2The solution to pollution is dilution. Air, Udara, Lahan ….The solution to pollution is dilution.
3Konsep-Konsep Penting Types, sources, and effects of water pollutantsMajor pollution problems of surface waterMajor pollution problems of groundwaterReduksi dan Pencegahan Pencemaran AirKualitas Air Minum
5Definisi Impaired Waters Total Maximum Daily Load Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to develop lists of impaired waters, those that do not meet water quality standards that states have set for them.Total Maximum Daily LoadThe law requires that states establish priority rankings for impaired waters and develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) for them. A TMDL specifies the maximum amount of a pollutant that a body of water can receive and still meet water quality standards.
6Point Source Pollution vs. Nonpoint Source Pollution What’s the difference?Slides by Christopher C. Obropta, Rutgers University
7Sumber Pencemaran : Titik comes from a specific source, like a pipefactories, industry, municipal treatment plantscan be monitored and controlled by a permit system
8Sumber pencemaran: Bukan-titik Nonpoint Source (NPS) Pollution is pollution associated with stormwater or runoffNPS pollution cannot be traced to a direct discharge point such as a wastewater treatment facility
9Contoh-contoh NPS oil & grease from cars fertilizers animal waste grass clippingsseptic systemssewage & cleaners from boatshousehold cleaning productslitter
10Mekanisme Transpor Polutan NPS pollutants build up on land surfaces during dry weatherAtmospheric depositionFertilizer applicationsAnimal wasteAutomotive exhaust/fluid leaksPollutants are washed off land surfaces during precipitation events (stormwater runoff)Stormwater runoff will flow to lakes and streams
11Pollutant build-up and wash off are affected by land use. Imperviousness increases runoffLand use changes impact build up
12Keterkaitan Landuse dengan Kualitas Air More Imperviousness = More Water
13Apa itu Penutup Kedap Air? roads, rooftops, parking lots, and other hard surfaces that do not allow stormwater to soak into the ground“predominant American vegetation”
14Penutup kedap air provides a surface for accumulation of pollutants leads to increased polluted runoff and floodinginhibits recharge of groundwater
15Dampak pencemaran Sumber Bukan-titik fish and wildliferecreational water activitiescommercial fishingtourismdrinking water quality
16Polutan dalam Runoff Sediment Soil particles transported from their sourceBiochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)● Oxygen depleting materialLeavesOrganic materialToxics● PesticidesHerbicidesFungicidesInsecticides● Metals (naturally occurring in soil, automotive emissions/ tires)LeadZincMercury● Petroleum Hydrocarbons (automotive exhaust and fuel/oil)Nutrients● Various types of materials that become dissolved and suspended in water (commonly found in fertilizer and plant material):Nitrogen (N)Phosphorus (P)Bacteria/ PathogensOriginating from:● Pets● Waterfowl● Failing septic systemsThermal StressHeated runoff, removal of streamside vegetationDebrisLitter and illegal dumping
17Sumber Polutan di Kawasan Permukiman Nutrients: Fertilizers and septic systemsPathogens: Pet waste and septic systemsSediment: Construction, road sand, soil erosionToxic: Pesticides, household productsDebris: Litter and illegal dumpingThermal: heated runoff, removal of streamside vegetation
18Polutan dari pertanian SedimentNutrientsPathogensPesticides
19Polutan PentingSediment reduces light penetration in stream, clogs gills of fish and aquatic invertebrates.Nutrients act as fertilizer for algae & aquatic plants which can cause highly varying dissolved oxygen levels. At low DO levels, the aquatic life has the potential to be harmed.Toxics can impact life and contaminate drinking water supplies.Bacteria/Pathogens are an indicator of possible viruses present in the system.
20Apa Pencemaran Air?Any chemical, biological, or physical change in water quality that has a harmful effect on living organisms or makes water unsuitable for desired usage.
21Apa pencemaran air? WHO: 3.4 million premature deaths each year from waterborne diseases1.9 million from diarrheaU.S. 1.5 million illnesses1993 Milwaukee 370,000 sick
22Apa pencemaran air?Infectious Agents: bacteria and viruses often from animal wastesOxygen Demanding Wastes: organic waste that needs oxygen often from animal waste, paper mills and food processing.Inorganic Chemicals: Acids and toxic chemicals often from runoff, industries and household cleaners
23Apa pencemaran air?Organic Chemicals: oil, gasoline, plastics, detergents often from surface runoff, industries and cleanersPlant Nutrients: water soluble nitrates, ammonia and phosphates often from sewage, agriculture and urban fertilizersSediment: soils and silts from land erosion can disrupt photosynthesis, destroy spawning grounds, clog rivers and streamsHeat Pollution and Radioactivity: mostly from powerplants
24Bagaimana Kualitas Air? Bacterial Counts: Fecal coliform counts from intestines of animalsNone per 100 ml for drinking>200 per 100 ml for swimmingSources: human sewage, animals, birds, raccoons, etc.
25Bagaimana mengukur kualitas air? Dissolved Oxygen: BOD Biological Oxygen Demand…the amount of oxygen consumed by aquatic decomposersChemical Analysis: looking for presence of inorganic or organic chemicalsSuspended Sediment water clarity
26Bagaimana mengukur Kualitas air? Indicator Species: organisms that give an idea of the health of the water body.Mussels, oysters and clams filter water
27Tipe, Efek dan Sumber Pencemaran Air Point sourcesNonpoint sourcesWater quality
28Sumber Pencemaran: Titik dan Bukan-Titik NONPOINT SOURCESUrban streetsSuburban developmentWastewater treatment plantRural homesCroplandFactoryAnimal feedlotPOINT SOURCES
29Sumber Pencemaran Air Agriculture: by far the leader Sediment, fertilizers, bacteria from livestock, food processing, salt from soil irrigationIndustrial: factories and powerplantsMining: surface mining toxics, acids, sediment
30Pencemaran Air SungaiFlowing streams can recover from moderate level of degradable water pollution if their flows are not reduced.Natural biodegradation processDoes not work if overloaded or stream flow reducedDoes not work against non biodegradable pollutants
31Faktor apa yang mempengaruhi kurva kantong oksigen? Pencemaran SungaiKurva Kantong oksigenFaktor yang mempengaruhi recoveryFaktor apa yang mempengaruhi kurva kantong oksigen?
