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FIRE & EXPLOSION RISK ASSESSMENT Roslinormansyah EHS Manager PT. Alstom Power ESI.

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Presentation on theme: "FIRE & EXPLOSION RISK ASSESSMENT Roslinormansyah EHS Manager PT. Alstom Power ESI."— Presentation transcript:

1 FIRE & EXPLOSION RISK ASSESSMENT Roslinormansyah EHS Manager PT. Alstom Power ESI

2 Outline of Lecture 1.Understanding Fire and Explosion 3.Selection safeguard for Fire and Explosion’ s Risk Control 2.Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazard

3 Understanding Fire and Explosion

4 History of Fire and Explosion Incident Carbide Industries, Fire & Explosion March, 2011

5 Understanding Fire and Explosion History of Fire and Explosion Incident Kleen Energy, Explosion June, 2009

6 Understanding Fire and Explosion Definition 1.Fire : A slow combustion that significant without overpressure 2.Explosion : A release of energy that causes a blast 3.Flammability Limit : The minimum (lower,LFL) and maximum concentration of combustible vapor in air that will propagate a flame (source : Guidelines CPQRA, AIChE, 2000)

7 Understanding Fire and Explosion Basic Philosophy

8 Understanding Fire and Explosion Philosophy of FERA Flammability Limits range Objective of FERA

9 Understanding Fire and Explosion Flammability Limits (FL) = ƒ (suhu, tekanan, inert gas) Flammability Limits (FL)

10 Understanding Fire and Explosion Combusation = ƒ (FL, Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE), Surface Area) Philosophy of Combustion

11 Understanding Fire and Explosion Fire occurance step 1.Jet Fire 2.Flash Fire 3.Pool Fire 4.Fireball

12 Understanding Fire and Explosion Explosion occurance step Explosion Physical Explosion Chemical Explosion 1.Overpressure 2.BLEVE - Fireball 3.RPT 4.UVCE/CVE 1.Runway reaction

13 Understanding Fire and Explosion Physical Properties Key Factor of Flammable 1.Boiling Point 2.Vapor Pressure 3.Flash Point 4.Autoignition 5.Enthalphy of Combustion (ΔHc) 6.MIE 7.Density 8.Conductivity of material 9.Size of material

14 Understanding Fire and Explosion Environmental Properties Key Factor of Fire /Explosion 1.Operational Parameter (Pressure, Flowrate, Temp, etc) 2.Lay-out of unit process/equipment 3.Installation (congested, confined, etc) 4.Source of heat (open fire, conductive heat, static electric, etc) 5.Meteorogical condition (Wind speed, direction, etc) 6.Leakage dimension (bore, rupture, hole, etc)

15 Understanding Fire and Explosion Impact of Fire & Explosion 1.Breakage the molecular bond 2.Heat Flux / Heat Radition 3.Poisonous Gas 4.Blast Wave/Shock Wave 5.Debris trajectory/projectile

16 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazard

17 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Overall Risk Assessment Process

18 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Detail Risk Assessment Process

19 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Step 1 – Describe system and identify hazards Scenario Development Screening Method Credible Scenario Potential Accident Scenario

20 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Step 1 – Describe system and identify hazards Scenario Development – Merupakan “critical step” dalam FERA -Key word : Loss of Containment -Tool yang umum dipergunakan  What-If  HAZOPs  FMEA  Incident Analysis  Tie-Bow Analysis

21 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Step 1 – Describe system and identify hazards Screening Method – Mencari scenario yang memiliki tingkat “rangking/index” yang besar -Umumnya berbagai scenario tersebut dibandingkan -Metode yang umumnya dipergunakan :  Kualitatif : Risk Rating, Expert Adviser  Semi-kuantitatif : TNO-Purple Book Method, DFEI, DCEI AHP (expert judgement), SWeHI, MaxCred Method

22 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Step 1 – Describe system and identify hazards Credible Scenario  Merupakan scenario yang akan dianalisis lebih lanjut tingkat “consequences” dan “probability”-nya  Merupakan model yang memiliki tingkat “kemiripan” yang tinggi bila terjadi accident  Tidak menggambarkan secara keseluruhan (each system has particular credible scenario)

23 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Step 2 – Determination of frequency and consequences Frequency  Menggambarkan tingkat “failure” setiap peralatan yang terlibat dalam Credible Scenario  Memiliki satuan (……../waktu)

24 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Step 2 – Determination of frequency and consequences Frequency Fault Tree Analysis

25 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Frequency Event Tree Analysis

26 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Frequency

27 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Consequences

28 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Consequences

29 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Consequences Impact Calculation of Explosion TNT Method TNO Method BST Method

30 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Consequences Impact Calculation of Explosion TNT Method

31 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Consequences Impact Calculation of Explosion TNO Method

32 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Consequences Impact Calculation of Explosion BST Method

33 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Consequences Impact Calculation of Fire Fire Ball Effect Pool Fire Effect Jet Fire Effect

34 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Consequences Impact Calculation of Fire Fire Ball Effect

35 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Consequences Impact Calculation of Fire Pool Fire Effect

36 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Consequences Impact Calculation of Fire Jet Fire Effect

37 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Estimating the Risk Analysis Explosion Frequency

38 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Estimating the Risk Analysis Fire Ball Frequency

39 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Estimating the Risk Analysis Pool Fire Frequency

40 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Estimating the Risk Analysis Individual Risk Calculation

41 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Estimating the Risk Analysis Societal Risk Calculation

42 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Risk Criteria

43 Framework of Risk Assessment on Fire and Explosion Hazards Fire and Explosion Risk Assessment Result

44 Selection safeguard for Fire and Explosion’ s Risk Control

45 Startegy Prevention and Mitigation Prevention Barrier Mitigation Barrier

46 Selection safeguard for Fire and Explosion’ s Risk Control Prevention Barrier 1.Inherently Safe Practice Principles  Minimize: Reducing the amount of hazardous material present at any one time  Substitute: Replacing one material with another of less hazard  Moderate: Reducing the strength of an effect  Simplify: Designing out problems rather than adding additional equipment or features to deal with them 2.Engineering consideration  Hazardous Area Zone Classification (IEC/EN 60079, NFPA 479, API 500)  Heating Venting Air Circulation (HVAC) system  Electric Static Discharge (ESD) system  Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) Design  Emergency Shut Down Valve (ESDV) System  Lay-out facility (lokasi, jarak, dll)  Mechanical Protection (Material, Coating, dll)  Inerting System

47 Selection safeguard for Fire and Explosion’ s Risk Control Prevention Barrier 3.Operation Consideration  Preventive Maintenance Program (inspeksi rutin, testing peralatan, dll)  Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) (operating parameter controlling, alarm system, dll)  Housekeeping  Kompetensi Personel  Implementasi Sistem Manajemen Pengendalian Kerugian (Manajemen resiko)  Permit System  Storage and handling management system  Cooling system (Deluge water system, vessel cooling system, dll)  Accident Investigation and Lesson Learned  Electrical Connection System (Lighting Protection, Grounding, dll)

48 Selection safeguard for Fire and Explosion’ s Risk Control Mitigation Barrier 1.Engineering Consideration  Hydrant & Sprinkle System  Purging system (PSV, Rupture Disc, Flare System, dll)  Dikes Network  Water Curtain System  CO2/Inert Gas Suppression System  Blast-Wall

49 Selection safeguard for Fire and Explosion’ s Risk Control Mitigation Barrier 2.Operation Consideration  Fire Extinghuisers (APAR)  Foam system  Emergency Response Plan (assembly area)  Personal Protective Equipment (APD)  Community Emergency Response

50 Question ?


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