Presentation on theme: "Università di Macerata Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia MEDIAZIONE LINGUISTICA - Classe: L-12 a.a. 2013-2014 – II semestre Lingua e traduzione inglese II."— Presentation transcript:
Università di Macerata Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia MEDIAZIONE LINGUISTICA - Classe: L-12 a.a. 2013-2014 – II semestre Lingua e traduzione inglese II Mod. A: LINGUA E TRADUZIONE TURISTICA Dott.ssa Marisa Di Lello
A clause consists of two segments: The first segment is called the THEME The second segment is called the RHEME.
A halfpenny is the smallest English coin (I will tell you about a halfpenny) The smallest English coin is a halfpenny (I will tell you about the smallest English coin) THEMERHEME THEMERHEME
THEME: the starting point of the communication chosen by the speaker/writer. The theme is what the clause is about. RHEME: the remaining part which develops the theme. The rheme is what the speaker says about the theme. It is the communicative goal of a clause because it represents the very information that the speaker/writer wants to convey to the hearer/reader. The rheme fulfils the communicative purpose of an utterance.
Therefore, Every clause says something (the rheme) about something (the theme). (Baker 1992)
The theme-rheme organization and the information structure of a sentence are semantically interconnected. In the normal case, the speaker chooses the theme from what is given in a communication, i.e. from the parts of a communication which the hearer can reconstruct and which are accessible in his store of knowledge. The speaker also places the emphasis, or information focus, of his communication on the part reserved for the communicationally-new, i.e. positionally for the rheme.
For each type of clause (e.g. declarative, interrogative, imperative) there is one unmarked (=typical) thematic structure and one or more marked (=unusual) thematic structures.
English has a fairly fixed word order: Subject Verb + Object/Complement + Adverbial You will discover the magnificent west front of the Holy Trinity Church within a short stroll THEMERHEME
THEMATISATION (OR FRONTING) OF: 1) PLACE AND TIME ADVERBIALS (slightly marked) [they are not highly marked, because adverbials are fairly mobile in English] 2) OBJECT AND COMPLEMENT (highly marked) 3) PREDICATED THEMES (highly marked)
Thematisation is a textual feature of the language of tourist guides. It’s common to both English and Italian geographical and historical descriptions.
1) Thematisation (or fronting) of Place and Time Adverbials: Place and time adverbials tend to be positioned at the beginning of declarative clauses. This feature is very frequent and natural in Italian, but slightly marked (=unusual) in English, which has a fairly fixed word order.
In the space of a few miles you can find not only the World Heritage, but one of our leading stately homes…. After the battle of Hastings in 1066, the invader William, Duke of Normandy, took over. Sulla sponda sud-occidentale, si apre un ninfeo scavato nella roccia… Nel 1777 il Granduca Pietro Leopoldo indicò in Sarteano la sede di un unico palazzo del gonfalone…
Fronted adverbials fulfil two textual functions: They act as points of orientation by connecting back to previous stretches of text. They act as points of departure by connecting forward and contributing to the development of later stretches. (Baker 1992)
Further north along the coast is a fine example of 18th century Scottish architecture… Closer to home, the Picts’misterious symbols and standing stones are most notably interpreted at (...) At its heart, ancient Bridgnorth has one of the finest settings in the country (…) Just a few miles from the Welshpool home of the Llanfair (…) is Montgomery with its castle (…) To the west, the remote Clee Hills and the long ridge…. All around this area are delightful, unspoilt villages, remote churches and country pubs.
Nel centro storico l’elemento di costruzione dominante è il granito. Dopo il centro sportivo C.O.N.I., si incontra L’Emissario, grandiosa opera di ingegneria romana… Da Palau è poi facile raggiungere in autobus un’altra bellezza della costa nord-occidentale (…). Nei pressi di Codroipo ci accoglie la residenza dell’ultimo doge veneziano, Ludovico Manin.
In the early 11 th century, a Danish king, Canute, consolidated England into a relatively peaceful unity. On Christmas day, 1066, William, Duke of Normandy, was crowned in Westminster Abbey.
Durante il lungo conflitto tra Firenze e Siena, la città condivise le sorti di quest’ultima, pagando a caro prezzo le conseguenze di questa sua fedele amicizia. Alla fine della seconda guerra mondiale, al borgo antico comincia così ad affiancarsi un insediamento del tutto nuovo (…). Nel 421 a.C., l’intera zona flegrea cadde sotto il dominio delle popolazioni campane.
