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AZAS DASAR KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013 Bahan Kajian MK. Kajian Lingkungan dan Pembangunan.

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Presentation on theme: "AZAS DASAR KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013 Bahan Kajian MK. Kajian Lingkungan dan Pembangunan."— Presentation transcript:

1 AZAS DASAR KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013 Bahan Kajian MK. Kajian Lingkungan dan Pembangunan

2 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Diunduh dari: Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical and biological sciences, (including but not limited to Ecology, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Soil Science, Geology, Atmospheric Science and Geography) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems. Environmental science provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems. Environmental scientists work on subjects like the understanding of earth processes, evaluating alternative energy systems, pollution control and mitigation, natural resource management, and the effects of global climate change. Environmental issues almost always include an interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Environmental scientists bring a systems approach to the analysis of environmental problems. Key elements of an effective environmental scientist include the ability to relate space, and time relationships as well as quantitative analysis.

3 What is the definition of environmental science? a mix of human, social and environmental geography Read more: Diunduh dari: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE: the branch of biology concerned with the relations between organisms and their environment. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE: the branch of science concerned with the physical, chemical, and biological conditions of the environment and their effect on organisms. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE is the study of environmental systems. It interprets the impact of human actions on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and develops strategies for restoring ecosystems. It also helps planners develop and construct buildings, transportation corridors, and utilities that protect water resources and reflect efficient and beneficial land use. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE is the study of how living things impact the non- living things of the earth like the water supply and air quality and how we need to protect or restore areas of the planet. ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES is the body of knowledge related to the interactions between people and the natural world and is an important ingredient of a liberal education. ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES is the interdisciplinary academic field which systematically studies human interaction with the environment in the interests of solving complex problems. It is a broad field of study that includes also the natural environment, built environment, and the sets of relationships between them. The field encompasses study in basic principles of ecology and environmental science, as well as associated subjects such as ethics, policy, politics, law, economics, philosophy, environmental sociology and environmental justice, planning, pollution control and natural resource management. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_studies)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_studies

4 WHAT IS ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES? Diunduh dari: Environmental Studies is concerned with the interactions between human beings and the environment. It is interdisciplinary in the sense that the field is related to many branches of the natural and human sciences and environmental studies graduates go on to address many interdisciplinary problems. Topics in Environmental Studies include: Sustainability and development; Environmental justice; Biological conservation; Environmental theology; Natural and environmental history; Environmental ethics; environmental thought; Environmental sociology and psychology; human ecology; Social movements and political ecology; environmental education and communication; Risk policy and perception; Environmental policy and law; Native studies; animal rights and welfare; Technology and cultural studies; Gender, labour, race and the environment; International development; Public participation; Ecocriticism; deep ecology; and environmental literature.

5 BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION Diunduh dari: There is general agreement among experts that prevention is the key to the conservation of biodiversity. It costs far more to repair damage to biodiversity than it does to incorporate biodiversity conservation into planning and development. The key to prevention is understanding the ecological concepts and principles of biodiversity and how to apply this understanding to the conservation of biodiversity. The Value of Biodiversity Biodiversity refers to the variety of species and ecosystems that have co-evolved over thousands of years and the complex ecological processes that link them together and sustain the whole. As the name suggests, biological diversity includes diversity within species (genetic diversity), diversity between species and diversity of ecosystems. There is an obvious relationship between healthy ecosystems and human well-being. Biodiversity is far more than the natural capital for B.C.'s resource-based economy. Species diversity is the source of food, building materials, energy and medicines and of services such a pollination, waste assimilation and water filtration. Genetic diversity within species makes possible the commercial breeding of higher-yield and disease-resistant plants and animals, and allows for adaptation to changing climatic conditions. Ecosystem diversity, in addition to fostering species and genetic diversity, enhances our quality of life through recreation, aesthetic enjoyment, and spiritual enrichment opportunities.

6 DEFINING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Diunduh dari: In the Sustainable Development Act, passed in 2006, the Québec government adopted the Brundtland Report's definition with the following elaboration: "Sustainable development is based on a long-term approach which takes into account the inextricable nature of the environmental, social and economic dimensions of development activities." Sustainable development pillars and development objectives Pillars Objectives SustainabilityEquityDiversificationCollaboration Economy Produce long-lasting spinoffs. Promote interregional and intergenerational equity. Respect the diversity of economic structures. Develop human capital. Society Respond to present and future social needs. Promote social and interpersonal equity. Respect local identities. Develop participation and partnership. Environment Prevent the destruction of natural resources. Promote equal access to environmental assets. Promote diversity in the biophysical and human environments. Develop environmental awareness. Adapted from Larrue, Corinne, Évaluation environnementale préalable des contrats de plan État-Région et documents uniques de programmation , ministère de l'Aménagement du territoire et de l'Environnement, France, Sustainable development concept Sustainable Environmental studies and measures Agreements with communities Energy efficiency Livable Protection of biodiversity Mitigation measures Multipurpose use of facilities Equitable Services adapted to specific clienteles Regional economic spinoffs Partnering arrangements Viable Reuse of insulating oil Recovery of poles

7 WASTE MANAGEMENT Diunduh dari: Concern over the possible human health effects, resulting from exposure to hazardous substances disposed to landfill sites, has driven the need for the application of risk assessment to such scenarios. Particularly of concern is the fact that existing hazardous waste sites may not have been designed with sufficiently preventative considerations for human health or the environment in mind. The requirement, therefore, is to carry out risk assessments on a site-specific basis with the objective of determining the risks to which the human population and the environment are exposed. It is also possible and desirable to include risk assessment in the design process and planning stage of future disposal sites. Conceptual model of landfill exposure sources and environmental pathways (source - Petts, J and Edulgee, G. Environmental Impact Assessment for Waste Treatment and Disposal Facilities. p 229. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester. 1994)

8 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN ASAS 1: KEKEKALAN ENERGI (HUKUM THERMODINAMIKA I) Semua energi yang memasuki sebuah organisme hidup, populasi atau ekosistem dapat dianggap sebagai energi yang disimpan atau energi yang dilepaskan. Energi dapat diubah dari satu bentuk ke bentuk yang lain tetapi tidak dapat hilang, dihancurkan atau diciptakan. Diunduh dari:

9 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN Pengertian: Asas ini adalah sebenarnya serupa dengan hukum Thermo dinamika I, yang sangat fundamental dalam ILMU fisika. Asas ini dikenal sebagai hukum konservasi energi dalam persamaan matematika. Diunduh dari: Conservation and Efficiency Energy conservation and energy efficiency are presently the most powerful tools in our transition to a clean energy future. As depicted in the Energy Pyramid, renewable energy is an important piece of our energy future, but the largest opportunities are currently in energy conservation and efficiency. Although the focus of this website is on renewable energy, we strongly encourage communities first evaluate and implement energy conservation and efficiency.

