Presentation on theme: "PIAGET’S Cognitive-Stage Theory. Biographical Sketch Jean Piaget, lahir di Neuchatel, Switzerland thn. 1896 Minat di masa remaja (10 th): mechanics, seashells,"— Presentation transcript:
Biographical Sketch Jean Piaget, lahir di Neuchatel, Switzerland thn. 1896 Minat di masa remaja (10 th): mechanics, seashells, birds, & fossils
Konflik di masa remaja : agama vs. Scientific teaching ……. > baca buku2 Bergson,, Kant, Spencer, Durkheim dll……> menulis di bid. filsafat
Ph.D. di bid moluska (kerang), usia 21 th. Bekerja dgn Theodore Simon dlm Binet’s Laboratory …. Mulai tertarik dgn How children think. Terbit lima buku: The Language and Thought of the Child (27 th),Judgement and Reasoning in the Child (28 th), The Child’s Conception of the World (30 th), the Child’s Conception of the Physical Causality (31 th), Moral Judgement of the Child (32 th).
Dikenal sebagai child psychologist tanpa pendidikan formal. Mulai mengobservasi anaknya …… sample utama dari teorinya.
Genetic Epistemology GE adalah cabang dari filsafat yg mempelajari knowledge “…the problem of the relation between the acting or thinking subjects and objects of his experience” “…the problem of the relation between the acting or thinking subjects and objects of his experience” Genetic refers not to what is innate, …, but to the “development” or “emergence”
Piaget: How do we come to know something? Is objective knowledge unbiased by the nature of the knower, even possible? Are there certain innate ideas, or must all knowledge be acquired? Cara: By studying developmental changes in the process of knowing and in the organization of knowledge. Pendekatan: perkawinan antara filsafat & scientific method of logic and fact. Menolak armchair approach (filsafat) …. Dikenal experimental epistemologist
TEMUAN … knowledge is a process rather than a state. It is an event or a relationship between the knower and the known. … people construct knowledge. They have an active part in the process of knowing and even contribute to the form that knowledge takes place. Cognitive humans actively select and interpret information in the environment. They do not passively soak up information to build a storehouse of knowledge. Cognitive humans actively select and interpret information in the environment. They do not passively soak up information to build a storehouse of knowledge. Children’s knowledge of the world changes as their cognitive system develops. As the knower changes, so does the known.
Perkembangan dari satu tahap ke tahap lain di tentukan oleh kognitif proses yaitu: Asimilasi & Akomodasi Adaptasi (adaptation) Asimillasi (assimilation) “ … the way in which a child transforms new information so that it makes sense within their existing knowledge base. That is, a child tries to understand new knowledge in terms of their existing knowledge.” Akomodasi (accomodation) “ … a child changes his or her cognitive structure in an attempt to understand new information. E.g. the child learns to grasp a new object in a different way, or learns that the new object should not be sucked. In that way, the child has adapted his or her way of thinking to a new experience.”
Apa yang berubah? SCHEMA “an organized pattern of behavior, it reflects a particular way of interacting with environment” JADI: Proses kognitif asimilasi & akomodasi menyebabkan terjadinya proses perkembangan ADAPTASI EQUILIBIUM
Tahapan (stages) Sensorimotor Period (birth to 2 years) Sensorimotor Period (birth to 2 years) “… a child's cognitive system is limited to motor reflexes at birth, but the child builds on these reflexes to develop more sophisticated procedures. They learn to generalize their activities to a wider range of situations and coordinate them into increasingly lengthy chains of behavior.” Pre-Operational Thought (2 to 6/7 years) “ … children acquire representational skills in the areas mental imagery, and especially language. They are very self-oriented, and have an egocentric view; that is, preoperational children can use these representational skills only to view the world from their own perspective” “ … children acquire representational skills in the areas mental imagery, and especially language. They are very self-oriented, and have an egocentric view; that is, preoperational children can use these representational skills only to view the world from their own perspective”
Concrete Operations (6/7 to 11/12 years) “ … children in the concrete operations stage are able to take another's point of view and take into account more than one perspective simultaneously. They can also represent transformations as well as static situations. Although they can understand concrete problems, Piaget would argue that they cannot yet perform on abstract problems, and that they do not consider all of the logically possible outcomes.” Formal Operations (11/12 to adult) “Children who attain the formal operation stage are capable of thinking logically and abstractly. They can also reason theoretically. Piaget considered this the ultimate stage of development, and stated that although the children would still have to revise their knowledge base, their way of thinking was as powerful as it would get.”
Karakteristik Tahapan A stage is a structured whole in a state of equilibrium Each stage derives from the previous stage, incorporates and transforms that stage, and prepare for the next one. The stages follow an invariant sequence Stages are universal Each stage includes a coming-into-being and a being