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INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL.

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Presentation on theme: "INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL."— Presentation transcript:

1 INDEKS KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN = Environmental Sustainability Index Diabstraksikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub, desember 2012 Bahan Kajian pada MK. PSDAL EKO-EFISIENSI

2 ECO-EFFICIENCY Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012 The term eco-efficiency was coined by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) in its 1992 publication "Changing Course". It is based on the concept of creating more goods and services while using fewer resources and creating less waste and pollution. According to the WBCSD definition, eco-efficiency is achieved through the delivery of "competitively priced goods and services that satisfy human needs and bring quality of life while progressively reducing environmental impacts of goods and resource intensity throughout the entire life-cycle to a level at least in line with the Earth's estimated carrying capacity.“

3 ECO-EFFICIENCY Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012 This EE-concept describes a vision for the production of economically valuable goods and services while reducing the ecological impacts of production. In other words eco- efficiency means producing more with less. According to the WBCSD, critical aspects of eco-efficiency are: 1.A reduction in the material intensity of goods or services; 2.A reduction in the energy intensity of goods or services; 3.Reduced dispersion of toxic materials; 4.Improved recyclability; 5.Maximum use of renewable resources; 6.Greater durability of products; 7.Increased service intensity of goods and services.

4 ECO-EFFICIENCY Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012 According to Boulanger (Boulanger, P.M “Three strategies for sustainable consumption”. S.A.P.I.EN.S. 3 (2), all versions of eco- efficiency share four key characteristics: 1.Confidence in technological innovation as the main solution to un- sustainability; 2.Reliance on business as the principal actor of transformation. The emphasis is on firms designing new products, shifting to new production processes, and investing in R&D, etc., more than on the retailer or the consumer, let alone the citizen. 3.Trust in markets (if they are functioning well); 4.“Growthphilia”: there is nothing wrong with growth as such. Moreover, with “cradle-to-cradle”, growth is conducive to sustainability per se.

5 INTENSITAS SUMBERDAYA Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012 Resource intensity is a measure of the resources (e.g. water, energy, materials) needed for the production, processing and disposal of a unit of good or service, or for the completion of a process or activity; it is therefore a measure of the efficiency of resource use. It is often expressed as the quantity of resource embodied in unit cost e.g. litres of water per $1 spent on product. In national economic and sustainability accounting it can be calculated as units of resource expended per unit of GDP. When applied to a single person it is expressed as the resource use of that person per unit of consumption. Relatively high resource intensities indicate a high price or environmental cost of converting resource into GDP; low resource intensity indicates a lower price or environmental cost of converting resource into GDP.GDP Lorentzen, J. (ed) Resource intensity, knowledge and development: insights from Africa and South America. HSRC Press, South Africa. ISBN ISBN ISBN ISBN

6 PRODUCTIVITAS SUMBERDAYA Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012 Resource productivity and resource intensity are key concepts used in sustainability measurement as they measure attempts to decouple the connection between resource use and environmental degradation. Resource productivity is the quantity of good or service (outcome) that is obtained through the expenditure of unit resource. This can be expressed in monetary terms as the monetary yield per unit resource. For example, when applied to crop irrigation it is the yield of crop obtained through use of a given volume of irrigation water, the “crop per drop”, which could also be expressed as monetary return from product per use of unit irrigation water. Their strength is that they can be used as a metric for both economic and environmental cost. Although these concepts are two sides of the same coin, in practice they involve very different approaches and can be viewed as reflecting, on the one hand, the efficiency of resource production as outcome per unit of resource use (resource productivity) and, on the other hand, the efficiency of resource consumption as resource use per unit outcome (resource intensity). The sustainability objective is to maximize resource productivity while minimizing resource intensity.

7 SUSTAINABILITY Diunduh dari: 29/11/2012 Resource productivity and resource intensity are key concepts used in sustainability measurement as they attempt to decouple the direct connection between resource use and environmental degradation.resource intensity Their strength is that they can be used as a metric for both economic and environmental cost. Although these concepts are two sides of the same coin, in practice they involve very different approaches and can be viewed as reflecting, on the one hand, the efficiency of resource production as outcome per unit of resource use (resource productivity) and, on the other hand, the efficiency of resource consumption as resource use per unit outcome (resource intensity). The sustainability objective is to maximize resource productivity while minimizing resource intensity.

