Presentation on theme: "Intervensi. diskusikan berpasangan 1. apa itu intervensi? 2. a. dalam kondisi apa intervensi itu perlu? b. dalam kondisi apa intervensi itu tidak perlu?"— Presentation transcript:
diskusikan berpasangan 1. apa itu intervensi? 2. a. dalam kondisi apa intervensi itu perlu? b. dalam kondisi apa intervensi itu tidak perlu? c. siapa yang boleh/harus melakukan intervensi? d. apa saja prinsip yang perlu diperhatikan atau dikembangkan dalam intervensi?
…kata orang sih… “… war must eventually turn into its opposite after exceeding its culminating point of maximum destruction, … wars should not be interrupted by outsiders, blocking their process of transformation.” Edward Luttwak, The Curse of Inconclusive Intervention
…kata orang sih… “… to make peace is to decide who rules… if… forces are going to intervene to make peace, … they should only do so after they have decided who will rule afterwards” Richard K. Betts, The Delusion of Impartial Intervention
…kata orang sih… “… any intervention must pass 3 basic tests: (1) … (it) must have potential to succeed, … (2) the likely benefits of intervening should outweigh the likely costs, … (3) the likely ratio of benefits to costs should also compare favorably with that of other choices, … or doing nothing at all.” Richard K. Hass, Using Force: Lessons and Choices
…kata orang sih… “… interventions in CPE can involve three scenarios: (1) conflict fuelling, where NGO activities, although unintended, contributed to the circumstances which reinforce violent conflict, (2) holding operation, where NGOs neither have a positive or negative impact but help maintain some civic structures which may re-emerge when the conflict de-escalates, and (3) building peace, where NGO programmes can challenge the structures and dynamics of conflict and create incentives for peace“ Jonathan Goodhand and David Hulme
…kata orang sih… “ (1) aid resources can be stolen and used to support and finance war, (2) aid can distort markets by reinforcing the war economy and undermining peacetime production and productivity, (3) the distribution of aid can enhance intergroup tensions, (4) aid frees people to support conflict, as they need not to waste their time and energy to fulfill the basic needs substituted by transnational third-party NGOs, and (5) aid legitimises people and their actions or agendas, as its distribution requires permission from armed factions, is subject to – sometimes illegal – taxation or should hire the services of warring parties” Mary B. Anderson, Do No Harm
…kata orang sih… blocking vs bridging tell vs listen distort vs marshal/strengthen local resources office vs community organiser