10 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN Contoh: Banyaknya kalori, energi yang terbuang dalam bentuk makanan diubah oleh jasad hidup menjadi energi untuk tumbuh, berbiak, menjalankan proses metabolisme, dan yang terbuang sebagai panas. Energy & Food chainEnergy & Food chain Solar energy is converted into chemical energy (in the form of sugar) through the process of photosynthesis, which is performed by plants and other photosynthetic organisms (e.g., cyanobacteria). This is why we call plants and other photosynthetic organisms producers. So the energy transformation process started from the producer. Diunduh dari: Photosynthesis is the conversion of light energy into chemical energy by living organisms. The raw materials are carbon dioxide and water, the energy source is sunlight, and the end- products include glucose and oxygen. It is arguably the most important biochemical pathway, since nearly all life depends on it. It is a complex process occurring in higher plants, phytoplankton, algae, as well as bacteria such as cyanobacteria. From:

11 Energy Flow Through Ecosystems Diunduh dari: Ecosystems maintain themselves by cycling energy and nutrients obtained from external sources. At the first trophic level, primary producers (plants, algae, and some bacteria) use solar energy to produce organic plant material through photosynthesis. Herbivores—animals that feed solely on plants—make up the second trophic level. Predators that eat herbivores comprise the third trophic level; if larger predators are present, they represent still higher trophic levels. Organisms that feed at several trophic levels (for example, grizzly bears that eat berries and salmon) are classified at the highest of the trophic levels at which they feed. Decomposers, which include bacteria, fungi, molds, worms, and insects, break down wastes and dead organisms and return nutrients to the soil. The low rate of energy transfer between trophic levels makes decomposers generally more important than producers in terms of energy flow. Decomposers process large amounts of organic material and return nutrients to the ecosystem in inorganic form, which are then taken up again by primary producers. Energy is not recycled during decomposition, but rather is released, mostly as heat (this is what makes compost piles and fresh garden mulch warm). Figure shows the flow of energy (dark arrows) and nutrients (light arrows) through ecosystems.

12 Pyramid of energy Diunduh dari: Since, energy will transfer from the lower level into the higher level 10 times lesser than the lower one. This is a fact. Therefore, the pyramid will never be inverted. This is the best way to represent the pyramid of food chain. Energy transfer Energy Flow - is an one-way process in ecosystems - in order to persist, ecosystems require a constant input of energy. Before we go on to talk about the biological energy transfer system, we need to know the basic knowledge of the physical chemical level of energy transfer - thermodynamic ( thermo = energy, dynamic = movement ) - the study of energy transfer. First law of thermodynamics: Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but is only transformed. In any process, the total energy of a closed system remains constant. You cannot get something from nothing. Second law of thermodynamics: Any closed system tends spontaneously toward increasing disorder (disordered energy = entropy). In any energy conversion some energy is transferred to the surroundings as heat. No real process can be 100% efficient. There can never be a perpetual motion machine.

13 The flow and transfer of energy In ecosystems, the original source of energy is light from the sun. Only green plants, which contain chlorophyll can trap light energy and convert this to chemical energy during the process of photosynthesis. Diunduh dari: 12lrcd/learning_areas/bio_science/bio1b/content/001_ecosystems/page_04.htm How energy enters an ecosystem The diagram below shows how energy enters an ecosystem as light which is captured and converted into the chemical energy of food. During photosynthesis the chlorophyll traps energy from sunlight. This energy is used to combine water and carbon dioxide to produce glucose and oxygen. The glucose is used by the plant to make new materials and to supply energy for growth. The oxygen is released into the atmosphere. The captured energy in plant material becomes the ultimate source of food, because animals either eat plants or other animals.

14 How energy leaves an ecosystem Diunduh dari: 12lrcd/learning_areas/bio_science/bio1b/content/001_ecosystems/page_04.htm Energy, unlike matter, is not recycled and does not remain in an ecosystem. Some of the energy is used to drive the chemical reactions of the body that keep the organism alive. For example, during life processes such as respiration some energy is used, however, most of the energy is converted into heat which is released. In this way most of the energy that enters an ecosystem as light leaves the ecosystem as heat. A one way flow of energy occurs in all ecosystems as energy is transferred from one organism to another as shown below. Light energy > Autotrophs > Heterotrophs > Heat energy Most of the energy that enters an ecosystem as light leaves the ecosystem as heat.

15 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN ASAS 2: Tak ada sistem pengubahan energi yang betul-betul efisien. Pengertian: Asas ini tak lain adalah hukum Thermodinamika II, Ini berarti energi yang tak pernah hilang dari alam raya, tetapi energi tersebut akan terus diubah Dalam bentuk yang kurang bermanfaat. Diunduh dari:

16 Energy Movement in Ecosystems: Trophic & Energy Pyramid Diunduh dari: trophic-energy-pyramid/ Energy Pyramid Pyramid of Energy Flow 10% passed on to next level (a lot energy is lost as HEAT or to fuel prey’s bodily functions) At each trophic level, the bulk of the energy received from the previous level is used in metabolism This energy is released as heat energy and lost to the ecosystem Eventually, all energy is released as heat Numbers and Biomass Pyramids In a forest ecosystem, the tiny plant-feeding insects in the second trophic level outnumber the trees in the first trophic level. However, the biomass of all the trees is much greater than the biomass of herbivores.

17 Energy transfer Diunduh dari: erev4.shtml Animals cannot make their own food so they have to eat. This is one way in which energy is transferred between organisms in an ecosystem. The energy is used for a number of life processes. In a food chain only around 10 per cent of the energy is passed on to the next level. The rest of the energy passes out of the food chain in a number of ways: 1.via heat energy 2.is used for life processes (for example movement) 3.uneaten parts that pass to decomposers 4.is excreted and passes to decomposers. As less energy is transferred at each level of the food chain, the number of organisms at each level gets smaller. Percentage efficiency of energy transfer An example of energy flow through an ecosystem is shown below.

18 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN ASAS 3 Materi, energi, ruang, waktu, dan keanekaragaman, termasuk kategori sumberdaya alam. Pengertian: Pengubahan energi oleh sistem biologi harus berlangsung pada kecepatan yang sebanding dengan adanya materi dan energi di lingkungan nya. Pengaruh ruang secara asas adalah beranalogi dengan materi dan energi sebagai sumberdaya alam.

