Presentation on theme: "INTERDISIPLINARITAS DALAM KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN & PEMBANGUNAN Soemarno, Nopember 2013."— Presentation transcript:
INTERDISIPLINARITAS DALAM KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN & PEMBANGUNAN Soemarno, Nopember 2013
Environmental studies is the academic field which systematically studies human interaction with the environment. It is a broad interdisciplinary field of study that includes the natural environment, built environment, and the sets of relationships between them.
Environmental studies, encompasses study in the basic principles of learning of the subjects, such as: Kebijakan, politik, hukum, ekonomi, sociologi dan aspek-sosial, perencanaan, pencemaran, Sumberdaya alam, dan Interaksi manusia dan lingkungan sekitarnya.
An interdisciplinary field is a field of study that crosses traditional boundaries between academic disciplines or schools of thought, as new needs and professions have emerged. Originally the term interdisciplinary is applied within education and training pedagogies to describe studies that use methods and insights of several established disciplines or traditional fields of study.
Interdisciplinarity involves researchers, students, and teachers in the goals of connecting and integrating several academic schools of thought, professions, or technologies -- along with their specific perspectives -- in the pursuit of a common task.
"Interdisciplinary studies" is an academic program or process seeking to synthesize broad perspectives, knowledge, skills, interconnections, and epistemology in an educational setting. perspectivesepistemology Interdisciplinary programs may be founded in order to facilitate the study of subjects which have some coherence, but which cannot be adequately understood from a single disciplinary perspective (for example, women's studies or medieval studies).medieval studies More rarely, and at a more advanced level, interdisciplinarity may itself become the focus of study, in a critique of institutionalized disciplines' ways of segmenting knowledge.
Ilmu Lingkungan : An interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical and biological sciences (including physics, chemistry, biology, soil science, geology, and geography) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems. Environmental science provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems.
Environmental scientists work on subjects like the understanding of earth processes, evaluating alternative energy systems, pollution control and mitigation, natural resource management, and the effects of global climate change. Environmental issues almost always include an interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Environmental scientists bring a systems approach to the analysis of environmental problems. Key elements of an effective environmental scientist include the ability to relate space and time relationships as well as quantitative analysis.
Lintas Disiplin Ilmu multidisciplinary - researchers in separate disciplines work independently within their own disciplinary perspective, to address a common problem interdisciplinary - researchers work jointly, but from each of their respective disciplinary perspectives, to address a common problem transdisciplinary - researchers work jointly using a shared conceptual framework that draws together discipline-specific theories, concepts, and approaches, to address a common problem (Rosenfield, 1992) Firm boundaries Permeable boundaries No or blurred boundaries Source: Dan Stokols, 2004
Interdisciplinary Starts with disciplines and looks for lines of interest that connect them. Transdisciplinary Starts with complex problems and looks for new conceptualizations that transform understanding of theory and practice.
Arguments for Transdisciplinarity 1.The problems we face transcend the disciplinary knowledge we practice. 2.Universities should be communities of scholars – incubators and testing laboratories of ideas – not confederations of turfdoms. 3.It’s not either/or! We need disciplinary, interdisciplinary, AND transdisciplinary programs in Higher Education.
A Cautionary Tale: The Interdisciplinary Program Builder The captain of the javelin team who won the “toss” and elected to receive.
Monty Hempel, University of Redlands Barriers to Transdisciplinary “Courtships” Depth over BreadthPromotion & Tenure Faculty RecruitmentNeed for a Core Curricular IncoherenceCertification
Advantages Advantages of Transdisciplinary Collaboration Greater Explanatory Power Increased Capacity for Synthesis (not just analysis) Better Integration of Science, Management, and Policy Methodological Pluralism Promotes Coupling of Models Builds Foresight Capacity
Disadvantages Disadvantages of Transdisciplinary Collaboration Labor Intensive – Educationally DemandingLabor Intensive – Educationally Demanding Cooperation Hard to Sustain (turfdoms)Cooperation Hard to Sustain (turfdoms) Administratively ComplexAdministratively Complex Breadth vs. Depth TradeoffsBreadth vs. Depth Tradeoffs Diffuse vs. Focused Conceptual ModelsDiffuse vs. Focused Conceptual Models Few Professional Incentives (tenure hurdles, less rewards for team contributions)Few Professional Incentives (tenure hurdles, less rewards for team contributions) Weak or Negative Incentive Structures!
