Presentation on theme: "ANALISIS dan PERANCANGAN SISTEM (INFORMASI)"— Presentation transcript:
1 ANALISIS dan PERANCANGAN SISTEM (INFORMASI) Catur Iswahyudi, S.Kom, S.EBlog:catur.dosen.akprind.ac.idDepartment of Informatics EngineeringInstitute of Science and Technology AKPRIND
2 Gambaran Umum Prasyarat : Penunjang : Tools : Tujuan : Kompetensi : Agar mahasiswa mengerti dan mampu menggunakan teknik-teknik serta perangkat untuk analisis, perancangan, dan pemodelan sistem.Kompetensi :Mampu mengimplementasikan Analisis & Perancangan Sistem menggunakan alat bantu perangkat lunakPrasyarat :S1 – Sistem Informasi (TIFS 1407)Penunjang :Prakt. Analisis & Perancangan SistemTools :Easy CASEMicrosoft AccessMicrosoft VisioMicrosoft Project
3 MATERI Pendahuluan : Kontrak Pembelajaran, RPP Konsep Dasar Sistem Analisis SistemSiklus Hidup SistemPerancangan Sistem Secara UmumPendekatan Perancangan TerstrukturFlowchartPerancangan Sistem Terinci (Output dan Input)Perancangan Sistem Terinci (Basisdata)Pemodelan Sistem (DFD)Pengujian dan Jaminan Kualitas SistemManajemen pengembangan sistemStudy Kasus
4 PUSTAKAKenneth E. Kendall dan Julie E. Kendall, System Analysis and Design 8th Edition, Pearson Education Ltd, 2011 (printed only)Gary B. Shelly dan Harry J. Rosenblatt, System Analysis and Design 8th Edition, Course Technology, 2010 (ebook available)Arthur M. Langer, Analysis and Design of Information Systems 3rd Edition, Springer-Verlag London Limited, 2008 (ebook available)Jeffrey L. Whitten dan Lonnie D. Bentley, Systems Analysis and Design Methods 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2007 (ebook available)
5 Administratif Penilaian : Tugas : 50 %UTS : 20 %UAS : 20 %Kehadiran : 10 %Syarat ikut UAS, kehadiran min. 75% dari kehadiran dosen (0,75x14=10,5)Dasar : Surat Edaran no. 231/Rek/II/2011Jumlah Ijin maks 4 kali
6 Penilaian Acuan Patokan Skor Nilai Akhir :Dasar :SK No. 073/Skep/Rek/2008, tanggal 20 Peb 2008NA = 0,5*Tugas+0,2*UTS+0,2*UAS+0,1*HadirA NA = 80 – 100B NA = 60 – 79C NA = 40 – 59D NA = 20 – 39E NA =
7 Strategi Perkuliahan Kuliah tatap muka (40%) Diskusi dan tugas (60%) Mengantarkan pokok bahasan dan menjelaskan isi dari sub pokok bahasan secara berurutan.Diskusi dan tugas (60%)Pendalaman materi berupa latihan soal akan dilakukan pada pertemuan tertentu, untuk dikerjakan secara individu dan/atau berkelompok serta dipecahkan bersama-sama kelompoknya.Tugas diberikan 4 kali dalam satu semester; 2 sebelum UTS dan 2 sebelum UASQuiz (optional) dilakukan 1 kali dalam satu semester; dengan tidak terjadwalSetiap bahan bacaan yang dijadikan materi pada setiap tatap muka harus sudah dibaca terlebih dahulu sebelum mengikuti perkuliahan agar mahasiswa lebih mudah mengikuti acara perkuliahanMahasiswa WAJIB mengerjakan tugas-tugas (latihan soal) yang akan diberikan setelah acara perkuliahan
8 Download materi Staff site: elista.akprind.ac.id/staff/catur/APSI Update setiap hari KAMIS(cek untuk update materi dan tugas)
9 Kalender Akademik Kuliah : 19 Sept 2011 – 6 Jan 2012 UTS : 7 – 18 Nopember 2011Pengganti : 9 – 11 Jan 2012UAS : 16 Jan – 27 Feb 2012
10 How to get “A” grade ?Attend classes regularly. On time. Listen and train to pay attention. Make sure you get all missed assignments (by contacting the lecture or another student)Take advantage of extra credit opportunities when offered. Care about your grades and are willing to work to improve yourselfAttentive in class. Don't talk, read, or stare out windows. Turn your mobile phone off ! In other words, You are polite and respectful, even if you get a little boredSee your lecture before or after class or during office hours about grades, comments on your papers, and upcoming tests. End up at your lecture's office door at least once during the semesterTurn in assignments that look neat and sharp. Take the time to produce a final product that looks good, and reflects of a care and pride in your workPlus : english reading capability
12 Let’s start our programme Ask these following questions :What is IS ?What does SDLC means ?What is iceberg problem ?Who are Systems Analysts ?What are Technology Drivers for Today’s Information Systems ?GOGOGOGOGO
13 IS and ITA system is a group of interrelated components that function together to achieve a desired result.An information system (IS) is an arrangement of people, data, processes, and information technology that interact to collect, process, store, and provide as output the information needed to support an organization.Information technology is a contemporary term that describes the combination of computer technology (hardware and software) with telecommunications technology (data, image, and voice networks).
