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Presentation on theme: "ANALISIS dan PERANCANGAN SISTEM (INFORMASI)"— Presentation transcript:

Catur Iswahyudi, S.Kom, S.E Department of Informatics Engineering Institute of Science and Technology AKPRIND

2 Gambaran Umum Prasyarat : Penunjang : Tools : Tujuan : Kompetensi :
Agar mahasiswa mengerti dan mampu menggunakan teknik-teknik serta perangkat untuk analisis, perancangan, dan pemodelan sistem. Kompetensi : Mampu mengimplementasikan Analisis & Perancangan Sistem menggunakan alat bantu perangkat lunak Prasyarat : S1 – Sistem Informasi (TIFS 1407) Penunjang : Prakt. Analisis & Perancangan Sistem Tools : Easy CASE Microsoft Access Microsoft Visio Microsoft Project

3 MATERI Pendahuluan : Kontrak Pembelajaran, RPP Konsep Dasar Sistem
Analisis Sistem Siklus Hidup Sistem Perancangan Sistem Secara Umum Pendekatan Perancangan Terstruktur Flowchart Perancangan Sistem Terinci (Output dan Input) Perancangan Sistem Terinci (Basisdata) Pemodelan Sistem (DFD) Pengujian dan Jaminan Kualitas Sistem Manajemen pengembangan sistem Study Kasus

4 PUSTAKA Kenneth E. Kendall dan Julie E. Kendall, System Analysis and Design 8th Edition, Pearson Education Ltd, 2011 (printed only) Gary B. Shelly dan Harry J. Rosenblatt, System Analysis and Design 8th Edition, Course Technology, 2010 (ebook available) Arthur M. Langer, Analysis and Design of Information Systems 3rd Edition, Springer-Verlag London Limited, 2008 (ebook available) Jeffrey L. Whitten dan Lonnie D. Bentley, Systems Analysis and Design Methods 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2007 (ebook available)

5 Administratif Penilaian :
Tugas : 50 % UTS : 20 % UAS : 20 % Kehadiran : 10 % Syarat ikut UAS, kehadiran min. 75% dari kehadiran dosen (0,75x14=10,5) Dasar : Surat Edaran no. 231/Rek/II/2011 Jumlah Ijin maks 4 kali

6 Penilaian Acuan Patokan
Skor Nilai Akhir : Dasar : SK No. 073/Skep/Rek/2008, tanggal 20 Peb 2008 NA = 0,5*Tugas+0,2*UTS+0,2*UAS+0,1*Hadir A  NA = 80 – 100 B  NA = 60 – 79 C  NA = 40 – 59 D  NA = 20 – 39 E  NA =

7 Strategi Perkuliahan Kuliah tatap muka (40%) Diskusi dan tugas (60%)
Mengantarkan pokok bahasan dan menjelaskan isi dari sub pokok bahasan secara berurutan. Diskusi dan tugas (60%) Pendalaman materi berupa latihan soal akan dilakukan pada pertemuan tertentu, untuk dikerjakan secara individu dan/atau berkelompok serta dipecahkan bersama-sama kelompoknya. Tugas diberikan 4 kali dalam satu semester; 2 sebelum UTS dan 2 sebelum UAS Quiz (optional) dilakukan 1 kali dalam satu semester; dengan tidak terjadwal Setiap bahan bacaan yang dijadikan materi pada setiap tatap muka harus sudah dibaca terlebih dahulu sebelum mengikuti perkuliahan agar mahasiswa lebih mudah mengikuti acara perkuliahan Mahasiswa WAJIB mengerjakan tugas-tugas (latihan soal) yang akan diberikan setelah acara perkuliahan

8 Download materi Staff site:
Update setiap hari KAMIS (cek untuk update materi dan tugas)

9 Kalender Akademik Kuliah : 19 Sept 2011 – 6 Jan 2012
UTS : 7 – 18 Nopember 2011 Pengganti : 9 – 11 Jan 2012 UAS : 16 Jan – 27 Feb 2012

10 How to get “A” grade ? Attend classes regularly. On time. Listen and train to pay attention. Make sure you get all missed assignments (by contacting the lecture or another student) Take advantage of extra credit opportunities when offered. Care about your grades and are willing to work to improve yourself Attentive in class. Don't talk, read, or stare out windows. Turn your mobile phone off ! In other words, You are polite and respectful, even if you get a little bored See your lecture before or after class or during office hours about grades, comments on your papers, and upcoming tests. End up at your lecture's office door at least once during the semester Turn in assignments that look neat and sharp. Take the time to produce a final product that looks good, and reflects of a care and pride in your work Plus : english reading capability

