Presentation on theme: "PENCEMARAN AIR. Air, Udara, Lahan …. The solution to pollution is dilution."— Presentation transcript:
Air, Udara, Lahan …. The solution to pollution is dilution.
Konsep-Konsep Penting Types, sources, and effects of water pollutants Major pollution problems of surface water Major pollution problems of groundwater Reduksi dan Pencegahan Pencemaran Air Kualitas Air Minum
Air adalah kehidupan di Bumi.
Definisi Impaired Waters Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to develop lists of impaired waters, those that do not meet water quality standards that states have set for them. Total Maximum Daily Load The law requires that states establish priority rankings for impaired waters and develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) for them. A TMDL specifies the maximum amount of a pollutant that a body of water can receive and still meet water quality standards.
Point Source Pollution vs. Nonpoint Source Pollution What’s the difference? Slides by Christopher C. Obropta, Rutgers University
Sumber Pencemaran : Titik comes from a specific source, like a pipe factories, industry, municipal treatment plants can be monitored and controlled by a permit system
Sumber pencemaran: Bukan-titik Nonpoint Source (NPS) Pollution is pollution associated with stormwater or runoff NPS pollution cannot be traced to a direct discharge point such as a wastewater treatment facility
Mekanisme Transpor Polutan NPS pollutants build up on land surfaces during dry weather Atmospheric deposition Fertilizer applications Animal waste Automotive exhaust/fluid leaks Pollutants are washed off land surfaces during precipitation events (stormwater runoff) Stormwater runoff will flow to lakes and streams
Pollutant build-up and wash off are affected by land use. Imperviousness increases runoff Land use changes impact build up
Keterkaitan Landuse dengan Kualitas Air More Imperviousness = More Water
Apa itu Penutup Kedap Air? roads, rooftops, parking lots, and other hard surfaces that do not allow stormwater to soak into the ground “predominant American vegetation”
Penutup kedap air provides a surface for accumulation of pollutants leads to increased polluted runoff and flooding inhibits recharge of groundwater
Dampak pencemaran Sumber Bukan-titik fish and wildlife recreational water activities commercial fishing tourism drinking water quality
Polutan dalam Runoff Sediment Soil particles transported from their source Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) ● Oxygen depleting material Leaves Organic material Toxics ● Pesticides Herbicides Fungicides Insecticides ● Metals (naturally occurring in soil, automotive emissions/ tires) Lead Zinc Mercury ● Petroleum Hydrocarbons (automotive exhaust and fuel/oil) Debris Litter and illegal dumping Nutrients ● Various types of materials that become dissolved and suspended in water (commonly found in fertilizer and plant material): Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P) Bacteria/ Pathogens Originating from: ● Pets ● Waterfowl ● Failing septic systems Thermal Stress Heated runoff, removal of streamside vegetation
Sumber Polutan di Kawasan Permukiman Nutrients: Fertilizers and septic systems Pathogens: Pet waste and septic systems Sediment: Construction, road sand, soil erosion Toxic: Pesticides, household products Debris: Litter and illegal dumping Thermal: heated runoff, removal of streamside vegetation
Polutan dari pertanian Sediment Nutrients Pathogens Pesticides
Polutan Penting Sediment reduces light penetration in stream, clogs gills of fish and aquatic invertebrates. Nutrients act as fertilizer for algae & aquatic plants which can cause highly varying dissolved oxygen levels. At low DO levels, the aquatic life has the potential to be harmed. Toxics can impact life and contaminate drinking water supplies. Bacteria/Pathogens are an indicator of possible viruses present in the system.
Apa Pencemaran Air? Any chemical, biological, or physical change in water quality that has a harmful effect on living organisms or makes water unsuitable for desired usage.