15 Types of Information Systems A transaction processing system (TPS) is an information system that captures and processes data about business transactions.A management information system (MIS) is an information system that provides for management-oriented reporting based on transaction processing and operations of the organization.A decision support system (DSS) is an information system that either helps to identify decision making opportunities or provides information to help make decisions.
16 Types of Information Systems (cont.) An expert system is an information system that captures the expertise of workers and then simulates that expertise to the benefit of non-experts.A communications and collaboration system is an information system that enables more effective communications between workers, partners, customers, and suppliers to enhance their ability to collaborate.An office automation system is an information system that supports the wide range of business office activities that provide for improved work flow between workers.Back
17 Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Project PlanningSystem AnalysisSystem DesignConstruction/ImplementationIntegration and TestingInstallationOperation & MaintenanceTesting
18 SDLC Phases Project Planning System Analysis Put project in contextSmall part of a much larger system?New system or modify old?System AnalysisDefine user requirementsAnalyze tasksDevelop specificationsSystem Design - Define the system to be builtLogical designPhysical design
19 SDLC Phases (continued) ConstructionWrite (or buy) the codeIntegration and TestingUnit testing, system testing, acceptance testingInstallationTesting, training, conversionOperations & MaintenancePut into productionFix bugs, add facilities
22 The Classic Waterfall Methodology STAGESEND PRODUCTSPlanning/definitionProject proposal reportStudy/analysisSystem proposal reportDesignDesign specificationsProgram codeProgrammingInstallationTesting and installationMaintenancePostimplementation auditMilestone 2 Design solution decisionMilestone 4 Production decisionOPERATIONSMilestone 1 Project initiationMilestone 3 Design specification sign-offYear 1Year 23-8 year lifespan
23 Difficulties in Software Development Merge Sort4/12/2017 9:08 PMDifficulties in Software DevelopmentSotware quality: whether the software “fits for purpose”, satisfies all user requirements.Example failuresIt might work, but dreadful to use (user)It is pretty, but does not do anything useful (user)Users and owners may not know how to ask for what they really want, e.g. “We built what they said they wanted” (developer)Budget and time constraints often conflict with doing the job properly, e.g. “There was not enough time to do it any better” (developer)Difficulties for the possession of blended skills, e.g. “Do not blame me, I never done object-oriented analysis before” (developer)
24 Software Development Process Merge Sort4/12/2017 9:08 PMSoftware Development ProcessSubdividing the process of software development into different phasesEase of management to produce appropriate quality standard and to stay within the allocated budgestHelp to identify and allocate developers’ skills appropriately, and thus improve the quality of the task completionKnown as project life cycle model
25 Difficulties in Software Development Merge Sort4/12/2017 9:08 PMDifficulties in Software DevelopmentProductivity: the progress of the project, and the resources (including time and money) that it consumes along the way (much related to project management)Example failuresA system that is promised but not delivered (user)It is no use delivering now, we need it last April (owner)Projects that overspend their budget (owner)Requirements drift, e.g. user changes their minds frequently(develper)Implementation not feasible, e.g. we said it was impossible, but no-one listened (developer)How to overcome them?
26 Project Life Cycle Two important precursor phases are Merge Sort4/12/2017 9:08 PMProject Life CycleDon´t blindly follow the path to automation. The very first question is whether or not you even need a computer system...”Two important precursor phases areStrategic Information Systems PlanningBusiness ModellingFocus on organisation needsThey are not computationalUniversially accepted for commercially oriented computer system developmentStrategic Information Systems Planning. As we saw in Chapter 1, information systems work within the context of an organization and must satisfy its current requirements as well as providing a basis from which future needs can be addressed. In order to do this, strategic plans are developed for the organization as a whole and within their context a strategic view of information systems needs can be formed. For example, in the Agate case study a strategic decision may be made to target multinational companies for international advertising campaigns. This has consequences for campaign management and its supporting information systems.Business modelling. In order to determine how an information system can support a particular business activity it is important to understand how the activity is performed and how it contributes to the objectives of the organization. Campaign management is an important business function for Agate and it should be modelled in order to determine how it is carried out, thus providing some of the parameters for subsequent information systems development.