19 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN Contoh: Ruang yang sempit: dpt mengganggu proses pembiakan organisme dg kepadatan tinggi. Ruang yang terlalu luas: jarak antar individu dalam populasi semakin jauh, kesempatan bertemu antara jantan dan betina semakin kecil sehingga pembiakan akan terganggu. Jauh dekatnya jarak sumber makanan akan berpengaruh terhadap perkembangan populasi. Diunduh dari: Nature provides us with many resources All the natural resources and ecosystems need to work together as a whole-earth regeneration system, to produce the oxygen, fresh water, food, and proper temperature in the atmosphere that sustains our lives.

20 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN WAKTU Waktu sebagai sumber alam tidak merupakan besaran yang berdiri sendiri. Misal hewan mamalia di padang pasir, pada musim kering tiba persediaan air habis di lingkungannya, maka harus berpindah ke lokasi yang ada sumber airnya. Berhasil atau tidaknya hewan bermigrasi tergantung pada adanya cukup waktu dan energi untuk menempuh jarak lokasi sumber air. Diunduh dari: Richards growth function for cumulative emergence (%) of pedunculate oak seedlings. The mean is shown for all provenances combined for each of the five experimental treatments (1 – untreated control, 2 – cutting off the scar of the pericarp and seed testa (DC), 3 – cutting off of 1/5 of the distal end of acorns, 4 – cutting off 1/2 of the distal end of acorns, 5 – cutting off 2/3 of the distal end of acorns) Consequences of cutting off distal ends of cotyledons of Quercus robur acorns before sowing by Giertych, Marian J.; Suszka, Jan Annals of Forest Science 2011 Vol. 68 Issue 2

21 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN BIO-DIVERSITAS Keanekaragaman juga merupakan sumberdaya alam. Semakin beragam jenis makanan suatu spesies semakin kurang bahayanya apabila menghadapi perubahan lingkungan yang dapat memusnahkan sumber makanannya. Diunduh dari: engineering-to-farmers/ Relationship between biodiversity, ecological engineering and stakeholders Communicating biodiversity and ecological engineering to farmers M.M. Escalada and Ho Van Chien Department of Development Communication Visayas State University

22 Using the right planting density is critical for optimum yield and revenue for vegetable crops Posted on June 1, 2011 by Mathieu Ngouajio, Michigan State University Extension, Department of Horticulture Diunduh dari: eld_and_revenue/ Using planting density to maximize economic value of the crop: The case of pickling cucumber Profitability of pickling cucumber (as is the case for many other crops) is not just a function of total fruit weight, but is also dependent on seed cost and fruit selling price. Therefore, seed cost should be included in the analyses of studies designed to identify optimum pickling cucumber densities. With an arbitrary 5 percent margin of error, a study conducted under our growing conditions showed that optimum economic value is obtained with densities between 72,000 and 120,000 plants per acre (Figure ). Optimum density for highest economic value varies depending on seed cost and cucumber selling price. The higher the seed cost, the lower the optimum density. Also, the lower the selling price, the lower the optimum density. Other factors that should be taken into account include cultivars, growing conditions and timing of harvest. Economic value of pickling cucumber as affected by planting density.

23 Insights into plant size-density relationships from models and agricultural crops Diunduh dari: Geometric relationships between planting distance, d; canopy radius, r; and plant height, h. (A) Polar view of equally spaced plants whose canopies (shaded circles) do not intersect because planting density is low or mature plants are small. (B) At higher densities, neighboring canopies make contact and compete for resources; at that point, the total number of plants equals n A n B, the planted area equals 4n A n B r 2 (where n A and n B are the numbers of plants in the orthogonal dimensions of the planted field), and the critical plant density, N crit, equals n A n B /(4n A n B r 2 ) ∝ 1/r 2. (C) Side view of the canopies (with radii, r) of two neighboring plants at a fixed distance, d. As canopies increase in size, their canopies begin to intersect (Center). The intersecting volume of neighboring canopies, V, equals twice the area of the segment of each circular intersecting canopy, A seg, multiplied by height, h. (D) Polar views of neighboring plants show that the chord between the two intersecting canopies in C is always located at d/2, whereas the area of the segments defined by the chord is a function of the angle θ (Right).

24 ALLEY CROPPING = PERTANAMAN LORONG Diunduh dari: t=1 Kang, B.T., G.F. Wilson and T.L. Lawson Alley Cropping: an Alternative to Shifting Cultivation. Special Publication, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. Fast-growing, deep-rooted legume trees such as leucaena ( Leucaena leucocephala) have been planted in double or single rows in Indonesia and the Philippines by small-scale farmers on sloping lands to control erosion (Lungren and Nair 1985). Food crops are then planted in the alleys between the trees. Periodic pruning is needed to prevent shading of the food crops by the tree canopy. Once established, the trees facilitate terrace formation within the alley.

25 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN ASAS 4: Untuk semua kategori sumberdaya alam, kalau pengadaannya sudah mencapai optimum, pengaruh unit kenaikannya sering menurun dengan penambahan sumberdaya alam itu sampai ke suatu tingkat maksimum. Melampaui batas maksimum ini tak akan ada pengaruh yang menguntungkan lagi. Diunduh dari:

26 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN Untuk semua kategori sumberdaya alam (kecuali keanekaragaman dan waktu) kenaikan pengadaannya yang melampui batas maksimum, bahkan akan berpengaruh merusak karena kesan peracunan. Ini adalah asas penjenuhan. Untuk banyak gejala sering berlaku kemungkinan penghancuran yang disebabkan oleh pengadaan sumberdaya alam yang sudah mendekati batas maksimum. Diunduh dari: Effect of Technical Change on Fertilizer Use and Yields Figure shows how this framework can help in understanding likely farmer reactions to significant changes in the underlying technology available for rice production. The development of modern fertilizer-responsive seed varieties shifts the entire production function up, allowing more output to be produced even with the same fertilizer input. But something else has happened in the shift as well, for even at the same fertilizer-to-rice price ratio a larger application of fertilizer is now profitable. The optimal point is E" where OK fertilizer is used to produce OC" rice.

27 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN Asas 4 tersebut terkandung arti bahwa pengadaan sumberdaya alam mempunyai batas optimum, yang berarti pula batas maksimum, maupun batas minimum. Pengadaan sumberdaya alam akan mengurangi daya kegiatan sistem biologi. Diunduh dari: This is called the Law of Diminishing Returns. The key to success with this theory is having the ability to identify whether the potential returns justify the investment (time, money, energy, etc.). If they don’t, it’s your cue to be done and move on to the next project.