32Dua Dunia Developed Countries U.S. and other developed countries sharply reduced point sources even with population and economic growthNonpoint still a problemToxic chemicals still problemSuccess Cuyahoga River, Thames River
33Dua Dunia Developing Countries: Serious and growing problem Half of world’s 500 major rivers heavily pollutedSewage treatment minimal $$$Law enforcement difficult10% of sewage in China treatedEconomic growth with little $$$ to clean up
34Sungai Gangga India Holy River (1 million take daily holy dip) 350 million (1/3rd of pop) live in watershedLittle sewage treatmentUsed for bathing, drinking etc.Bodies (cremated or not) thrown in riverGood news is the Indian government is beginning to work on problem
35Pencemaran Danau Air Tawar Dilution as a solution in lakes less effectiveLittle vertical mixingLittle water flow (flushing)Makes them more vulnerableToxins settleKill bottom lifeAtmospheric depositionFood chain disruptions
36Biomagnifications of PCBs in an aquatic food chain from the Great Lakes.
37Eutrofikasi DanauEutrophication: nutrient enrichment of lakes mostly from runoff of plant nutrients (nitrates and phosphates)During hot dry weather can lead to algae bloomsDecrease of photosynthesisDying algae then drops DO levelsFish kills, bad odor
50Pencemaran Laut Toleransi pencemaran laut Coastal zones: How does pollution affect coastal zones?What are major sources of ocean pollution and what is being done?Tumpahan Minyak
51Pencemaran LautOceans can disperse and break down large quantities of degradable pollution if they are not overloaded.Pollution worst near heavily populated coastal zonesWetlands, estuaries, coral reefs, mangrove swamps40% of world’s pop. Live within 62 miles of coast
56Preventing and reducing the flow of pollution from land and from streams emptying into the ocean is key to protecting oceans
57TUMPAHAN MINYAKSources: offshore wells, tankers, pipelines and storage tanksEffects: death of organisms, loss of animal insulation and buoyancy, smotheringSignificant economic impactsMechanical cleanup methods: skimmers and blottersChemical cleanup methods: coagulants and dispersing agents
58Pencegahan dan Reduksi How can we reduce surface water pollution: point and also nonpoint.How do sewage treatment plants work?How successful has the U.S. been at reducing water pollution? Clean Water Act
59Penyelesiaan: Mencegah dan Mereduksi Pencemaran Air Permukaan Nonpoint SourcesPoint SourcesReduce runoffClean Water ActBuffer zone vegetationWater Quality ActReduce soil erosionOnly apply pesticides and fertilizers as needed
61Sumber Pencemaran Nonpoint Zone Penyangga sekitar sungai
62Sumber pencemaran Nonpoint Prevent soil erosion and only apply needed pesticides and fertilizers
63Sumber Pencemaran: Titik Most developed countries use laws to set water pollution standards.Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act 1972, ’77, ’87)Regulates navigable waterways..streams, wetlands, rivers, lake
64Peraturan Air Bersih Sets standards for key pollutants Requires permits for dischargeRequires sewage treatmentRequire permits for wetland destructionDoes not deal with nonpoint sources wellGoal All Waterways fishable and swimable
65Teknologi: Sistem Septic Memerlukan tanah dan perawatan¼ of all U.S. homes have Septic tanksCan be used in parking lots, business parks, etc.
66Combined sewer overflow is a problem in many older towns EPA: 1.8 M to 3.85 M sick from swimming in water contaminated by sewer overflowsEPA: $100 billion to fix
67Pendekatan Teknologi: Pengolahan Air Limbah Pengolahan Secara Fisik dan Biologis
69Primary: removes 60% of solids and 30-40% oxygen demanding wastes (physically) Secondary: uses biological processes to remove up to 90% of biodegradablesTertiary: advanced techniques only used in 5% of U.S. $$$$Disinfection: chlorine, ozone, UVWhat is not taken out???
73Technological Approach: Using Wetlands to Treat Sewage Fig p. 513
74Berita Baik Largely thanks to CWA: Between 1972 – 2002 fishable and swimmable streams 36% to 60%74% served by sewage treatmentWetlands loss dropped by 80%Topsoil losses dropped by 1 billion tons annually
75Khabar Buruk45% of Lakes, 40% streams still not fishable and swimmableNonpoint sources still huge problemLivestock and Ag. RunoffIkan dengan Racun
77Air Bersih / Minum How is drinking water purified? High tech way. How can we purify drinking water in developing nations?What is the Safe Drinking Water Act?Is bottled water a good answer or an expensive rip-off?
78Kualitas Air Minum Purification of urban drinking water Protection from terrorismPurification of rural drinking waterSafe Drinking Water ActMaximum contaminant levels (MCLs)Air Minum Botolan
79Purifikasi Air Bersih Perkotaan Surface Water: (like Delaware River)Removed to reservoir to improve clarityPumped to a treatment plant to meet drinking water standardsGroundwater: often does not need much treatment