27 Generic Life Cycle Models Merge Sort4/12/2017 9:08 PMGeneric Life Cycle ModelsThe Waterfall ModelPrototypingIterative and Incremental DevelopmentThe Unified Process Life Cycle
28 Waterfall Life Cycle Requirements specification Merge Sort4/12/2017 9:08 PMWaterfall Life CycleRequirements specificationFunctional specificationAcceptance test specificationsUnit test reportSub-system test reportSystem test reportAcceptance test reportCompleted systemSoftware architecture specificationSystem test specificationDesign specificationSub-system test specificationUnit test specificationChange requestsChange request report
29 Merge Sort4/12/2017 9:08 PMWaterfall Life CycleThe traditional life cycle (TLC) for information systems development.So called because of the difficulty of returning to an earlier phase.The drawback of the waterfall model is the difficulty of accommodating change after the process is underway
30 Merge Sort4/12/2017 9:08 PMTLC with IterationThe cost of this form of iteration increases as the project progresses making it impractical and not effective
31 Merge Sort4/12/2017 9:08 PMProblems with TLCReal projects rarely follow such a simple sequential life cycleLapsed time between systems engineering and the final installation is longIterations are almost inevitable in real projects but are expensive & problematic with the TLCUnresponsive to changes during project as iteration is difficultTherefore, this model is only appropriate when the requirements are well-understood
32 Strengths of TLC Provide a very structured way to system development Merge Sort4/12/2017 9:08 PMStrengths of TLCProvide a very structured way to system developmentTasks in phases may be assigned to specialized teams.Project progress evaluated at the end of each phase, and assessment made as to whether the project should proceed
33 Prototyping Life Cycle Merge Sort4/12/2017 9:08 PMPrototyping Life CycleNot intended to deliver the final working systemQuickly built up to explore some aspects of the systemMay be used as part of other iterative life cyclePerform an initial analysis. All software development activity utilizes valuable resources. Embarking upon a prototyping exercise without some initial analysis is likely to result in an ill-focused and unstructured activity producing poorly designed software.Define prototype objectives. Prototyping should have clearly stated objectives. A prototyping exercise may involve many iterations, each iteration resulting in some improvement to the prototype. This may make it difficult for the participants in a prototyping exercise to determine if there is sufficient value to continue the prototyping. However, with clearly defined objectives it should be possible to decide if they have been achieved.Specify prototype. Although the prototype is not intended for extended operation it is important that it embodies the requisite behaviour. It is almost certainly the case that the prototype will be subject to modification and this will be easier if the software is built according to sound design principles.Construct prototype. Since it is important that prototype development is rapid, the use of a rapid development environment is appropriate. For example, if an interactive system is being prototyped, environments such as DelphiTM or Visual Basic® can be most effective.Evaluate prototype and recommend changes. The purpose of the prototype is to test or explore some aspect of the proposed system. The prototype should be evaluated with respect to the objectives identified at the beginning of the exercise. If the objectives have not been met then the evaluation should specify modifications to the prototype so that it may achieve its objectives. The last three stages are repeated until the objectives of the prototyping exercise are achieved.
34 Prototyping – Advantages Merge Sort4/12/2017 9:08 PMPrototyping – AdvantagesEarly demonstrations of system functionality help identify any misunderstandings between developer and clientClient requirements that have been missed are identifiedDifficulties in the interface can be identifiedThe feasibility and usefulness of the system can be tested, even though, by its very nature, the prototype is incomplete
35 Prototyping – Problems: Merge Sort4/12/2017 9:08 PMPrototyping – Problems:The client may perceive the prototype as part of the final systemThe prototype may divert attention from functional to solely interface issuesPrototyping requires significant user involvementManaging the prototyping life cycle requires careful decision making
36 Incremental Development Merge Sort4/12/2017 9:08 PMIncremental DevelopmentThe Spiral Model (Boehm, 1988)
37 Incremental Development Merge Sort4/12/2017 9:08 PMIncremental DevelopmentIterative problem solving: repeats activities, each can be viewed as a mini-projectIncremental delivery, either external or internal releaseNew release = new functionality + (improved) previous releaseSeveral approaches to structuring iterationsDefine and implement the key system functionsFocus on one subsystem at a timeDefine by complexity or risk of certain components
38 Unified Process Life Cycle Merge Sort4/12/2017 9:08 PMUnified Process Life CycleThe Unified Process System Development Life Cycle
39 Unified Process Life Cycle Merge Sort4/12/2017 9:08 PMUnified Process Life Cycle
40 Unified Process Life Cycle Merge Sort4/12/2017 9:08 PMUnified Process Life CycleCaptures many elements of best practiceThe phases are:Inception is concerned with determining the scope and purpose of the project;Elaboration focuses requirements capture and determining the structure of the system;Construction's main aim is to build the software system;Transition deals with product installation and rollout.
