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HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen1 Nuclear Physics: quarks, nucleons and nuclei (QNK) Prof. dr. G. van der Steenhoven and Prof. dr.

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Presentation on theme: "HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen1 Nuclear Physics: quarks, nucleons and nuclei (QNK) Prof. dr. G. van der Steenhoven and Prof. dr."— Presentation transcript:

1 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen1 Nuclear Physics: quarks, nucleons and nuclei (QNK) Prof. dr. G. van der Steenhoven and Prof. dr. H. Löhner 5 th ( and last!) edition, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, May 2 - June23, ‘06

2 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen2 Some excitement to begin with…. 2003: the claimed discovery of : Pentaquarks Known particles built up from quarks: –Mesons (or - pairs): –Baryons (or - configurations): Theoretical prediction (“QCD”) – configurations exist  – but they were never found….

3 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen3

4 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen4 The experimental work 5 GeV electron accelerator - JLab at Newport News: The reaction  + p   + (1540) in Hall B: Hall B

5 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen5 HERMES SAPHIRLEPS The experimental evidence Results of three more experiments: In all cases: surprisingly narrow peak near 1535 MeV/c 2 ??

6 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen6 Why would this be a pentaquark? What is observed:  + p → (K + + n) + X Positive kaon (K + ) and neutron (n) originate from: [There is no s-quark that can annihilate the anti s-quark.] But many questions remain: –What is the dynamic structure of the  + ? –What are the quantum numbers of the  + ? –Is there evidence for other pentaquark particles ?

7 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen7 u u d d u d d u u u u d d d u d u a) Five quarks in a s - state configuration. b) Five quarks in a K + -n molecular configuration. c) Five quarks in a strong diquark correlation state. d) Collective excitation of a multiquark configuration. Pentaquark models…..... u d d

8 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen8 The bottom line… Pentaquarks: example of exciting ongoing frontline research topic in QNK Physics…(to be continued !) What else today: –What is the scope of Modern Nuclear/Particle Physics? –Purpose, organization and terms of the lectures –The real beginning: some basic Particle Physics

9 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen9 Study of resonances by hyperon production hyperon polarization models for resonance structure

10 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen10 Some Places to Explore Non-Pertubative QCD charmonium spectroscopy ( states) gluonic excitations: hybrids: “ordinary” quark states containing excited glue glueballs: gluonic states without valence quark contribution  -ray spectroscopy of hypernuclei

11 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen11 Stranges s Neutron Number Extension of the Nuclear Chart We do not yet understand the interaction of normal matter with hyperon matter !

12 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen12 Neutrino Astronomy Consider distant sources of radiation: –Supernovae,  Quasars, GRBs, AGNs, …. Effect of interstellar medium: –High-energy EM radiation is (partly) absorbed –Protons are bended – can be traced back to the source  p

13 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen13 Active Galaxy (e.g. M87) Black hole with 10 8 x mass of sun  10 4 ly extra-galactic Microquasar (SS433 etc.) Black hole with  mass of sun  1 ly galactic Possible neutrino point sources Supernova remnant (Crab nebula)

14 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen14 p p  KM3NET: basic concept Underwater Cherenkov detector of ~ 1 km 3

15 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen15 present experiment: “Antares” Neutrino Telescope Strings with phototubes in the water of the Mediterranean Sea Sequence of light signals indicates the track and the energy of particles

16 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen16 Many subfields Not all covered in present lectures! Many front lines! Nuclear structure Super heavy nuclei Rare isotopes Nucl. astrophysics nucleons atomicnuclei The scope of Nuclear Physics NN-interaction Few-body physics Entanglement Strangeness QCD New qg-systems The origin of mass and spin of hadrons Parity violation Neutrino masses Fundamental constants Beyond Standard Model Astroparticle Physics heavy ions quarks & gluons neutrinos Quark Gluon Plasma Phases of matter

17 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen17 The scope of this lecture series Physics of elementary constituents: quarks, gluons Physics of elementary interactions: QCD Composite quark-gluon systems: pions, protons Protons, neutrons & other hadrons: NN-interactions Atomic nuclei: structure, reactions What we hope to achieve: Understanding of modern subatomic physics literature

18 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen18 Selection of topics The discovery of quarks The discovery of gluons Structure of nucleons Relativistic quantum mechanics Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) The N-N interaction, the deuteron Nuclear reactions, spectroscopy Models of the atomic nucleus

19 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen19 Educational methods used Regular lectures: use the opportunity! Student presentations on, e.g.: –Neutrino mass and oscillations –Nuclear  -decay –The quark-gluon plasma –CP violation –The nuclear shell model –Weak neutral currents Oral exam end June or early July 2006: –Discuss recent nuclear physics article from Physical Review Letters (4 pages)

20 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen20 Literature and notes Recommended text books: –Povh, Rith, Scholz and Zetsche (Springer) 1995: “Particles and Nuclei” –Burcham and Jobes (Prentice Hall) 1995: “Nuclear and Particle Physics” Additional useful sources Heyde (IoP) 1994: “Basic ideas and concepts in nuclear physics” Zuber (IoP) 2004: “Neutrino Physics” Lecture notes on the web: –www.nikhef.nl/~gerard under Lectures –www.kvi.nl/~loehner/college/college.html