8 SUSTAINABLE VALUE Diunduh dari: ……………… 29/11/2012 Sustainable value is based on the notion of opportunity costs. Opportunity costs are used in financial markets to calculate the cost of capital. In financial markets, the cost of using $ 100 over the course of one year is determined by the return that could have been generated through an alternative investment of the capital. Sustainable Value is the first concept to extend this logic to environmental and social resources. Sustainable value is calculated in five steps: 1.Calculate the environmental, social and economic efficiencies of the entity using the resources. Efficiency is calculated by relating the return to resource use. 2.Calculate the environmental, social and economic efficiencies of the benchmark (= calculate opportunity costs). 3.Calculate the value spreads by subtracting the efficiency of the benchmark (Step 2) from the efficiency of the entity (Step 1). 4.Calculate the value contributions by multiplying the amount of environmental, social and economic resources used with the corresponding value spread (Step 3), respectively. 5.Calculate sustainable value by adding up the value contributions (Step 4) and dividing by the number of resources considered. This avoids double counting.

9 OPPORTUNITY COST Diunduh dari: ……………… 28/11/2012 Opportunity cost is the cost of any activity measured in terms of the value of the next best alternative forgone (that is not chosen). It is the sacrifice related to the second best choice available to someone, or group, who has picked among several mutually exclusive choices. The opportunity cost is also the "cost" (as a lost benefit) of the forgone products after making a choice. Opportunity cost is a key concept in economics, and has been described as expressing "the basic relationship between scarcity and choice". The notion of opportunity cost plays a crucial part in ensuring that scarce resources are used efficiently. Thus, opportunity costs are not restricted to monetary or financial costs: the real cost of output forgone, lost time, pleasure or any other benefit that provides utility should also be considered opportunity costs.

10 .Ekoefisiensi - RTH Kota

11 Eco-efficiency Makes becoming more efficient good business sense. More value from lower inputs of materials & energy with reduced emissions Applies throughout a company - all departments Ada tiga tujuan besar Diunduh dari sumber: ‎

12 TUJUAN 1 Mengurangi konsumsi sumberdaya – energy – materials – water – land Diunduh dari sumber: ‎

13 Mengurangi dampak lingkungan dengan jalan meminimumkan: – air emissions – water discharges – waste disposal – dispersion of toxic substances – and sustainable use of renewable resources Diunduh dari sumber: ‎ TUJUAN 2

14 Meningkatkan nilai produk atau jasa dengan jalan menyediakan lebih banyak manfaat bagi konsumen melalui: – product functionality – flexibility – modularity – focussing on selling functional needs Diunduh dari sumber: ‎ TUJUAN 3

15 Tujuan tambahan Implement and Environmental Management System to drive this approach: – ensures all risks and opportunities are identified & managed Diunduh dari sumber: ‎

16 Implementasi Eco-efficiency Ada empat tahapan implementasi Works in all types of organisations from Large transnational companies to small & medium sized enterprises (SMEs) Applicable in developing countries and emerging economies as well as industrialised nations Diunduh dari sumber: ‎

17 Step One Rekayasa proses untuk: – reduce consumption of resources – reduce pollution – Menghindari risiko – Menghemat biaya Diunduh dari sumber: ‎

18 Step Two Co-operate with other companies to find new ways to deal with by-products from their processes – striving for zero-waste or 100% product targets can help find other companies who use their so-called waste Diunduh dari sumber: ‎

19 Step Three Redesign products using sustainable or ecodesign techniques to: – use less energy – use less water – Menggunakan sedikit material – Memungkinkan daur-ulang – Dll. Diunduh dari sumber: ‎

20 Step Four Identify new ways of meeting customer needs – work with stakeholders to rethink markets & reshape demand and supply – find different and better ways to satisfy needs Diunduh dari sumber: ‎