11 Any questions ?

12 Let’s start our programme
Ask these following questions : What is IS ? What does SDLC means ? What is iceberg problem ? Who are Systems Analysts ? What are Technology Drivers for Today’s Information Systems ? GO GO GO GO GO

13 IS and IT A system is a group of interrelated components that function together to achieve a desired result. An information system (IS) is an arrangement of people, data, processes, and information technology that interact to collect, process, store, and provide as output the information needed to support an organization. Information technology is a contemporary term that describes the combination of computer technology (hardware and software) with telecommunications technology (data, image, and voice networks).


15 Types of Information Systems
A transaction processing system (TPS) is an information system that captures and processes data about business transactions. A management information system (MIS) is an information system that provides for management-oriented reporting based on transaction processing and operations of the organization. A decision support system (DSS) is an information system that either helps to identify decision making opportunities or provides information to help make decisions.

16 Types of Information Systems (cont.)
An expert system is an information system that captures the expertise of workers and then simulates that expertise to the benefit of non-experts. A communications and collaboration system is an information system that enables more effective communications between workers, partners, customers, and suppliers to enhance their ability to collaborate. An office automation system is an information system that supports the wide range of business office activities that provide for improved work flow between workers. Back

17 Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
Project Planning System Analysis System Design Construction/Implementation Integration and Testing Installation Operation & Maintenance Testing

18 SDLC Phases Project Planning System Analysis
Put project in context Small part of a much larger system? New system or modify old? System Analysis Define user requirements Analyze tasks Develop specifications System Design - Define the system to be built Logical design Physical design

19 SDLC Phases (continued)
Construction Write (or buy) the code Integration and Testing Unit testing, system testing, acceptance testing Installation Testing, training, conversion Operations & Maintenance Put into production Fix bugs, add facilities



22 The Classic Waterfall Methodology
STAGES END PRODUCTS Planning/definition Project proposal report Study/analysis System proposal report Design Design specifications Program code Programming Installation Testing and installation Maintenance Postimplementation audit Milestone 2 Design solution decision Milestone 4 Production decision OPERATIONS Milestone 1 Project initiation Milestone 3 Design specification sign-off Year 1 Year 2 3-8 year lifespan

23 Difficulties in Software Development
Merge Sort 4/12/2017 9:08 PM Difficulties in Software Development Sotware quality: whether the software “fits for purpose”, satisfies all user requirements. Example failures It might work, but dreadful to use (user) It is pretty, but does not do anything useful (user) Users and owners may not know how to ask for what they really want, e.g. “We built what they said they wanted” (developer) Budget and time constraints often conflict with doing the job properly, e.g. “There was not enough time to do it any better” (developer) Difficulties for the possession of blended skills, e.g. “Do not blame me, I never done object-oriented analysis before” (developer)

24 Software Development Process
Merge Sort 4/12/2017 9:08 PM Software Development Process Subdividing the process of software development into different phases Ease of management to produce appropriate quality standard and to stay within the allocated budgest Help to identify and allocate developers’ skills appropriately, and thus improve the quality of the task completion Known as project life cycle model

25 Difficulties in Software Development
Merge Sort 4/12/2017 9:08 PM Difficulties in Software Development Productivity: the progress of the project, and the resources (including time and money) that it consumes along the way (much related to project management) Example failures A system that is promised but not delivered (user) It is no use delivering now, we need it last April (owner) Projects that overspend their budget (owner) Requirements drift, e.g. user changes their minds frequently(develper) Implementation not feasible, e.g. we said it was impossible, but no-one listened (developer) How to overcome them?

26 Project Life Cycle Two important precursor phases are
Merge Sort 4/12/2017 9:08 PM Project Life Cycle Don´t blindly follow the path to automation. The very first question is whether or not you even need a computer system...” Two important precursor phases are Strategic Information Systems Planning Business Modelling Focus on organisation needs They are not computational Universially accepted for commercially oriented computer system development Strategic Information Systems Planning. As we saw in Chapter 1, information systems work within the context of an organization and must satisfy its current requirements as well as providing a basis from which future needs can be addressed. In order to do this, strategic plans are developed for the organization as a whole and within their context a strategic view of information systems needs can be formed. For example, in the Agate case study a strategic decision may be made to target multinational companies for international advertising campaigns. This has consequences for campaign management and its supporting information systems. Business modelling. In order to determine how an information system can support a particular business activity it is important to understand how the activity is performed and how it contributes to the objectives of the organization. Campaign management is an important business function for Agate and it should be modelled in order to determine how it is carried out, thus providing some of the parameters for subsequent information systems development.