Apa pencemaran air? WHO: 3.4 million premature deaths each year from waterborne diseases 1.9 million from diarrhea U.S. 1.5 million illnesses 1993 Milwaukee 370,000 sick WHO: 3.4 million premature deaths each year from waterborne diseases 1.9 million from diarrhea U.S. 1.5 million illnesses 1993 Milwaukee 370,000 sick
Apa pencemaran air? Infectious Agents: bacteria and viruses often from animal wastes Oxygen Demanding Wastes: organic waste that needs oxygen often from animal waste, paper mills and food processing. Inorganic Chemicals: Acids and toxic chemicals often from runoff, industries and household cleaners
Apa pencemaran air? Organic Chemicals: oil, gasoline, plastics, detergents often from surface runoff, industries and cleaners Plant Nutrients: water soluble nitrates, ammonia and phosphates often from sewage, agriculture and urban fertilizers Sediment: soils and silts from land erosion can disrupt photosynthesis, destroy spawning grounds, clog rivers and streams Heat Pollution and Radioactivity: mostly from powerplants
Bagaimana Kualitas Air? Bacterial Counts: Fecal coliform counts from intestines of animals None per 100 ml for drinking >200 per 100 ml for swimming Sources: human sewage, animals, birds, raccoons, etc.
Bagaimana mengukur kualitas air? Dissolved Oxygen: BOD Biological Oxygen Demand…the amount of oxygen consumed by aquatic decomposers Chemical Analysis: looking for presence of inorganic or organic chemicals Suspended Sediment water clarity Dissolved Oxygen: BOD Biological Oxygen Demand…the amount of oxygen consumed by aquatic decomposers Chemical Analysis: looking for presence of inorganic or organic chemicals Suspended Sediment water clarity
Bagaimana mengukur Kualitas air? Indicator Species: organisms that give an idea of the health of the water body. Mussels, oysters and clams filter water
Tipe, Efek dan Sumber Pencemaran Air Point sources Nonpoint sources Water quality
Sumber Pencemaran: Titik dan Bukan-Titik NONPOINT SOURCES Urban streets Suburban development Wastewater treatment plant Rural homes Cropland Factory Animal feedlot POINT SOURCES
Sumber Pencemaran Air Agriculture: by far the leader Sediment, fertilizers, bacteria from livestock, food processing, salt from soil irrigation Industrial: factories and powerplants Mining: surface mining toxics, acids, sediment Agriculture: by far the leader Sediment, fertilizers, bacteria from livestock, food processing, salt from soil irrigation Industrial: factories and powerplants Mining: surface mining toxics, acids, sediment
Pencemaran Air Sungai Flowing streams can recover from moderate level of degradable water pollution if their flows are not reduced. Natural biodegradation process Does not work if overloaded or stream flow reduced Does not work against non biodegradable pollutants
Pencemaran Sungai Kurva Kantong oksigen Faktor yang mempengaruhi recovery Faktor apa yang mempengaruhi kurva kantong oksigen?
Dua Dunia Developed Countries U.S. and other developed countries sharply reduced point sources even with population and economic growth Nonpoint still a problem Toxic chemicals still problem Success Cuyahoga River, Thames River
Dua Dunia Developing Countries: Serious and growing problem Half of world’s 500 major rivers heavily polluted Sewage treatment minimal $$$ Law enforcement difficult 10% of sewage in China treated Economic growth with little $$$ to clean up Developing Countries: Serious and growing problem Half of world’s 500 major rivers heavily polluted Sewage treatment minimal $$$ Law enforcement difficult 10% of sewage in China treated Economic growth with little $$$ to clean up
Sungai Gangga India Holy River (1 million take daily holy dip) 350 million (1/3 rd of pop) live in watershed Little sewage treatment Used for bathing, drinking etc. Bodies (cremated or not) thrown in river Good news is the Indian government is beginning to work on problem
Pencemaran Danau Air Tawar Dilution as a solution in lakes less effective Little vertical mixing Little water flow (flushing) Makes them more vulnerable Toxins settle Kill bottom life Atmospheric deposition Food chain disruptions
Biomagnifications of PCBs in an aquatic food chain from the Great Lakes.