28 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN Contoh: Pada keadaan lingkungan yang sudah stabil, populasi hewan atau tumbuhannya cenderung naik-turun (bukan naik terus atau turun terus). Maksudnya adalah akan terjadi pengintensifan perjuangan hidup, bila persediaan sumberdaya alam berkurang. Tetapi sebaliknya, akan terdapat ketenangan kalau sumberdaya alam bertambah. Diunduh dari: POPULATION ECOLOGY Factors Influencing Population Growth Nearly all populations will tend to grow exponentially as long as there are resources available. Most populations have the potential to expand at an exponential rate, since reproduction is generally a multiplicative process. Two of the most basic factors that affect the rate of population growth are the birth rate, and the death rate. The intrinsic rate of increase is the birth rate minus the death rate.

29 Ecosystem energy, nutrient and food pathways Diunduh dari: biomes/ecosystems-files/ecosystems.htm Notice the directional arrows and pathways. You should understand the sequences of Energy and Biotic and Abiotic components. 1.What are Abiotic components? 2.What are Biotic components? 3.What is the fundamental energy source? 4.How does this energy source vary at different locations around Earth? 5.Where are Plants in the flow of energy and materials? 6.Why are plants called the Producers, or for more emphasis, the Primary Producers? 7.What is meant by Consumers? 8.What are Herbivores? 9.What are Carnivores? 10.What are the sources of Energy and Materials for the preceding? 11.Where do Humans fit in? 12.What are the implications for energy and space efficiencies? 13.Biomass Pyramids: Efficiency of herbivores vs. carnivores (Fig 16-14) 14.What are Decomposers; what is their "role"? 15.Why can they be called Recyclers?

30 Ecosystem Physiology: The Plant-Microbe Dance Leslie H. Kirkegaard Diunduh dari: Microbe_Dance.html Orchid Ecosystem Outgrowth The outgrowth of the ecosystem in an orchid pot illustrates how microbes and plant engage each other over time. It also shows how Hyper-Growth culture differs from conventional culture. Figure depicts the basic steps in the outgrowth of an ecosystem. Orchids are potted in a clean bark mixture. Organic materials in the potting mix serve as a potential source of energy for ecosystem microbes. Upon the addition of water-containing, mineral nutrients, ecosystem microbes begin the race to exploit available energy foods. In the Figure, this is labeled the Awakening Phase. For any number of reasons a single, aggressive microbe-type will eventually emerge as the predominant player. As such, it basically defines the soil environment. This state, labeled in “toxic red” is called the Mono-microbe ecosystem. For most orchids, this condition is unhealthy, and frequently deadly. Conventional orchid growers avoid this condition by frequent re-potting. Over time as the primary food source becomes depleted, additional microbe-types will establish themselves and begin to create a more balanced ecosystem. The conclusion of this Maturing Phase leads to a dynamically balanced, Poly-microbe Ecosystem.

31 Biological modifiers of marine benthic seascapes: Their role as ecosystem engineers Peter S. Meadows, Azra Meadows, John M.H. Murray Geomorphology. Volumes 157–158, 1 July 2012, Pages 31–48 Diunduh dari: Benthic organisms in marine ecosystems modify the environment on different spatial and temporal scales. These modifications, many of which are initially at a microscale, are likely to have large scale effects on benthic seascapes. This is especially so if the species are ecosystem engineers. Most species of infaunal and epifaunal invertebrates and macrophytes contribute at a geophysical or geochemical level. Microorganisms also play a key but currently neglected role. In the intertidal and immediately sublittoral zone, algae and seagrasses, and mussels in mussel beds have received considerable attention. A substantial fossil record also exists. Mathematical modelling of these systems is still in its infancy, although several sophisticated mathematical tools have been applied. The effects of bioturbation and of microorganisms have been less studied, and little is known about the activities of benthic organisms in the deep sea. This paper addresses all these effects, and places them in the context of large scale benthic seascapes and of the extensive literature on species defined as ecosystem engineers in the sea.

32 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN ASAS 5: Ada dua jenis sumberdaya alam dasar, yaitu sumberdaya alam yang pengadaannya dapat merangsang penggunaan seterusnya, dan yang tidak mempunyai daya rangsang penggunaan lebih lanjut.

33 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN Contoh: Suatu jenis hewan sedang mencari berbagai sumber makanan. Kemudian didapatkan suatu jenis tanaman yang melimpah di alam, maka hewan tersebut akan memusatkan perhatiannya kepada penggunaan jenis makanan tersebut. Dengan demikian, kenaikan sumberdaya alam (makanan) merangsang kenaikan pendayagunaan. Diunduh dari: The food web diagram shows the names of river-based organisms with arrows that depict the flow of food from one kind of organism to another. It addresses the parts of the key idea that all land-based and aquatic organisms are interconnected by their need for food, that this network of interconnections is called a food web, and that food webs can be described for a particular environment.

34 Plant-Fungal Symbioses Diunduh dari: Mycorrhizas are the most important type of symbiotic plant-fungus associations, but there are a wide diversity of other associations between plants and fungi. The relationship between mycorrhizas and other types of plant-fungus associations, such as parasitic or endophytic associations, are also shown below. This diagram compares types of plant-fungus interactions and each is explained separately below (after Brundrett 2004). Mutualistic associations occupy the mutual benefit (+ +) quadrant in diagrams contrasting the relative benefits (+) or harm (-) to two interacting organisms (Boucher 1985, Lewis 1985). This is a phase plane diagram that describes biological interactions according to a cost-benefit model, where mutualism is an isocline showing both partners are more successful together than they are alone (Boucher 1985, Lewis 1985, Tuomi et al. 2001).