27 Generic Life Cycle Models
Merge Sort 4/12/2017 9:08 PM Generic Life Cycle Models The Waterfall Model Prototyping Iterative and Incremental Development The Unified Process Life Cycle

28 Waterfall Life Cycle Requirements specification
Merge Sort 4/12/2017 9:08 PM Waterfall Life Cycle Requirements specification Functional specification Acceptance test specifications Unit test report Sub-system test report System test report Acceptance test report Completed system Software architecture specification System test specification Design specification Sub-system test specification Unit test specification Change requests Change request report

29 Merge Sort 4/12/2017 9:08 PM Waterfall Life Cycle The traditional life cycle (TLC) for information systems development. So called because of the difficulty of returning to an earlier phase. The drawback of the waterfall model is the difficulty of accommodating change after the process is underway

30 Merge Sort 4/12/2017 9:08 PM TLC with Iteration The cost of this form of iteration increases as the project progresses making it impractical and not effective

31 Merge Sort 4/12/2017 9:08 PM Problems with TLC Real projects rarely follow such a simple sequential life cycle Lapsed time between systems engineering and the final installation is long Iterations are almost inevitable in real projects but are expensive & problematic with the TLC Unresponsive to changes during project as iteration is difficult Therefore, this model is only appropriate when the requirements are well-understood

32 Strengths of TLC Provide a very structured way to system development
Merge Sort 4/12/2017 9:08 PM Strengths of TLC Provide a very structured way to system development Tasks in phases may be assigned to specialized teams. Project progress evaluated at the end of each phase, and assessment made as to whether the project should proceed

33 Prototyping Life Cycle
Merge Sort 4/12/2017 9:08 PM Prototyping Life Cycle Not intended to deliver the final working system Quickly built up to explore some aspects of the system May be used as part of other iterative life cycle Perform an initial analysis. All software development activity utilizes valuable re­sources. Embarking upon a prototyping exercise without some initial analysis is likely to result in an ill-focused and unstructured activity producing poorly designed software. Define prototype objectives. Prototyping should have clearly stated objectives. A proto­typing exercise may involve many iterations, each iteration resulting in some improv­ement to the prototype. This may make it difficult for the participants in a prototyping exercise to determine if there is sufficient value to continue the prototyping. However, with clearly defined objectives it should be possible to decide if they have been achieved. Specify prototype. Although the prototype is not intended for extended operation it is important that it embodies the requisite behaviour. It is almost certainly the case that the proto­type will be subject to modification and this will be easier if the software is built according to sound design principles. Construct prototype. Since it is important that prototype development is rapid, the use of a rapid development environment is appropriate. For example, if an interactive system is being prototyped, environments such as DelphiTM or Visual Basic® can be most effective. Evaluate prototype and recommend changes. The purpose of the prototype is to test or explore some aspect of the proposed system. The prototype should be evaluated with respect to the objectives identified at the beginning of the exercise. If the objectives have not been met then the evaluation should specify modifications to the prototype so that it may achieve its objectives. The last three stages are repeated until the objectives of the prototyping exercise are achieved.

34 Prototyping – Advantages
Merge Sort 4/12/2017 9:08 PM Prototyping – Advantages Early demonstrations of system functionality help identify any misunderstandings between developer and client Client requirements that have been missed are identified Difficulties in the interface can be identified The feasibility and usefulness of the system can be tested, even though, by its very nature, the prototype is incomplete

35 Prototyping – Problems:
Merge Sort 4/12/2017 9:08 PM Prototyping – Problems: The client may perceive the prototype as part of the final system The prototype may divert attention from functional to solely interface issues Prototyping requires significant user involvement Managing the prototyping life cycle requires careful decision making

36 Incremental Development
Merge Sort 4/12/2017 9:08 PM Incremental Development The Spiral Model (Boehm, 1988)

37 Incremental Development
Merge Sort 4/12/2017 9:08 PM Incremental Development Iterative problem solving: repeats activities, each can be viewed as a mini-project Incremental delivery, either external or internal release New release = new functionality + (improved) previous release Several approaches to structuring iterations Define and implement the key system functions Focus on one subsystem at a time Define by complexity or risk of certain components

38 Unified Process Life Cycle
Merge Sort 4/12/2017 9:08 PM Unified Process Life Cycle The Unified Process System Development Life Cycle

39 Unified Process Life Cycle
Merge Sort 4/12/2017 9:08 PM Unified Process Life Cycle

40 Unified Process Life Cycle
Merge Sort 4/12/2017 9:08 PM Unified Process Life Cycle Captures many elements of best practice The phases are: Inception is concerned with determining the scope and purpose of the project; Elaboration focuses requirements capture and determining the structure of the system; Construction's main aim is to build the software system; Transition deals with product installation and rollout.