Eutrofikasi Danau Eutrophication: nutrient enrichment of lakes mostly from runoff of plant nutrients (nitrates and phosphates) During hot dry weather can lead to algae blooms Decrease of photosynthesis Dying algae then drops DO levels Fish kills, bad odor Eutrophication: nutrient enrichment of lakes mostly from runoff of plant nutrients (nitrates and phosphates) During hot dry weather can lead to algae blooms Decrease of photosynthesis Dying algae then drops DO levels Fish kills, bad odor
Pencemaran Danau Eutrofikasi
Eutrofikasi Danau Penyelesaian masalah: Advanced sewage treatment (N, P) Household detergents Soil conservation Remove excess weed build up Pump in oxygen or freshwater
Studi Kasus: The Great Lakes Pollution levels dropped, but long way to go 95% of U.S. freshwater 30% Canadian pop, 14% U.S. 38 million drink 1% flow out St. Lawrence Toxic fish
AIR TANAH = Groundwater Why is groundwater pollution a serious problem? What is the extent of the problem? What are the solutions?
Groundwater Groundwater DAPAT TERKONTAMINASI: No way to cleanse itself Little dilution and dispersion Out of sight pollution Prime source for irrigation and drinking REMOVAL of pollutant difficult
Pencemaran Groundwater Low flow rates Few bacteria Cold temperatures Coal strip mine runoff Pumping well Waste lagoon Accidental spills Groundwater flow Confined aquifer Discharge Leakage from faulty casing Hazardous waste injection well Pesticides Gasoline station Buried gasoline and solvent tank Sewer Cesspool septic tank De-icing road salt Unconfined freshwater aquifer Confined freshwater aquifer Water pumping well Landfill Low oxygen
Aliran air bawah tanah
Groundwater Pollution moves in plumes Soil, rocks, etc. act like sponge Cleansing does not work (low O, low flow, cold) Nondegradables may be permanent
Pencegahan lebih efektif dan murah
Pencegahan Pencemaran Groundwater Monitor aquifers Leak detection systems Strictly regulating hazardous waste disposal Store hazardous materials above ground Find less hazardous substitutes
Pencemaran Laut Toleransi pencemaran laut Coastal zones: How does pollution affect coastal zones? What are major sources of ocean pollution and what is being done? Tumpahan Minyak
Pencemaran Laut Oceans can disperse and break down large quantities of degradable pollution if they are not overloaded. Pollution worst near heavily populated coastal zones Wetlands, estuaries, coral reefs, mangrove swamps 40% of world’s pop. Live within 62 miles of coast
Pencemaran Laut Large amounts of untreated raw sewage (viruses) Leaking septic tanks Runoff Algae blooms from nutrients Dead zones NO DO Airborne toxins Oil spills Large amounts of untreated raw sewage (viruses) Leaking septic tanks Runoff Algae blooms from nutrients Dead zones NO DO Airborne toxins Oil spills
Preventing and reducing the flow of pollution from land and from streams emptying into the ocean is key to protecting oceans
TUMPAHAN MINYAK Sources: offshore wells, tankers, pipelines and storage tanks Effects: death of organisms, loss of animal insulation and buoyancy, smothering Significant economic impacts Mechanical cleanup methods: skimmers and blotters Chemical cleanup methods: coagulants and dispersing agents
Pencegahan dan Reduksi How can we reduce surface water pollution: point and also nonpoint. How do sewage treatment plants work? How successful has the U.S. been at reducing water pollution? Clean Water Act
Penyelesiaan: Mencegah dan Mereduksi Pencemaran Air Permukaan Nonpoint Sources Point Sources Reduce runoff Buffer zone vegetation Reduce soil erosion Clean Water Act Water Quality Act Only apply pesticides and fertilizers as needed
Sumber Pencemaran Nonpoint Reduksi Runoff
Sumber Pencemaran Nonpoint Zone Penyangga sekitar sungai
Sumber pencemaran Nonpoint Prevent soil erosion and only apply needed pesticides and fertilizers
Sumber Pencemaran: Titik Most developed countries use laws to set water pollution standards. Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act 1972, ’77, ’87) Regulates navigable waterways..streams, wetlands, rivers, lake
Peraturan Air Bersih Sets standards for key pollutants Requires permits for discharge Requires sewage treatment Require permits for wetland destruction Does not deal with nonpoint sources well Goal All Waterways fishable and swimable
Teknologi: Sistem Septic Memerlukan tanah dan perawatan ¼ of all U.S. homes have Septic tanks Can be used in parking lots, business parks, etc.