35 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN ASAS 6: Individu dan spesies yang mempunyai lebih banyak keturunan daripada saingannya, cenderung berhasil mengalahkan saingannya. Diunduh dari:

36 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN Pengertian: Asas ini adalah pernyataan teori Darwin dan Wallace. Pada jasad hidup terdapat perbedaan sifat keturunan dalam hal tingkat adaptasi terhadap faktor lingkungan fisik atau biologi. Kemudian timbul kenaikan kepadatan populasinya sehingga timbul persaingan. Jasad hidup yang kurang mampu beradaptasi akan kalah dalam persaingan. Dapat diartikan pula bahwa jasad hidup yang adaptif akan mampu menghasilkan banyak keturunan daripada yang non-adaptif. Diunduh dari: The sigmoid graph showing the population growth of a species has three phases which are; the exponential phase, the transitional phase and the plateau phase. At the start of the sigmoid curve we can see the exponential phase. This is where there is a rapid increase in population growth as natality rate exceeds mortality rate. The reason for this is because there are abundant resources available such as food for all members of the population and diseases as well as predators are rare. As time passes, the population reaches the transitional phase. This is where the natality rate starts to fall and/or the mortality rate starts to rise. It is the result of a decrease in the abundance of resources, and an increase in the number of predators and diseases. However, even though population growth has decreased compared to the exponential phase, it is still increasing as natality rate still exceeds mortality rate. Finally, the population reaches the plateau phase. Here, the population size is constant so no more growth is occurring. This is the result of natality rate being equal to mortality rate and is caused by resources becoming scarce as well as an increase in predators, diseases and parasites. These are the limiting factors to the population growth. If natality rate starts to drop then mortality rate will drop too as more resources become available. As natality rate starts to increase again so does mortality rate as resources become scarce. This keeps the population number relatively stable. If a population is limited by a shortage of resources then we say that it has reached the carrying capacity of the environment.

37 Factors Governing Populations at Max and Min Diunduh dari: Each of the major factors that regulate populations act differently with regards to how it exerts control over a population. For example, biotic factors interacting within a population (i.e., intra-specific competition) work together to maintain populations below the "carrying capacity". When populations become too large, the individuals of the same species begin to compete for the same resources such as food, shelter, egg-laying sites, etc. This interaction between members of the same species tends to be the most important factor maintaining population levels below the "carrying capacity".

38 Factors Governing Populations Below Carrying Capacity Diunduh dari: Biological control agents (parasites, pathogens, and predators) as well as competition between species with similar environmental requirements (i.e., interspecific competition) act together to regulate populations below the carrying capacity. While other factors, most notably abiotic factors, may influence these fluctuations, biological factors seem to be the most important. The importance of biotic factors is their influence on the fluctuations of population size above or below the characteristic population size.

39 A WHOLE SYSTEM APPROACH: dinamika adaptasi Diunduh dari: agrobiodiversity-by-indigenous-and-traditional-agricultural-communities-in-adapting-to-climate-change/ The main types of responses to climate change identified in the previous section illuminate the cross-scale processes, providing an insight into the adaptation dynamics. The interplay between adaptation strategies at different levels contributes to the resilience of the whole system through (i) the links between natural and cultivated landscapes; (ii) the supportive role of agriculture in the protection and restoration of ecosystems; and (iii) the maintenance of species and genetic diversity. Intra- and inter-species diversity Intra- and inter-species diversity is protected, used and redistributed to strengthen the resilience of agricultural systems and maintain production in stress-prone environments. The main adaptation measures are: 1.Use of stress-tolerant and fast-maturing crop species and varieties; and stress- tolerant species and breeds of cattle. 2.Protection, reintroduction and distribution of traditional crops through community seed banks and on-farm conservation. 3.Stress tolerance improvement through farmers’ selection and participatory plant breeding.

40 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN ASAS 7 : Kemantapan keaneka-ragaman suatu komunitas lebih tinggi pada kondisi alamiah yang “mudah diramal”. Diunduh dari:

41 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN Pengertian Mudah diramal : adanya keteraturan yang pasti pada diramal” pola faktor lingkungan pada suatu periode yang relatif lama. Terdapat fluktuasi kondisi lingkungan di semua habitat, tetapi mudah dan sukarnya untuk diramal berbeda dari satu habitat ke habitat lain. Dengan mengetahui keadaan optimum pada faktor lingkungan bagi kehidupan suatu spesies, maka perlu diketahui berapa lama keadaan tersebut dapat bertahan. Diunduh dari: Change from one stability domain to another when fishing is too close to the boundary between stability domains in a fisheries ecosystem with natural climatic fluctuations

42 Ecosystem Stability and succession Diunduh dari: biomes/ecosystems-files/ecosystems.htm Limiting Factors : 1.Low temperatures 2.High temperatures 3.Length of growing season 4.Lack of water 5.Excess surface/soil water

43 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN ASAS 8 : Sebuah habitat dapat jenuh atau tidak oleh keanekaragaman takson, bergantung kepada bagaimana niche dalam lingkungan hidup itu dapat memisahkan takson tersebut.

44 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN Pengertian: Kelompok taksonomi tertentu dari suatu jasad hidup ditandai oleh keadaan lingkungannya yang khas (niche), tiap spesies mempunyai niche tertentu. Spesies dapat hidup berdampingan dengan spesies lain tanpa persaiangan, karena masing- masing mempunyai keperluan dan fungsi yang berbeda di alam. Diunduh dari:

45 Energy Transfer Diunduh dari: The idea of the transfer of energy allows us to consider the efficiency with which light energy is transferred to energy in producers, as well as the efficiency with which energy in the producers is then transferred from trophic level to trophic level. The diagram shows the percentage of energy transferred to each trophic level in the ecosystem. We can look at this another way. For every kJ of energy absorbed by the producer, 100 kJ are incorporated into its tissues, 10 kJ will eventually be incorporated into the tissues of primary consumers, and 1 kJ into the tissues of secondary consumers. The rest will be lost as heat. This is the basic pattern of energy transfer, but there are a number of points that are worth making about each stage. These points are often required in order to answer questions which involve the interpretation of information. The efficiency with which energy is transferred within an ecosystem Transfer of sunlight energy to energy in plant tissues Not all the light energy falling on a plant is used to make new tissues: values have been rounded 1.Some is of the wrong wavelength for photosynthesis. 2.Some fails to strike a chlorophyll molecule. 3.Some will be reflected from the plant surface. 4.Other factors such as soil nutrients or carbon dioxide concentration may be in short supply. This will limit the rate of formation of new tissue. 5.Crop plants often convert a higher percentage of the light energy which falls on them into energy in new tissue than plants growing in the wild do. This is because: 6.Crops are often irrigated and supplied with fertiliser. Shortage of water and mineral ions does not limit growth. 7.Crop plants have been bred for high productivity. They therefore have genes which ensure that they are efficient at converting light energy into energy in plant tissue. 8.Crops are often treated with pesticides. As a result, there is little damage to their leaves and they can photosynthesise more efficiently.

