3localisation Flanders: northern region of Belgium 6.3 million inhabitants / densely populated: 470 inhabitants/km2Brussels (= capital and capital of Europe)very dense road network / main traffic corridor in Western Europepart of the 'Blue Banana‘, one of the world's most densely populated and urbanized areas, from the British midlands to northern ItalyIn such a region sustainable mobility is very important. To achieve this a good driver education is necessary. Of course the GDE-matrix is our guideline. With several step-by-step actions we try to improve the driver education.
4Flemish Foundation for Traffic Knowledge (FFT/VSV) OriginAmbitionPrincipleOrigin: Flemish parliamentAmbition: make all people smarterEinstein: if at first, the idea is not absurd, then there is no hope for itPrinciples: network organisation + target group is EVERYBODY!
5resultsNiveau 2Niveau 3Results in number of participants (deelnemers) and training hours (vormingsuren)
6projects Niveau 2 Niveau 3 We organize different kind of projects for young and old. We believe it is important to start at an early age; it’s impossible to have safe car drivers only by organizing a short driver education.
8Gde matrix Niveau 2 Niveau 3 The GDE-matrix and other multi-level-models of learning form our framework. Concerning the GDE-matrix we reached an important point. We reached the point where everybody has heard, everybode underlines, and the GDE has really become the framework for a better driver training. People who do not underline the GDE-matrix are not taken seriously and will retire in a short while.Thanks to GDE we know which knowledge, skills, etc a driver needs AND we realize that safe driving is more than the knowledge of traffic rules, manoeuvring a vehicle or mastering traffic situations. This is without any doubt an important achievement!
11Driving license at school and the gde matrix Niveau 2Niveau 3With VSV we try to adress al the aspects of the GDE matrixPartners DLS: Driving schools, examination centers, schoolsTarget group: All pupils in last year of secondary school (17-18 years)Goals: Prepare them professionally for the theory test and teach them about sustainable mobilityContents: 8, 10 or 12 classes by professional driving teachers, Educational material for pupils, Theory test in schoolFFT: Finance, co-ordinate, quality control, training, …
12Our projects and the gde matrix Niveau 2Niveau 3
13Driving test Different categories To drive certain types of vehicles you need a driving licenseTo obtain a driving license you have to pass testsTheory and practical testMinimum requirements are set by the EUDifferent categories, to speak about all categories would lead us to far. I will focus on category B.I will only speak about non-professsional drivers, for professional drivers their are other, more strict rules.
14Driving test legal framework Belgium: Royal Decree on Driving Licences of 23 March 1998 (http://www.wegcode.be/wetteksten/secties/kb/kb )EU: Directive 2006/126/EG (‘third driving licence directive’), Belgium: Royal Decree on Driving Licences of 23 March 1998 (zieEU: Directive 2006/126/EG (‘third driving license directive’), zie
15OrgAnizationDrivings tests in Belgium are organized by private companies. They are licenced by the federal government. Inspection stations and examination centra
16theory test general conditions CAT BWITH DRIVING SCHOOLWITHOUT DRIVING SCHOOL12 HOURSCANDIDATE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIS TRAININGTHE AMOUNT OF RETRYS IS NOT LIMITEDAFTER TWO FAILED TESTS THE CANDIDATE HAS TO FOLLOW A MINIMUM OF 12 HOURS IN A DRIVING SCHOOLCANDIDATE FOLLOWS 20 HOURS PRACTICAL LESSONS IN A DRIVING SCHOOLCANDIDATE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIS TRAINING (ACCOMPANIED DRIVING)THE PROVISIONAL DRIVING LICENCE WITHOUT COMPANION IS POSSIBLE WHEN THE CANDIDATE IS 18THE PROVISIONAL DRIVING LICENSE IS POSSIBLE WHEN THE CANDIDATE IS 17 In practice almost all youngsters in Flanders follow driving license at school
17The setting of the theory test 15 €Questions who approach the real traffic situation.The question is read aloud and is visible on the computer. The candidate has to choose between two or three answers.Max 15 sec per question. In total about 30 min.For cat B 50 questions, minimum score is 41.After the test the candidate can get feedback about his mistakes.At the end of the test, the candidate who passed, takes an eye test. When he fails, he has to undergo an test by an eye specialist.Voor prakijkexamen 36€
18theory test content CURRICULUM FOR CAT B TRAFFIC SIGNS, PRIORITY, OVERTAKING, CHANGING LANES, HIGH WAYS, SPEED, DRIVING LICENSE, ALCOHOL, KEEPING DISTANCE, ECO DRIVING, DOCUMENTSBEHAVIOR IN RELATION TO OTHER ROAD USERSOBSERVATION, JUDGEMENT, REACTION, REACTION TIME, INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOL, DRUGS, MEDICATION, FATIGUECHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT ROADSRISKS OF UNEXPERIENCED ROAD USERS AND VULNERABLE ROAD USERS (CHILDREN, PEDESTRIANS, CYCLISTS, PEOPLE WITH LIMITED MOBILITY)MECHANICAL PARTS OF THE VEHICLE: SUSPENSION, BRAKES, TIRES, LIGHTS, WIPERS,SAFETY EQUIPMENT IN CARS: SAFETY BELTS, CHILD RESTRAINTS, HEADRESTSSAFETY IN TUNNELS
24theory test special sessions Candidates with limited intellectual abilities and/or reading skills can ask for a special session.The candidate has to deliver a certificate.Candidates who failed five times also can ask for a special session.Deaf candidates can ask an interpreter sign language.Candidates who don’t spead Dutch, French or German can ask for a interpreter.Question is projected on a big screen, question is read aloud, all participants can ask questions about the meaning of words untill the question is completely clearTime starts running, candidates answer the question.