The Redlands Approach The Redlands Approach Center for Environmental Studies Facilitating Interdisciplinary Work 1.Tenure-Track Faculty lines in Natural Science, Social Science, and Humanities 2.Conceptual Framework: Sustainability (Ecol/Econ/Equity) 3.Tools of Integration: GIS – spatial literacy 4.Heuristics: Ecological Footprint Analysis 5.Team Research: Design Studios & Policy Clinics 6.Experiential Learning: “Glocal” Program (community service learning plus travel courses and study abroad) 7.Setting Examples on Campus: Green Buildings/Design
Human activities (fishing) Freshwater habitat (water quality, quantity & timing) Estuarine habitat (water quality, mixing processes) Ocean habitat Climate change (altered water cycle) Human activities (resource & land use) Human activities (aquaculture, development) Climate change (sea level rise & ocean mixing) Health & Viability of PNW salmon Integrated Watershed Analysis Climate change
2000 UN Millenium Summit Halve Extreme Poverty Universal Primary Education Empowerment of Women/ gender equality Reduce <5 mortality by 2/3 Reduce maternal mortality by 3/4 Reverse spread of diseases, esp. HIV/AIDS, Malaria Ensure Environmental Sustainability Form a Global Development Partnership for aid, trade, debt relief Millenium Development Goals by 2015 Background/ History cont’d…
Sustainable Development Sustainable Development is the process by which we move towards sustainability “…development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987) This was endorsed in 1992 at the Earth Summit in Rio
Sustainable Development In May 1999 the UK’s Sustainable Development Strategy was published & defined sustainable development in terms of four objectives –Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone –Effective protection of the environment –Prudent use of natural resources –Maintenance of high & stable levels of economic growth & employment
Conservation & Protection Fresh Water Management Biodiversity Sustainable Production & Consumption Key Themes…
Gender Equality Poverty Alleviation Peace & Int’l Understanding Imp. of Info. & Comm. Technology for ESD Human Rights Health Promotion Key Themes (cont’d)…
“Sustainable Development – is development that meets the needs of the present without compro- mising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
PILAR PEMBANGUNAN BERKELANJUTAN Economic Development – poverty eradication Social Development – active participation of women; education; good governance Environmental Protection – prevent environmental degradation and patterns of unsustainable development At the local, national, regional, and global levels
PEMBANGUNAN EKONOMI Poverty eradication Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the world’s people with income less than $1/day Basic health services for all, reduce health threats Increase food availability Combat desertification, mitigate effects of drought and floods Provision of clean drinking water Enhance industrial productivity
Changing Unsustainable Patterns of Consumption and Production Cleaner production technologies Developing cleaner, more efficient energy technologies Maintain urban air quality and health, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions Sound management of chemicals throughout their life cycle, and of hazardous wastes
PERLINDUNGAN SUMBERDAYA ALAM UNTUK PEMBANGUNAN EKONOMI DAN SOSIAL Prevent water pollution to reduce health hazards and protect ecosystems Watershed and groundwater management Support desalination of seawater, water recycling Ensure the sustainable development of oceans, marine environmental protection
LIMA AGENDA PRIORITAS DUNIA 1. AIR DAN SANITASI 2. ENERGI 3. KESEHATAN 4. PERTANIAN – PERKEBUNAN- KEHUTANAN-PETERNAKAN- PERIKANAN 5. BIODIVERSITYAS DAN PENGELOLAAN EKOSISTEM
Water and Sanitation “Water is not only the most basic of needs but is also at the center of sustainable development.” Around 1.2 billion people still have no access to clean drinking water Around 2.4 billion people do not have adequate sanitation.
AIR DAN SANITASI Beberapa Issue Kunci: Prevent water pollution to reduce health hazards Protect ecosystems Introduce technologies for affordable sanitation, industrial and domestic wastewater treatment River basin, watershed and groundwater management Support desalination of seawater, water recycling Marine environmental protection - oceans, seas, islands and coastal areas are essential components of the Earth’s ecosystem
TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN PENGELOLAAN SUMBERDAYA AIR IAEA-supported projects worldwide using nuclear techniques: Isotope techniques for water resources development and management Automatic tracer flow gauging stations in ephemeral rivers Investigating dam and reservoir leakages and safety Pengolahan air-limbah dengan Electron- beam
TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN PENGELOLAAN SUMBERDAYA AIR Nuclear power plants are used for saltwater desalination
TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN PENGELOLAAN SUMBERDAYA AIR RCA Projects: –Isotope Techniques for Groundwater Contamination Studies in the Urbanized and Industrial Areas –Investigating Environmental and Water Resources in Geothermal Areas –Use of Isotopes in Dam Safety and Dam Sustainability
ENERGI “Some 2 billion people lack access to electricity and rely on traditional fuel sources such as firewood, kerosene, or biomass for their cooking and heating.”
