOT-ROOT RELATIONSHIPS. Sumber: If external conditions change, shoot-root ratio will be affected. e.g.. There is a decline in the ratio in maize plants grown in the absence of P Effect of P nutrition on shoot- root ratio (Anghinoni and Barber, 1980, Agronomy Journal, 72, ). The 12 day old plants were transferred to a P deficient solution. The shoot P concentration declined from 0.95% on day 1 to 0.27% on day 6.

21 SHOOT-ROOT RELATIONSHIPS. Sumber: Root-shoot ratio meningkat kalau air diambil dari zone perakarannya (Sharp and Davies, 1979).

22 SHOOT-ROOT RELATIONSHIPS. Sumber: This is not due to effects on carbon fixation as impacts on shoot growth take place at water potentials that are too high to restrict photosynthesis (Boyer, 1970). Pada kondisi cekaman air ternyata proses fotosintesis dan pertumbuhan daun kedelai mengalami hambatan.

23 SHOOT-ROOT RELATIONSHIPS. Sumber: Efek faktor eksternal terhadap rasio akar/daun. Pada kondisi tanah kekurangan hara dan air, pertumbuhan akar relatif lebih dominan terhadap daun. Pada kondisi intensitas radiasi yang rendah, pertumbuhan daun relatif lebih dominan daripada akar

24 . Braz. J. Microbiol. vol.32 no.3 São Paulo Aug./Oct WATER STRESS RESPONSE ON THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN COWPEA NODULES Márcia do Vale B. Figueiredo 1* ; Egídio Bezerra-Neto 2 ; Hélio A. Burity* Sumber: Rasio Shoot/root menurun dari 2.61 menjadi 2.14 kalau perlakuan potensial matriksnya <-85.0 dan KPa. There was a reduction in the glutamine synthetase activity and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxilase activity with increased stress, while glutamine synthase activity was the enzyme most sensitive to water stress. Aktivitas enzim Glutamate dehydrogenase meningkat dalam potensial matriks yg lebih negatif, ini menyatakan bahwa enzim ini cukup aktif pada kondisi stress air.

25 . Braz. J. Microbiol. vol.32 no.3 São Paulo Aug./Oct WATER STRESS RESPONSE ON THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN COWPEA NODULES Márcia do Vale B. Figueiredo 1* ; Egídio Bezerra-Neto 2 ; Hélio A. Burity* Sumber: The sensitivity of cowpea nodules under water deficit conditions inclosed with the plant development and with the Y w. Reduksi shoot/root akibat cekaman lengas-tanah, sesuai dnegan hasil penelitian Costa et al. (3). Costa, M.M.M.N.; Távora, F.J.A.F.; Pinho, J.L.N. de; Melo, F.I.O. Produção, componentes de produção, crescimento e distribuição das raízes de caupi submetido à deficiência hídrica. Pesq. Agrop. Bras., 32:43-50, 1997.

26 . Braz. J. Microbiol. vol.32 no.3 São Paulo Aug./Oct WATER STRESS RESPONSE ON THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY IN COWPEA NODULES Márcia do Vale B. Figueiredo 1* ; Egídio Bezerra-Neto 2 ; Hélio A. Burity* Sumber: It was verified that the shoot dry matter (Fig.4) plants at the most negative Y m (S 3 ) was more affected in E 2 stage: Tanaman yg mengalami stress pada periode E2 menunjukkan reduksi luas- daunnya, seperti halnya akumulasi bahan keringnya. Cekaman lengas (air) tanah mengakibatkan reduksi shoot/root rasio, sesuai dengan hasil penelitian Costa et al., (3).


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