21 Sejarah Eco-efficiency 1.Pertamakali digunakan peneliti Swiss tahun Idea that preventing pollution and avoiding waste pays off financially pre-dates this by 15 years 3.3M initiated its pollution prevention pays (3P) in $800 million savings in first years through 4000 projects 4.Dow Chemicals followed with Waste Reduction Always Pays (WRAP) programme Diunduh dari sumber: ‎

22 Concept taken up by World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) WBCSD helped many companies in Europe, North & Latin America adopt the principle (now on other continents) WBCSD stated that “only what gets measured gets done” so they developed a framework for measuring eco-efficiency Diunduh dari sumber: ‎ Sejarah Eco-efficiency

23 Keterbatasan Eco-Efficiency 1.Increase efficiency will not be enough but instead need an absolute cutback in resource use. 2.Eco-effectiveness instead - use innovation more 3.Sufficiency rather than efficiency 4.Only cover two of three elements of sustainability 5.However it is not meant to be an all-inclusive panacea Diunduh dari sumber: ‎

24 Mengarahkan peluang ekoefisiensi

25 VW Lupo Brought to market 1999 Fuel consumption 3 litres per 100 km Innovative design with eco-efficiency elements Low-emissions VW state that performance is optimised throughout life cycle Built from recycled steel Production minimises waste & emissions Designed for dismantling and recycling Meets customers needs – good driving performance at low price Diunduh dari sumber: ‎

26 Car Sharing in Switzerland Since 1997 Swiss Federal Railways co-operated with a car sharing company. Service for people who frequently want to use a car without buying one. Cars parked at pre-defined places, ready for use for a pre- announced period of time 1300 cars in 330 communities in Switzerland Members change travel behaviour - 2/3rds travel by public transport Car sharers consume less than half the amount of fuel they did when they had their own car Diunduh dari sumber: ‎

27 Ekoefisiensi……...!!

28 Apakah Eco-Efficiency cukup ? Achieved through the delivery of “competitively priced goods and services that satisfy human needs and bring quality of life while progressively reducing environmental impacts and resource intensity throughout the entire life-cycle to a level in line with the Earth’s estimated carrying capacity.” NO Diunduh dari: ‎

29 Menuju Paradigma Baru Eco-Efficiency Eco-Effectiveness Bridging the Gap Diunduh dari: ‎

30 Eco-Efficiency vs. Eco-Effectiveness Maximize profit / growth Cradle to Grave Using Less Maximize Productivity Relative Measure Minimize Loss Efficient Design Narrow View Continual Improvement Stability Cradle to Cradle Using Less Minimize Impact Absolute Measure No Net Loss Effective Design Holistic View Radical Innovation Minimize FootprintStabilize Footprint Diunduh dari: ‎

31 Consumerism Drivers Policy Makers Industry Disruptive Innovation Restoration Offset Volunteer Policies Incentives (+,-) Purchasing Diunduh dari: ‎

32 Eco-Efficiency Eco-Effectiveness Bridging the Gap Consumerism Incentives Industry Policy Efficiency Volunteer Programs Purchasing Innovation Restoration Offset Diunduh dari: ‎ Menuju Paradigma Baru

33 Kemana kita akan menuju? How to define and measure industry’s footprint How to define and measure system/community footprint How to define and measure firm’s footprint How can an environmental manager influence this paradigm shift Diunduh dari: ‎

34 .Ekoefisiensi – Sistem transportasi kota

35 Eco-efficiency 1.”Resource-Productivity & Ecoefficiency” Friedrich Hinterberger and Phillipp Schepelmann 2.”Eco-efficiency, creating more value with less impact” World Business Council for Sustainable Development, "Defining and Measuring Eco-efficiency" Livio D. Desimone and Frank Popoff Diunduh dari: ‎

36 Resource-Productivity & Ecoefficiency Friedrich Hinterberger Philipp Schepelmann Diunduh dari: ‎

37 Definisi Eko-Efisiensi 1.“Doing more with less” 2.“Securing development with minimized use of natural resources”. Diunduh dari: ‎