46 Interspecific Competition Amitabh Joshi, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore, India Published online: May 2001 Diunduh dari:http://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a html Interspecific competition is the mutual inhibition of growth rate among populations of different species that have common requirements for shared and limiting resources. Interspecific competition can be a potent force in adaptive evolution and, along with predation and herbivory, is a major factor shaping the structure and species diversity of biological communities. Zero growth isoclines for competing species 1 (solid line) and 2 (dotted line) in the Lotka–Volterra model, plotted in a space defined by population numbers of the two species, N 1 and N 2. If N 1 and N 2 are such that the system lies to the right of both isoclines, then both N 1 and N 2 will tend to decrease (shown by thin solid and dotted arrows), resulting in the system moving in a direction indicated by the thick arrows. If the system lies to the left of both isoclines, then both N 1 and N 2 will tend to increase. If the system is to the right of the isocline for species 2, but to the left of the species 1 isocline, then N 1 will increase, whereas N 2 will decrease. The two isoclines in this example thus divide the relevant system space into three sections with different predicted trajectories.

47 INTERPLANTING OR INTERCROPPING Diunduh dari: l--11-en about utfZz-8- 00&cl=CL3.6&d=HASH0150ba4e9f73176fac50b5ae.7>=2 There is not a lot known about how planting density affects different crops and crop mixes. It has been found, for example, that closely planted apple trees with overlapping root areas produce many more downward growing roots in contrast to widely spaced trees which produce more horizontal roots. 10 How much some crops can adapt their physical structure to different planting densities and which crops can do this is not really known. Each gardener must experiment with planting densities and combinations that work for them. Annual leaf or fruit crops can often be successfully interplanted with root crops Mixed planting in a household garden may take many forms. It can be a combination of various trees and plants. It can be fruit trees surrounded by squash vines or garden beds containing alternating rows of different crops. However it is organized, the goal in a mixed garden is a greater average harvest of diverse garden produce for the least amount of labor and resources.

48 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN ASAS 9 : Keanekaragaman komunitas sebanding dengan biomassa dibagi produktivitas. T = K x (B/P) ; D ≈T T = waktu rata-rata penggunaan energi K = koefisien tetapan B = biomassa P = produktivitas D = keanekaragaman Diunduh dari:

49 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN Pengertian: Asas ini mengandung arti, bahwa efisiensi penggunaan aliran energi dalam sistem biologi akan meningkat dengan meningkatnya kompleksitas organisasi sistem biologi dalam suatu komunitas. Diunduh dari: Services provided by intercropping Genetic diversity physical barrier to fungal spread ↑complexity & competition of pathogens Induced resistance > rice blast 94% less severe → no fungicides used > 89% greater yield LER: 1.18 ha monoculture for 1 ha mixture

50 Effects of Intercropping Systems on Environment Diunduh dari: Intercropping cultivating two or more crops in the same space at the same time form of polyculture using companion planting principles Agroforestry land use systems in which woody perennials are integrated with crops (Gliessman 2007) Increase in biodiversity Soil fertility improvement Socioeconomic effects

51 ECOSYSTEM Structure Diunduh dari: The description of the fishers' interaction within the ecosystem requires identification of four main ecosystem compartments: (1) a biotic compartment, including target fish resources, associated and dependent species and the living habitat (seagrass, algal beds, corals); (2) an abiotic compartment, characterized by its topography, bottom types, water quality and local weather/climate; (3) a fishery compartment, in which harvesting and processing activities take place, with a strong technological character, and (4) an institutional compartment, comprising laws, regulations and organizations needed for fisheries governance. Humans are part of the biotic component of the ecosystem from which they draw resources, food, services and livelihood as well as part of the fishery component which they drive. These components interact and are affected by: (i) non-fishing activities; (ii) the global climate; (iii) other ecosystems, usually adjacent, with which they exchange matter and information; and (iv) the socio-economic environment as reflected in the market, relevant policies and societal values. A simplified diagram of the interactions involved in an exploited ecosystem is given in Figure below.

52 Phytoplankton Community Structure as an Indicator of Coastal Ecosystem Health Paerl, Han, Luettich Jr., Richard A., Noble, Rachel T., Pinckney, James L. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of South Carolina at Columbia March 1, 2003 through February 28, 2004 Diunduh dari: /report/2004/ Using Phytoplankton Photopigments To Assess Estuarine Ecological Condition and Change Roles of Diagnostic Photopigments as Indicators of Ecosystem Productivity and Plant Community Composition in Response to Physical-Chemical Stressors in Estuarine and Coastal Waters

53 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN ASAS 10 : Pada lingkungan yang stabil perbandingan antara biomasa dengan produktivitas (B/P) dalam perjalanan waktu naik mencapai sebuah asimtot.

54 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN Pengertian: Sistem biologi menjalani evolusi yang mengarah kepada peningkatan efisiensi penggunaan energi dalam lingkungan fisik yang stabil, dan memungkinkan berkembangnya keanekaragaman. Diunduh dari: Energy Efficiency and Ecological Sustainability in Conventional and Integrated Potato Production System M.R. Haj Seyed Hadi (Iran) Sustainable development in potato production is an issue of growing concern. An energy flow analysis is proposed for providing parameters for estimating ecological sustainability. Calculations include energy output (contents of energy in potato tuber) and energy inputs (consumption of fertilizers, pesticides, labor, machines, fuel and electricity). The ratio of output of the production to inputs is called the energy outputs / inputs ratio or energy efficiency. One way to quantify essential parts of agricultural development is the energy flow method. The output / input energy ratio is proposed as the most comprehensive single factor in pursuing the objective of sustainability. Potato is one of the most important field crops in Iran and has effective role to supply foods for growing population. The objective of this investigation was to find out energy flow in potato field and for this reason, 6 main potato production area of Iran were selected. These provinces were: Firoozkouh, Khorasan, Ardabil and Hamadan. Results of this study showed that in one hectare of potato average energy inputs was Kcal. Mean potato yield was about kg / ha and by its energetic values, the total output energy calculated Kcal. According to these information, the energy output / input ratio was 0.98.