41 Choose Appropriate Life Cycle Merge Sort4/12/2017 9:08 PMChoose Appropriate Life CycleTCL is highly predictivePrototyping, Spiral and UP life cycle models are highly adaptivePredictive versus adaptive approaches to the SDLCBack
45 System Designers and System Builders System designer – a technical specialist who translates system users’ business requirements and constraints into technical solution. She or he designs the computer databases, inputs, outputs, screens, networks, and software that will meet the system users’ requirements.System builders – a technical specialist who constructs information systems and components based on the design specifications generated by the system designers.
46 Systems AnalystsSystems analyst – a specialist who studies the problems and needs of an organization to determine how people, data, processes, and information technology can best accomplish improvements for the business.A programmer/analyst includes the responsibilities of both the computer programmer and the systems analyst.A business analyst focuses on only the non-technical aspects of systems analysis and design.
47 The Systems Analyst as a Problem-Solver By "Problems" that need solving, we mean:Problems, either real or anticipated, that require corrective actionOpportunities to improve a situation despite the absence of complaintsDirectives to change a situation regardless of whether anyone has complained about the current situation
49 Skills Needed by the Systems Analyst Working knowledge of information technologyComputer programming experience and expertiseGeneral business knowledgeGeneral problem-solving skillsGood interpersonal communication skillsGood interpersonal relations skillsFlexibility and adaptabilityCharacter and ethics
51 The Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics 1. Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people.2. Thou shalt not interfere with other people’s computer work.3. Thou shalt not snoop around in other people’s computer files.4. Thou shalt not use a computer to steal.5. Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness.6. Thou shalt not copy or use proprietary software for which you have not paid.7. Thou shalt not use other people’s computer resources without authorization or proper compensation.8. Thou shalt not appropriate other people’s intellectual output.9. Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you are writing or the system you are designing.10. Thou shalt always use a computer in ways that insure consideration and respect for your fellow humanBackSource: Computer Ethics Institute
52 Technology Drivers for Today’s Information Systems Networks and the InternetMobile and Wireless TechnologiesObject TechnologiesCollaborative TechnologiesEnterprise Applications
53 Networks and the Internet Networks include mainframe time-sharing systems, network servers, and a variety of desktop, laptop, and handheld client computers.The most pervasive networking technologies are based on the Internet.XHTML and XMLScripting languagesWeb-specific programming languagesIntranetsExtranetsPortalsWeb services
54 Mobile and Wireless Technologies Some mobile and wireless technologiesPDAsSmart phonesBluetoothWireless networkingImpact on information systemsWireless connectivity must be assumedLimitations of mobile devices and screen sizes must be accommodated
55 Object TechnologiesObject technology – a software technology that defines a system in terms of objects that consolidate data and behavior (into objects).Objects are reusableObjects are extensibleObject-oriented programming languages include C++, Java, Smalltalk, and .NETObject-oriented analysis and design – a collection of tools and techniques for systems development that will utilize object technologies to construct a system and its software.Agile development – a system development strategy in which system developers are given the flexibility to select from a variety of tools and techniques to best accomplish the tasks at hand.
56 Collaborative Technologies Collaborate technologies are those that enhance interpersonal communications and teamwork.Instant messagingGroupwareWork flow
57 Enterprise Applications Virtually all organizations require a core set of enterprise applicationsFinancial mgmt, human resources, sales, etc.Frequently purchasedFrequently need to have custom elements addedSystems Integration - the process of building a unified information system out of diverse components of purchases software, custom-built software, hardware, and networking.
60 That’s it for today…. Next chapter : Konsep Dasar Sistem Tugas : Buat kelompok (maks 5 mhs/klp)Membuat ringkasan tentang Sistem dan Sistem AnalisDalam bentuk PPT (maks. 10 slide)Presentasikan minggu depan (10 mnt/klp)