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Theories of Signs and Language Tiga struktur elemen pesan: 1.Signs dan Symbols 2.Language 3.Discourse.

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1 Theories of Signs and Language Tiga struktur elemen pesan: 1.Signs dan Symbols 2.Language 3.Discourse

2 Tiga Cabang kajian tentang Signs dan Symbols Semantics: Study of how signs relate to things; relationship between the world of signs and the world of things Syntactics: study of how signs relate other signs; pointing to the ways signs are organized into larger sign system Pragmatics: The actual use of codes in everyday life

3 Summary: Pragmatics dan Syntactis Codes Donald G Ellis,” Syntactic and Pragmatic Codes In Communication” – Communication Theory 2 (1992, p.1-23) Feature Pragmatics Code Syntactic Code MeaningComprehensionReasoningStructureContent Fragmentation- Integration Involved-detached Level of Planning Oral – Literate In person, assumed Coherence Subjective, organic Implicit High Context FragmentedInvolvedUnplannedOral-like In text CohesionLogicExplicit Low Context IntegratedDetachedPlannedLiterate-like

4 Classical Semantic Theory Pemikiran Charles Saunders Peirce Pemikiran Charles Morris Susanne Langer

5 Peirce’s Basic Notion of Sign Semiosis: a relationship among a sign, an object, and a meaning Sign represent the object or referent in the mind of interpreter Interpretant: Representation of an object by a sign/ association that interpreter makes

6 Ogden and Richard Meaning Triangle Thought or Reference a causal other relation causal relation relation causal relation Symbol Stand for Referent

7 Relasi antara Symbol, Thought dan Referent – Ogden and Richard Between a thought and a symbol causal relations hold Between the Thought and the Referent there is a relation, more or less direct or indirect Between the symbol and the Referent is no relevant relation other than the indirect one

8 Charles Morris on Signs A sign is a stimulus that elicits a readiness to respond Interpreter as organism that takes a stimulus as a sign Interpretant as a disposition to respond in a certain way because of sign Denotatum as anything designated by the sign that enables the organism to respond appropriately Significatum as conditions making response possible

9 Three values of a sign The designative aspect: directs (point, refer, show) the interpreter to specific object or particular of denotata - perception stage The prescirptive aspect: tend to prescribe, advise, or tell us what to do- manipulation stage The appraisive aspect: orients the interpreter to particular qualities of denoted object, which enables one to appraise or evaluate the object- Consummated stage

10 Susanne Langer on Symbols She uses the term sign in more restricted sense than Morris to mean a stimulus that signals the presence of something else A sign corresponds closely to the actual signified object A Symbol is vehicle for the conception of objects- an instrument of thought

11 Meaning dalam Pemikiran Langer Terdiri dari dua segi: 1) Logis- hubungan antara symbol dan referent; 2) psikologis- hubungan antara symbol dan person Makna terdiri dari konsepsi privat individu dan konsep umum yang dipahami/dihayati bersama Mengapa? Symbol mengkomunikasikan konsep- gagasan/pemikiran umum, pola atau bentuk- bentuk tertentu- konsep ini sebagai: a meaning shared among communicators. Tetapi setiap komunikator mempunyai “private image” sebagai person,s conception

12 Signification: is the meaning of a sign- a simple stimulus announcing the presence of some object Denotation: is the relation of symbol to its object Connotation: is the direct relation between the symbol and the conception

13 Language and The Study of Syntactics Ferdinand de Saussure Noam Chomsky

14 Ferdinand de Saussure and Language Sign, language-arbitrary Signs are conventions governed by the rules Language is a structure Language and reality are separate Language as a structured system representing reality The key understand the structure of system is difference Langue-synchrony-formal system and parole-diachrony-actual use of language

15 Noam Chomsky and Generative Grammar Generative grammar rests on the assumption that sentence generation is central to sentence structure The objective of generative grammar is to isolate a set of rules that explains how any sentence could be generated Transformational grammar


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