21 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen21 How to study? Lectures: –Emphasis on physical concepts –No long derivations → home work For each subject: –Introduction in the lectures –In-depth understanding → self study –Application: student presentations Exam: –Discussion of recent paper

22 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen22 Who is who? Gerard van der Steenhoven: –Quark-gluon physics at DESY/Hamburg –ANTARES Groupleader at NIKHEF –Chair Committee for Astroparticle Physics NL –Professor of Exp. Nuclear Physics RUG Herbert Löhner: –Meson-nucleon physics at KVI/Bonn/GSI –PANDA (GSI / D) Groupleader at KVI –Professor of Exp. Nuclear Physics RUG –dir. opleiding natuurkunde/techn. natuurkunde

23 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen23 What else today The beauty of QNK! Practical issues… Introduction “Basic Particle Physics” ‘Particles and Nuclei’ particle production in e+e- ollisions hadron resonances

24 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen24 Why quarks, nucleons and nuclei? Basis of modern nuclear physics Current themes in nuclear physics: 1.QCD-basis of nuclear physics? 2.Does the Quark-Gluon Plasma exist? 

25 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen25 Why quarks, nucleons and nuclei? Current themes in nuclear physics (cnt’d): 3.What are the limits of nuclear stability? 4.New physics beyond the Standard Model at low E (neutrino mass!)  Interface nuclear and particle physics

26 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen26 Why quarks, nucleons and nuclei? Current themes in nuclear physics (cnt’d): 5.Relevance to astronomy: [Development of Astroparticle Physics in NL!] 6.Applications: Archeology: dating Lungs: 3 He tomographyProton therapy

27 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen27 Some practical issues Please ask questions: – Now…. or at any moment…… – ….or at the next lecture…… – – List of names + addresses Overview of lecturing dates Organization of student presentations

28 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen28 Kernfysica: Quarks Nucleonen en Kernen This lecture will be given in quarter 4 of the study-year 2005/2006. lecture period: lectures will be given by Prof. dr. Herbert Löhner (KVI Groningen) and Prof. dr. Gerard van der Steenhoven (NIKHEF Amsterdam) lecture hours: Tuesday 09: :00 in room Friday 09: :00 in room schedule of the lectures and student contributions (.ppt) find slides from Herbert Löhner here: ( ) lecture 1: Tuesday, May 2 lecture 2: Tuesday, May 16 lecture 3: Friday, May 19 lecture 4: Tuesday, May 23 lecture 5: Friday, May 25 schedule lecture 6: Tuesday, June 13 find slides from Gerard van der Steenhoven herefind slides from Gerard van der Steenhoven here ( ) Student contributions: (will be listed here once presented) Oral tentamen: schedule will be discussed in the course of the lecture. Every student will receive one week in advance a recent publication for the tentamen-discussion.

29 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen29 Tuesday 09:15-11:00 room Friday 9:15 –12:00 room HL Introduction, basic particle physics and hadron structure 5.5. General Holiday No lectures 9.5. GvdS Basic nuclear physics12.5. GvdS Electron scattering off nuclei, nucleons and quarks HL The structure of mesons and baryons19.5. HL The nucleon-nucleon interaction HL Nuclear reactions26.5. HL Collective nuclear excitations GvdS Relativistic Quantum Mechanics2.6. GvdS Applications of Dirac Theory 6.6. GvdS Quantum Chromodynamics I9.6. GvdS Quantum Chromodynamics II + astro-particle physics HL (spare time) + charmonium, hybrids and glueballs HL/GvdS 3 student presentations GvdS &HL; 2 student presentations GvdS &HL; 3 student presentations (extra day) 9:00 – 14:00 KVI: Oral Examination (ca. 30 min p.p.) Lecturers: GvdS = G. van der Steenhoven; HL = H. Löhner

30 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen30 Subjects for student presentations DateSubjectName Neutrino Mass and Oscillations (BJ 15.3) Nuclear  decay (Povh, 17.6 and BJ 5.2) Neutrino Scattering (BJ & ) The nuclear shell model (Heyde Ch. 9) Charmonium spectroscopy (handout) Neutron stars (Povh, p. 226 etc.) Collective model & Superdeform. (BJ 4.3) The quark-gluon plasma (Povh, Ch. 20) 9Weak neutral currents (BJ ) 10CP violation in kaon decay (BJ 11.13) 11Nuclear reactions (BJ 6.2 – 6.5) 12The spin of the proton (handout) 13Analysis of resonances (BJ 9.2)

31 HL- May 2, 2006Kernfysica: quarks, nucleonen en kernen31 Select a subject Discuss literature with one of the lecturers Study the subject Make link to the rest of the lecture Design a presentation (30 min.) Make use of Power Point or Foil-Tex (PDF) Pre-discussion with lecturer Make final presentation Give at least one rehearsal talk Transport presentation via CD or memory stick How to prepare a student lecture?


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