25PRACTICAL test Different possibilities of training PROVISIONAL DRIVING LICENSE18 MONTHS36 MONTHSPractical lessonsMinimum 20 hours in driving school6 hours basic training in driving school is possibleMinimum age18 year17 yearTrainingWithout coachWith coachMinimum duration training3 monthsMaximum duration training18 months36 monthsIf you pass the theory test you can do the practical testMinimum age for obtaining a driving license cat B is 18 yearRequirements for the coach: at least 8 years a driving license category B, driving license shouldn’t been confiscated (during the last three years), you can only be the coach for one candidate (exception for children, grandchildren, sisters, brothers, …)Test is in the examination center with your own car or car of the driving schoolIf the candidate fails twice for the practical test he has to follow at least 6 hours training in a driving school
26restrictions 18 Months 36 Months L-sign at the rear window No driving abroadNo driving on Friday, Saterday, Sunday or the evening before bank holidays and/or bank holidays from 10 p.m. until 6 a.m.Maximum 2 passengersNo commercial transport, no trailer36 MonthsAlways in the company of the coachNo passengers
27practical test general Goal is to test if the candidate masters the vehicle and that he applies the traffic codeMaximum 1 accompanying personMobile phones have to be switched of3 basic maneuversPreliminary controlsParking backwardsTurning in a narrow street
28practical test content Important pointsMastering the vehicle (lights, seatbelts, …)Defensive drivingCorrect position on the roadCorrect changing lanesCorrect speedEco-driving…Controls: tire pressure, condition of the tires, motor oil, …Parking backwards was tested in the past on the site of the examanition center, nowadays it is tested in real traffic.
29Result practical testIf the candidate passes the test he gets an application form for a driving licenseThe driving license can be obtained at the municipalityNovice drivers for a period of 2 yearsNo restrictions, but tougher penaltiesAlcohol, speeding, …Driving license will be withdrawn36€
30new since 03/02/2014• Candidate has to follow 12 hours of theory training in a driving school when he fails twice the theory test cat B. • New conditions for coaches and passangers, as wel during the stage as during the practical test. • The coaches have to be mentioned on the provisional driving license 36 months. • The candidate can swith only once from training method during the validity of the provisional driving license. • Obligatory 6 hours practical training after expiration of the provisional driving license. • After expiration a new driving license can only be obtained after a period of 3 year. • The practical test is only possible within a period of 3 year after the theory test.
31Driving test new since 2014• Improvement of the quality of the questions • Statistical review • Risk perception • …Risk perception on a volontary base. This is a first step, it would good if it would be an obligatory part of the test. Because the behavior is much more responsible for accidents than knowledge.
35GOCA Risk-PerceptionTest Vraag 2 Wat heb je gezien?A. Een achterligger haalt mij in.B. Een voetganger gaat oversteken.C. Een fietser komt van rechts.D. Een auto komt van links.
36other improvements• improvement of the quality of the questions • statistical review • risk perception •Graduated driver licensing
37Rue project Minimum driver competency standards Designing the framework for a curriculumMinimum driver instructor competency standardsCIECA (=International Commission for Driver Testing) organised in the Road User Education project; this project had as aim to establish minimum requirements for: 1/ driver competences, 2/ driver education curriculum en 3/ driving instructor competences. 1 and 2 are of course closely related to the minimum requirements for driving tests.
38conclusions Driver testing minimal standards GDE Matrix Theory and practiceGDE MatrixEvolution towards attitudes and skillsGraduated driver licenseDriver training / Road safety is much more thanKnowledgeA short trainingDriver training / Road safety is aboutKnowledge, attitude and skillsLife long learning