55 Crop yield and light/energy efficiency in a closed ecological system: Laboratory Biosphere experiments with wheat and sweet potato. Nelson M, Dempster WF, Silverstone S, Alling A, Allen JP, van Thillo M Advances in Space Research : the Official Journal of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) [2005, 35(9): ] Diunduh dari: Two crop growth experiments in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, were conducted from 2003 to 2004 with candidate space life support crops. Apogee wheat (Utah State University variety) was grown, planted at two densities, 400 and 800 seeds m-2. The lighting regime for the wheat crop was 16 h of light-8 h dark at a total light intensity of around 840 micromoles m-2 s-1 and 48.4 mol m-2 d-1 over 84 days. Average biomass was 1395 g m-2, 16.0 g m-2 d-1 and average seed production was 689 g m-2 and 7.9 g m-2 d-1. The less densely planted side was more productive than the denser planting, with 1634 g m-2 and 18.8 g m-2 d-1 of biomass vs g m-2 and 13.3 g m-2 d-1; and a seed harvest of g m-2 and 9.3 g m-2 d-1 vs g m-2 and 6.5 g m-2 d-1. Harvest index was 0.49 for the wheat crop. wheat The experiment with sweet potato used TU a compact variety developed at Tuskegee University. Light during the sweet potato experiment, on a 18 h on/6 h dark cycle, totaled 5568 total moles of light per square meter in 126 days for the sweet potatoes, or an average of 44.2 mol m-2 d-1. Temperature regime was 28 +/- 3 degrees C day/22 +/- 4 degrees C night. Sweet potato tuber yield was 39.7 kg wet weight, or an average of 7.4 kg m-2, and 7.7 kg dry weight of tubers since dry weight was about 18.6% wet weight. Average per day production was 58.7 g m-2 d-1 wet weight and 11.3 g m-2 d-1. For the wheat, average light efficiency was 0.34 g biomass per mole, and 0.17 g seed per mole. The best area of wheat had an efficiency of light utilization of 0.51 g biomass per mole and 0.22 g seed per mole. For the sweet potato crop, light efficiency per tuber wet weight was 1.33 g mol-1 and 0.34 g dry weight of tuber per mole of light. potatoestubersmole sweet potato The best area of tuber production had 1.77 g mol-1 wet weight and 0.34 g mol-1 of light dry weight. The Laboratory Biosphere experiment's light efficiency was somewhat higher than the USU field results but somewhat below greenhouse trials at comparable light levels, and the best portion of the crop at 0.22 g mol-1 was in- between those values. Sweet potato production was overall close to 50% higher than trials using hydroponic methods with TU at NASA JSC. Compared to projected yields for the Mars on Earth life support system, these wheat yields were about 15% higher, and the sweet potato yields averaged over 80% higher.wheat

56 Energy efficiency of grassland animal production in northwest China. Jin, Y. S.; Xiong, Y. Q.; Ervin, R. T. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment (Netherlands) 1990 Vol. 31 No. 1 pp Diunduh dari: 901 The current livestock grazing status of the Xinjiang grassland ecosystem in northwest China is described with respect to low energy conversion of solar to forage energy, waste of energy from the conversion of forage to animal product energy, and low commercial energy input into the grassland ecosystem. Three approaches which may improve the energy efficiency of the Xinjiang ecosystem are suggested: (1) properly reducing stocking rate and adjusting herd structure; (2) following (1) and fattening 50% of the animals before marketing; and (3) following (1) and fattening 100% of the animals before marketing. A benefit-cost analysis is developed for these approaches. All benefit-cost ratios are greater than one, indicating that the returns of the suggested approaches are greater than their costs.

57 THE LIMITING FACTOR CONCEPT. Diunduh dari: https://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/Courses/css412/mod3/ext_m3_pg3.htm In order to not over- or under-supply crops with nutrients from manure and fertilizer, it's important to determine the crop's need for nutrients. Consider a broader case, including and beyond P for a minute. A crop has many basic needs. The factor that is in shortest supply, relative to crop needs, will limit the yield of the crop, leaving the other factors in excess. This is known as the Limiting Factor Concept. The Limiting Factor Concept can be illustrated by a barrel of water. The staves represent key factors for crop growth. The shortest stave height limits how much water the barrel can hold (i.e. crop yield). An illustration of the principle of limiting factors. The level of water in the barrels above represents the level of crop production. (a) Nitrogen is represented as being the factor that is most limiting. Even though the other elements are present in more adequate amounts, crop production can be no higher than that allowed by the nitrogen. (b) When nitrogen is added, the level of crop production is raised until it is controlled by the next most limiting factor, in this case, potassium. (After N. C. Brady, The Nature and Properties of Soils, 9th ed., Macmillan, 1984)

58 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN ASAS 11 : Sistem yang sudah mantap (dewasa) akan mengekploitasi yang belum mantap (belum dewasa). Diunduh dari:

59 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN Pengertian: Ekosistem, populasi atau tingkat makanan yang sudah dewasa memindahkan energi, biomasa, dan keanekaragaman dari tingkat organisasi yang belum dewasa. Dengan kata lain, energi, materi, dan keanekaragaman mengalir melalui suatu kisaran yang menuju ke arah organisasi yang lebih kompleks. (Dari subsistem yang rendah keanekara-gamannya ke subsistem yang tinggi keanekaragamannya). Diunduh dari: Energy Flow Through Food Chains Food Chains The source of all food is the activity of autotrophs, mainly photosynthesis by plants. They are called producers because only they can manufacture food from inorganic raw materials. This food feeds herbivores, called primary consumers. Carnivores that feed on herbivores are called secondary consumers. Carnivores that feed on other carnivores are tertiary (or higher) consumers. Such a path of food consumption is called a food chain. Each level of consumption in a food chain is called a trophic level.

60 Energy Flow in Natural Ecosystems Diunduh dari: An ecosystem is a functional unit of the environment, which comprises the interaction of all organisms and physical components within a given geographical area. It consists of two components, biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living). Biotic ecosystems are composed of organisms (plants, animals, and microorganisms) each of which is considered to be either a producer or a consumer of food or energy. Plants are producers and animals are consumers. There are four classes of consumers: 1.Herbivore - eats only plants 2.Carnivore - eats only animals 3.Omnivore - eats both plants and animals 4.Detritus feeders - bacteria, fungi, worms, termites, and maggots. Each group of organisms along an energy pathway occupies a trophic or feeding level. All green plants (primary producers) belong to the first trophic level. Herbivores compose the second trophic level. Carnivores that eat herbivores make up the third trophic level. Carnivores that consume other carnivores comprise the fourth trophic level. The above energy flow illustrates a grazing food web.

61 Characterization of a carbohydrate transporter from symbiotic glomeromycotan fungi Arthur Schüler, Holger Martin, David Cohen, Michael Fitz and Daniel Wipf Nature 444, (14 December 2006) Diunduh dari: Despite inverted relative dimensions of macro- and microsymbiont the interface and nutrient exchange in the G. pyriformis symbiosis correspond to that in the arbuscular mycorrhiza. Several arbuscular mycorrhiza-specific phosphate transporters (PT) are known from plants. The hypothetical role of GpMST1, and its orthologues, in the sugar uptake through the symbiotic membrane of glomeromycotan fungi is indicated together with the substrates of GpMST1 (fructose and putatively xylose are transported weakly).