38 Interpretasinya: “A partial translation of ecological science into economic terms”. Diunduh dari: ‎

39 Pembangunan berkelanjutan dapat dicapai : if economical growth is accompanied by an absolute reduction of material and energy (decoupling) Diunduh dari: ‎

40 Relations between ”resource productivity” and ”work”: Restructuring our economy and societies will lead to an increase in employment (e.g. in the construction, transport and service sector). New jobs will be created in the ecological sector But that is not enough… Diunduh dari: ‎

41 Re-evaluation & re-distribution of labour : 1.Priority for the creation of useful employment 2.Reduction of working hours 3.Introduction of a minimal per capita support 4.Shifting the tax burden from labour to resource use 5.Re-evaluation of labour in the informal sector (e.g. housewives) Diunduh dari: ‎

42 These reforms would result in a strengthening of local and regional economies (regional supply) and the primary sector (resource- and food-production) “In a sustainable society labour will contribute to quality of life.” Diunduh dari: ‎ Re-evaluation & re-distribution of labour :

43 Strategi Komprehensif di Sweden. Meta – a societal consensus on the objective of sustainable development which encompasses competitiveness, social justice and ecoefficiency Micro – ecologically oriented enterprises and consumers Meso – the reform of economic institutions and networks Macro – fiscal, monetary and distributional conditions Diunduh dari: ‎

44 Meta – awareness-raising, capacity- and consensus building, stake-holder dialogue Micro – indicators for small and medium sized enterprises (SME), financial sector, consumer behaviour Meso - awareness-raising, sectorial targets, culture and tradition-building Macro – ecological tax reform and other instruments, EMU, indicators Diunduh dari: ‎ Strategi Komprehensif di Sweden.

45 Eco-efficiency Creating more value with less impact World Business Council for Sustainable Development Diunduh dari: ‎

46 In simplest terms, eco-efficiency means creating more goods and services with ever less use of resources, waste and pollution. Diunduh dari: ‎ Apa makna Eco-efficiency?

47 Many business leaders, inside and outside the WBCSD, often express eco-efficiency as creating more value with less impact or doing more with less. Academic experts and practitioners term eco-efficiency the synthesis of economic and environmental efficiency in parallel, where the prefix eco stands for both economy and ecology. Diunduh dari: ‎

48 Eco-efficiency dalam konteks yang luas Eco-efficiency is a concept with much to offer for many. It can be used for a variety of purposes and applied on various levels. Diunduh dari: ‎

49 1.Eco-efficiency is a key concept for helping companies, individuals,governments and other organizations to become more sustainable. 2.Eko-efisiensi tidak cukup sendirian, karena ia hanya mengintegrasikan dua unsur keberlanjutan, yaitu ekonomi dan ekologi, sedangkan unsur ke tiga, yaitu aspek sosial tidak dilibatkan. Diunduh dari: ‎ Eco-efficiency dalam konteks yang luas

50 Agenda Bisnis & Politik BUSINESS 1.Reducing the consumption of resources 2.Reducing the impact on Nature 3.Increasing product or service value POLITICAL 1.Identifying and eliminating perverse subsidies 2.Internalizing environmental costs 3.Shifting tax from labor and profit to resource use and pollution 4.Developing and implementing economic instruments 5.Promoting voluntary initiatives and negotiated agreements Diunduh dari: ‎

51 How Do the Skeptics of Eco-efficiency Argue? Problem 1.Some claim that a relative increase in company eco-efficiency is not enough. Answer 1.Eco-efficiency is much more about innovation and the need for change toward functional needs and service intensity, to contribute to de- coupling growth from resources. Diunduh dari: ‎

52 Problem 2. There is also the claim that using fewer resources per unit of production fails to deliver progress toward sustainability if the number of units continues to increase faster than the gains in resource productivity. Answer 2. In our view, it is more important to opt for a different way of living that can offer a better quality of life and more welfare for all, while limiting the use of resource and pollution to acceptable levels. Diunduh dari: ‎

53 Problem 3. It is also claimed that eco-efficiency will not work in poor economies because preventing pollution is too costly and requires legal enforcement and substantial financial help. Answer 3. Companies can achieve big improvements in developing countries and countries in transition where resources were previously not used efficiently. Diunduh dari: ‎