PREFERRED STRUCTURE (UNMARKED THEME): The part of Montepulciano that has developed outside the city walls ever since the 15th century is well worth a visit. MARKED STRUCTURE: Well worth a visit is the part of Montepulciano that has developed outside the city walls ever since the 15th century.
Use of an it- structure (or a cleft structure) a given element of a clause is placed near the beginning. The theme of a cleft clause is the element which occurs after the verb to be. Predicated themes: often imply contrast (like all marked themes); signal information structure by presenting the element following it + BE in the main clause as the new information.
Unmarked theme: The first race between the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge was in 1829 at Henley. Highly marked structures (predicated themes) See Examples of cleft structures
Unmarked theme: The first race between the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge was in 1829 at Henley. Highly marked structures (predicated themes) It was the first race between the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge that took place in 1829 at Henley. It was between the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge that the first race took place in 1829 at Henley. It was in 1829 that the first race between the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge took place at Henley. It was at Henley that the first race between the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge took place in 1829.
The thematisation of PLACE AND TIME ADVERBIALS OBJECT AND COMPLEMENT can be reproduced naturally in Italian, so that it will be possible to maintain the same point of orientation in the target text.
Starting at sea-level at Llandudno, this single track line winds and climbs its way up the beautiful Conwy and Lledr valleys. After leaving the historic town of Shrewsbury, with its castle and Elizabethan houses, the train passes through Church Stretton before turning south-west and crossing the river Theme into Wales. As the visitor nears the end of the Venice-Trieste motorway, after many kilometers of flat terrain the landscape suddenly changes. -ING FORM PREP. + -ING FORM AS + SUBJECT + PRESENT TENSE
Lasciata Sassari, si prosegue verso Osilo ammirando massicci calcarei a strapiombo. Prima di far tappa a Tempio arriviamo a Bortigiadis. Partendo dalla stazione di San Benedetto del Tronto e costeggiando il litorale adriatico, si transita per Pescara. PAST PARTICIPLE PREP. + INFINITIVE GERUND
On the left before Piazza della Borsa is the great square building called the Tergesteo. Opposite the Old Stock Exchange the green building of the Casa Bartoli houses shops and flats. Sulla sinistra, prima di giungere in Piazza della Borsa si incontra il grande edificio quadrato del Tergesteo. Di fronte alla Borsa Vecchia l’edificio verde Casa Bartoli, che si configura come unità commerciale e abitativa.
Worthy of note are the fountains decorated with statues by Giuseppe Pokorny and Ugo Hardtl. Degne di nota sono le belle fontane con sculture di Giuseppe Pokorny e Ugo Hardtl.
The richly decorated exterior contrasts with a soberly functional interior, designed by the architect Geiringer. Alla ricchezza decorativa esterna fa da contraltare l’interno sobrio e funzionale dettato dall’architetto Geiringer.
Palazzo Dreher stands at the beginning of Via Cassa di Risparmio. The triangle marked out by these buildings contains a column surmounted by a bronze statue of Habsburg Emperor Leopold I. Da Palazzo Dreher si diparte via Cassa di Risparmio. Nello spazio triangolare definito da questi edifici è inserita la colonna sormontata dalla statua bronzea che ritrae Leopoldo I d’Asburgo.
The castle owes its charm to the white Istrian stone it is built with. Gran parte del suo fascino il castello lo deve al biancore della pietra bianca d’Istria con la quale è stato realizzato.
To describe the Triestine Carso we need only say that it is a unique territory, without equal in Europe, a land of charm and mystery shrouded in fantasy and myth. Per descrivere il Carso triestino è sufficiente affermare che è un territorio unico, senza uguali in Europa, un territorio di fascino e di mistero, sospeso tra la fantasia e il mito.
In the summer, Viale XX Settembre offers a pleasant environment for walkers to linger at the tables placed outside between the rows of trees. D’estate è piacevole sostare ai tavolini all’aperto inseriti tra la doppia fila di alberi del Viale XX Settembre.
What awaits us at the bottom? A once-ploughed patch of grass, a chaotic mass of stones, or a cave whose gaping entrance invites our hesitant steps to venture inside. Cosa ci sarà sul fondo? Un praticello un tempo coltivato, un ammasso di pietre o una grotta che spalanca il suo ingresso invitando il passo esitante a entrare.