41 Choose Appropriate Life Cycle
Merge Sort 4/12/2017 9:08 PM Choose Appropriate Life Cycle TCL is highly predictive Prototyping, Spiral and UP life cycle models are highly adaptive Predictive versus adaptive approaches to the SDLC Back

42 Problem Biaya (Kasus Gunung Es)

43 Distribusi Usaha Pengembangan Sistem

44 Problem Kesalahpahaman

45 System Designers and System Builders
System designer – a technical specialist who translates system users’ business requirements and constraints into technical solution. She or he designs the computer databases, inputs, outputs, screens, networks, and software that will meet the system users’ requirements. System builders – a technical specialist who constructs information systems and components based on the design specifications generated by the system designers.

46 Systems Analysts Systems analyst – a specialist who studies the problems and needs of an organization to determine how people, data, processes, and information technology can best accomplish improvements for the business. A programmer/analyst includes the responsibilities of both the computer programmer and the systems analyst. A business analyst focuses on only the non-technical aspects of systems analysis and design.

47 The Systems Analyst as a Problem-Solver
By "Problems" that need solving, we mean: Problems, either real or anticipated, that require corrective action Opportunities to improve a situation despite the absence of complaints Directives to change a situation regardless of whether anyone has complained about the current situation

48 Where Do Systems Analysts Work?

49 Skills Needed by the Systems Analyst
Working knowledge of information technology Computer programming experience and expertise General business knowledge General problem-solving skills Good interpersonal communication skills Good interpersonal relations skills Flexibility and adaptability Character and ethics

50 The Systems Analyst as a Facilitator

51 The Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics
1. Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people. 2. Thou shalt not interfere with other people’s computer work. 3. Thou shalt not snoop around in other people’s computer files. 4. Thou shalt not use a computer to steal. 5. Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness. 6. Thou shalt not copy or use proprietary software for which you have not paid. 7. Thou shalt not use other people’s computer resources without authorization or proper compensation. 8. Thou shalt not appropriate other people’s intellectual output. 9. Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you are writing or the system you are designing. 10. Thou shalt always use a computer in ways that insure consideration and respect for your fellow human Back Source: Computer Ethics Institute

52 Technology Drivers for Today’s Information Systems
Networks and the Internet Mobile and Wireless Technologies Object Technologies Collaborative Technologies Enterprise Applications

53 Networks and the Internet
Networks include mainframe time-sharing systems, network servers, and a variety of desktop, laptop, and handheld client computers. The most pervasive networking technologies are based on the Internet. XHTML and XML Scripting languages Web-specific programming languages Intranets Extranets Portals Web services

54 Mobile and Wireless Technologies
Some mobile and wireless technologies PDAs Smart phones Bluetooth Wireless networking Impact on information systems Wireless connectivity must be assumed Limitations of mobile devices and screen sizes must be accommodated

55 Object Technologies Object technology – a software technology that defines a system in terms of objects that consolidate data and behavior (into objects). Objects are reusable Objects are extensible Object-oriented programming languages include C++, Java, Smalltalk, and .NET Object-oriented analysis and design – a collection of tools and techniques for systems development that will utilize object technologies to construct a system and its software. Agile development – a system development strategy in which system developers are given the flexibility to select from a variety of tools and techniques to best accomplish the tasks at hand.

56 Collaborative Technologies
Collaborate technologies are those that enhance interpersonal communications and teamwork. Instant messaging Groupware Work flow

57 Enterprise Applications
Virtually all organizations require a core set of enterprise applications Financial mgmt, human resources, sales, etc. Frequently purchased Frequently need to have custom elements added Systems Integration - the process of building a unified information system out of diverse components of purchases software, custom-built software, hardware, and networking.

58 Enterprise Applications

59 Enterprise Application Integration

60 That’s it for today…. Next chapter : Konsep Dasar Sistem Tugas :
Buat kelompok (maks 5 mhs/klp) Membuat ringkasan tentang Sistem dan Sistem Analis Dalam bentuk PPT (maks. 10 slide) Presentasikan minggu depan (10 mnt/klp)


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