Combined sewer overflow is a problem in many older towns EPA: 1.8 M to 3.85 M sick from swimming in water contaminated by sewer overflows EPA: $100 billion to fix
Pendekatan Teknologi: Pengolahan Air Limbah Pengolahan Secara Fisik dan Biologis
Primary: removes 60% of solids and 30-40% oxygen demanding wastes (physically) Secondary: uses biological processes to remove up to 90% of biodegradables Tertiary: advanced techniques only used in 5% of U.S. $$$$ Disinfection: chlorine, ozone, UV What is not taken out???
Technological Approach: Advanced (Tertiary) Sewage Treatment Uses physical and chemical processes Removes nitrate and phosphate Expensive Not widely used
Sludge disposal…using as fertilizer
Technological Approach: Using Wetlands to Treat Sewage Fig p. 513
Berita Baik Largely thanks to CWA: Between 1972 – 2002 fishable and swimmable streams 36% to 60% 74% served by sewage treatment Wetlands loss dropped by 80% Topsoil losses dropped by 1 billion tons annually Largely thanks to CWA: Between 1972 – 2002 fishable and swimmable streams 36% to 60% 74% served by sewage treatment Wetlands loss dropped by 80% Topsoil losses dropped by 1 billion tons annually
Khabar Buruk 45% of Lakes, 40% streams still not fishable and swimmable Nonpoint sources still huge problem Livestock and Ag. Runoff Ikan dengan Racun
Solusi Pencemaran Air
Air Bersih / Minum How is drinking water purified? High tech way. How can we purify drinking water in developing nations? What is the Safe Drinking Water Act? Is bottled water a good answer or an expensive rip-off?
Kualitas Air Minum Safe Drinking Water Act Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) Purification of urban drinking water Air Minum Botolan Protection from terrorism Purification of rural drinking water
Purifikasi Air Bersih Perkotaan Surface Water: (like Delaware River) Removed to reservoir to improve clarity Pumped to a treatment plant to meet drinking water standards Groundwater: often does not need much treatment
Purifikasi Air Bersih Pedesaan There can be simple ways to purify water: Exposing to heat and UV rays Fine cloths to filter water Add small amounts of chlorine There can be simple ways to purify water: Exposing to heat and UV rays Fine cloths to filter water Add small amounts of chlorine
54 countries have drinking water laws SDWA passed 1974 requires EPA to set drinking water standards Maximum Contaminating Levels (MCLs) Hemat Air Bersih
Privately owned wells exempt from SDWA SDWA requires public notification of failing to meet standards and fine. MCLs often stated in parts per million or parts per billion Privately owned wells exempt from SDWA SDWA requires public notification of failing to meet standards and fine. MCLs often stated in parts per million or parts per billion
Bottle Water U.S. has the world’s safest tap water due to billions of $$$ of investment Bottle water 240 to 10,000 times more expensive than tap water 25% of bottle water is tap water
Air Botolan 1.4 million metric tons of bottle thrown away each year Toxic fumes released during bottling Bottles made from oil based plastics Water does not need to meet SDWA 1.4 million metric tons of bottle thrown away each year Toxic fumes released during bottling Bottles made from oil based plastics Water does not need to meet SDWA