54 The Business Agenda How companies turn the challenge of sustainablity into business opportunities Diunduh dari: ‎

55 Tujuh elemen Eco-efficiency 1.Reducing the material requirements for goods and services 2.Reducing the energy intensity of goods and services 3.Reducing toxic dispersion 4.Enhancing material recyclability 5.Maximising sustainable use of renewable resources 6.Extending product durability 7.Increasing the service intensity of goods and services Diunduh dari: ‎

56 Lima Elemen untuk laporan Eco-efficiency korporat 1 organization profile 2 value profile 3 environmental profile 4 Eco-efficiency Rations 5 methodological Information Diunduh dari: ‎

57 Plastics from ELVs The cars themselves are built from recycled materials using production methods which minimize waste and emissions Diunduh dari: ‎

58 Agenda Politik How Governments can make eco- efficiency work for Society Diunduh dari: ‎

59 Agenda Politik untuk Eco-efficiency 1.Identify and eliminate perverse subsidies 2.Internalize environmental costs 3.Shift tax from labour and profit to resource use and pollution 4.Develop and implement economic instruments 5.Promote voluntary initiatives and negotiated agreements Diunduh dari: ‎

60 Eco-efficiency & Pembangunan Makro-ekonomi Eco-efficiency is a leadership practice to meet the future needs of society and reach a competitive and innovative economy. By quantifying eco-efficiency with macro-level indicators governments can measure progress on eco- efficiency targets. Incentives can be used to reward eco-efficiency and guide innovation in the right direction. Diunduh dari: ‎

61 12 Aksi untuk masa depan yang Eco-efficient Governmental leaders and civil servants Set macro-economic eco-efficiency targets and conversion criteria for sustainable development Integrate policy measures to strengten eco-efficiency Work toward changing international policy rules and systems for trade and financial transactions etc. Diunduh dari: ‎

62 Pemimpin masyarakat dan Konsumen 4.Encourage consumers to prefer eco-efficient, more sustainable products and services 5.Support political measures to create framework conditions wich reward eco-efficiency Pendidik 6.Include eco-efficiency and sustainability in high school and university curricula and build it into research and development programs Diunduh dari: ‎

63 ANALIS Financial & Investors 7.Recognize and reward eco-efficiency and sustainability as investment criteria 8.Help eco-efficienct companies and sustainability leaders to communicate their progress and related business benifits to financial markets 9.Promote and use assessment tools and sustainability ratings to support the markets and to help widen understanding of eco-efficiency benefits Diunduh dari: ‎

64 Pemimpin Bisnis 7.Integrate eco-efficiency into their business strategy 8.Report company eco-efficiency and sustainability performance openly to stakeholders 9.Support policy measures which reward eco- efficiency Diunduh dari: ‎

65 "Defining and Measuring Eco- efficiency" Livio D. Desimone & Frank Popoff Diunduh dari: ‎

66 Eco-efficiency bermakna “doing more with less” The definitions has five themes: 1.Emphasis on service 2.Focus on needs and quality of life. 3.Considerations of the entire product life cycle 4.Limits to a eco capacity 5.Process view Diunduh dari: ‎

67 The WBCSD has outlined the following actions to implement eco-efficiency: 1.Reduce the material intensity of goods and service 2.Reduce the energy intensity of goods and services 3.Reduce toxic dispersion 4.Enhance material recyclability 5.Maximize sustainable use of renewable resources 6.Extend product durability 7.Increase the service intensity of goods and services Diunduh dari: ‎

68 Mengukur Eco-efficiency 1.Eko-efisiensi sangat sulit diukur. 2.Eco-efficiency measures environmental effect. 3. It can be measured between economic output and environmental input. Diunduh dari: ‎

69 Eco Capacity The eco-efficiency bottom line is to make profits within the eco- capacity. Eco capacity is difficult to calculate but it is clear that limits are being reached in many places. Diunduh dari: ‎

70 .Ruang terbuka Hijau - Ekoefisiensi


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