ENERGI Some key issues: Focus on access to energy in rural areas Energy conservation and energy efficiency – building design & management, better mass transportation, advanced and innovative cleaner technologies Promotion of renewable energy Action on climate change – ratification by countries of the Kyoto Protocol
TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN ENERGI Nuclear Power – reduces emission of greenhouse gases Some IAEA-supported projects worldwide: Comparative studies on natural gas and nuclear power Uranium resources development Operational and safety issues of nuclear power plants Nuclear power plants for saltwater desalination
Electron beam purification of flue gases Isotopic techniques to study climate change and predict future global changes resulting from greenhouse gases Rational exploitation of geothermal sources Isotope hydrology and geochemistry in geothermal fields Quality control and inspection of pipelines by NDT TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN ENERGI
RCA Projects: –Process Diagnostics and Optimization in Petrochemical Industry –Role of Nuclear Power and other Energy Options in Competitive Electricity Market TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN ENERGI
KESEHATAN “Good health is vital for eradicating poverty and achieving sustainable development.” Some key issues: –Reduce mortality rates in 2015: by 66.7% for children & infants under 5; by 75% for maternal mortality rates –Control & eradicate communicable diseases, reduce HIV prevalence, combat malaria, tuberculosis –Ensure that chemicals are not used and produced in ways that harm human health –Reduce air pollution –Improve developing countries’ access to environmentally sound alternatives to ozone depleting chemicals
Some IAEA-supported projects worldwide: Use of radioisotopes in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases –Upgrading of radiotherapy services –Production of Tc-99m Gel Generators for Nuclear Medicine –Early diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer –Screening of newborns for neonatal hypothyroidism –Nuclear medical techniques in preventive nephrology TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN KESEHATAN
–Isotopes for control of human communicable diseases (SIT for Tsetse eradication & control of malaria) –Molecular biology techniques using radionuclide methods (e.g. Polymerase chain reaction or PCR) for diagnosis of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B & C, tuberculosis –Rapid diagnosis of dengue fever infection –Early detection of congenital diseases in children TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN KESEHATAN
Applications of radiation technology –Radiation sterilization of health care products –Cyclotron for short lived medical radioisotopes –Radiation sterilization of human tissue grafts for transplantation (bone, skin & other tissues) Nutrition –Nuclear techniques to address problems of malnutrition such as micro-nutrient deficiencies, energy expenditure, nutrient absorption & utilization TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN KESEHATAN
RCA Projects: –Strengthening Medical Physics in Asia and the Pacific region –Brachytherapy in Treating Cervical Cancer –Distance-assisted Training (DAT) in Radiation Oncology –Distance-assisted Training (DAT) for Nuclear Medicine Technicians –Management of Liver Cancer using Transarterial Radioconjugate Therapy –Treatment with Unsealed Radioactive Source: Radiosynovectomy –Osteoporosis and Serum Turn Over by RIA and DEXA –Improved Information of Urban Air Quality Mgt. TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN KESEHATAN
PERTANIAN “Agriculture is central to sustainable development. About 70% of the poor in developing countries live in rural areas and depend in one way or another on agriculture for their survival.” Some key issues: –Address serious soil fertility problems –Diversification of crops –Increase water-use productivity –Apply R&D to increase productivity in crops and livestock
TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN PERTANIAN Mutation breeding to produce new varieties in different crops and ornamental plants
Crop productivity –Control of insect pests by Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) –Biofertilizers to increase crop production –Optimization of water and fertilizer use for crops –Saline groundwater and wastelands for crop production TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN PERTANIAN
Increasing food security –Food irradiation for food preservation Livestock development –Sustainable animal production –Improving productivity of goats –Feed supplementation for increasing livestock production –Improving cattle fertility and disease diagnosis –Eradicating rinderpest, screwworm
TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN PERTANIAN RCA Projects: –Restoration of Soil Fertility and Sustenance of Agriculture Productivity –Production of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) Antigen and Antibody ELISA Reagent Kit –Enhancement of Genetic Diversity in Food, Pulses and Oil Crops & Establishment of Mutant Germplasm Network –Better Management of Feeding and Reproduction of Cattle –Application of Food Irradiation for Food Security, Safety and Trade
BIODIVERSITAS DAN PENGELOLAAN EKOSISTEM “Biodiversity and the ecosystems they support are the living basis of sustainable development.”
BIODIVERSITAS DAN PENGELOLAAN EKOSISTEM Some key issues: –Significantly reduce the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 –Reverse the trend in natural resource degradation –Restore fisheries to their maximum sustainable yields –Protection of the marine environment from land based sources of pollution
BIODIVERSITAS DAN TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR Nuclear techniques are used: –To trace the fate of pollutants, and study sedimentation rates in pollution studies –To identify pathways of pesticides & agrochemicals in the environment RCA Projects: –Enhancing the Marine Coastal Environment –Applications of nuclear and modeling techniques to sustainable development in the coastal zone –Investigating Environmental and Water Resources in Geothermal Areas