62 Interspecific competition in phytophagous insects Diunduh dari: The relative importance of interspecific competition is a highly controversial and unresolved issue for community ecology, in general, and for phytophagous insects in particular. Traditionally, two mechanistic forms of competition are cited in ecology, (1) exploitative, and (2) interference. Recent advancements, however, in our understanding of indirect interactions via plants (induced resistance) and natural enemies (apparent competition) challenge the historical paradigm of competition: Indirect herbivore interactions via plants and enemies are likely to underlie much of the discrepancy between theory and pattern. Until recently most ecology texts emphasized interference and exploitative interactions as the two mechanisms driving competition. My dataset provides weak support for the overall prevalence of these two mechanisms occurring in insect communities. Alternatively, indirect interactions provide the vast majority of evidence for interspecific herbivore interactions (>65% of all observations in the dataset), particularly those involving plants.

63 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN ASAS 12 : Kesempurnaan adaptasi suatu sifat atau tabiat bergantung pada kepentingan relatifnya dalam keadaan suatu lingkungan. Diunduh dari:

64 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN Pengertian: Populasi dalam ekosistem yang belum mantap, kurang bereaksi terhadap perubahan lingkungan fisiko kimia dibandingkan dengan populasi dalam ekosistem yang sudah mantap. Populasi dalam lingkungan dengan kemantapan fisiko kimia yang cukup lama, tak perlu berevolusi untuk meningkatkan kemampuannya beradaptasi dengan keadaan yang tidak stabil. Diunduh dari:http://open.jorum.ac.uk/xmlui/bitstream/handle/ /947/Items/S324_1_section5.html Environments and populations A jack rabbit would need to lose at least four per cent of its body mass per hour to thermoregulate by evaporation. There is little or no free water around; water is obtained from the diet, green plants, including cacti in the summer. Knut Schmidt- Nielsen's work (1967) showed that behaviour is important for the jack rabbit's survival. During the hottest part of the day the animal chooses a shaded depression in the ground, often in the lee of a bush, in which it crouches The desert jack rabbit in a shaded depression showing a behavioural adaptation to cope with the severe environment Based on Folk, G.E. (1974) Textbook of Environmental Physiology (2nd edn), Lea and Febiger

65 . The ecological effect of phenotypic plasticity — Analyzing complex interaction networks (COIN) with agent-based models H. Reuter, F. Jopp, F. Hölker, C. Eschenbach, U. Middelhoff, B. Breckling Ecological Informatics. Volume 3, Issue 1, 1 January 2008, Pages 35–45 Diunduh dari: Analyzing complex dynamics of ecological systems is complicated by two important facts: First, phenotypic plasticity allows individual organisms to adapt their reaction norms in terms of morphology, anatomy, physiology and behavior to changing local environmental conditions and trophic relationships. Secondly, individual reactions and ecological dynamics are often determined by indirect interactions through reaction chains and networks involving feedback processes. We present an agent-based modeling framework which allows to represent and analyze ecological systems that include phenotypic changes in individual performances and indirect interactions within heterogeneous and temporal changing environments. We denote this structure of interacting components as COmplex Interaction Network (COIN). Three examples illustrate the potential of the system to analyze complex ecological processes that incorporate changing phenotypes on the individual level: 1.A model on fish population dynamics of roach (Rutilus rutilus) leads to a differentiation in fish length resulting in a conspicuous distribution that influences reproduction capability and thus indirectly the fitness. 2.Modeling the reproduction phase of the passerine bird Erithacus rubecula (European Robin) illustrates variation in the behavior of higher organisms in dependence of environmental factors. Changes in reproduction success and in the proportion of different activities are the results. 3.The morphological reaction of plants to changes in fundamental environmental parameters is illustrated by the black alder (Alnus glutinosa) model. Specification of physiological processes and the interaction structure on the level of modules allow to represent the reaction to changes in irradiance and temperature accurately.

66 Herb Plant Structures and Adaptations Diunduh dari: A plant is a collection of different internal (inside) and external (outside) structures that help it to survive and reproduce. Heritable structures or behaviors that help an organism to survive and reproduce are classified as adaptations. Not all structures or behaviors are adaptations, and if an organism is moved into a new environment or the environment changes, a structure or behavior might no longer be adaptive.

67 Strategies of adaptation to excess water stresses in the form of submergence or waterlogging in rice plants. Diunduh dari: Rice can adapt to submergence by internal aeration and growth control. For internal aeration, rice develops longitudinally forming aerenchyma and leaf gas films. On the other hand, some rice cultivars can survive under submergence by using special strategies of growth control: a quiescence strategy or an escape strategy. The Submergence-1A (SUB1A) gene is responsible for the quiescence strategy, which is important for survival under flash-flood conditions. The SNORKEL1 (SK1) and SNORKEL2 (SK2) genes are responsible for the escape strategy, which is important for survival under deepwater-flood conditions. Rice can adapt to soil waterlogging by forming aerenchyma and a barrier to radial O 2 loss (ROL) in the roots.

68 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN ASAS 13 : Lingkungan yang secara fisik mantap memungkinkan terjadinya penimbunan keanekaragaman biologi dalam ekosistem yang mantap, yang kemudian dapat menggalakkan kemantapan populasi lebih jauh lagi. Diunduh dari:

69 Aquatic Habitat and Buffers Diunduh dari: Riparian corridors or buffers influence habitat quality for aquatic species in several ways: Provide woody debris for in-stream habitat structure Maintain in-stream microclimate Provide food for in-stream species Protect water quality Riparian buffers may not be able to maintain desirable aquatic habitat quality in watersheds that are highly developed. Other land use management strategies will need to be used as well.

70 Distribution-abundance Relationship Diunduh dari: patterns-in-species-abundance-and Species that are restricted in their geographic distribution tend to be scarce whereas widespread species are likely to occur at high densities. This positive interspecific distribution-abundance relationship (Figure A) is intimately related to the patterns in species abundance discussed earlier. This relationship may seem self-evident: Surely there is a positive link between measures of a species' success on a local scale (its density) and on a regional scale (its geographic distribution). Yet although a larger area is more likely to be able to sustain a higher total number of individuals of a species, it is not clear why the density (number of individuals in a given area) should also increase. The interspecific distribution-abundance relationship (A) Generally, a positive relationship results when plotting measures of abundance against measures of distribution for different species from a species group. (B) The same data, with species subdivided into habitat specialists (red) and habitat generalists (green), showing that habitat specialists may be more abundant relatively (i.e., for a given distribution). A logit transformation is given by logit (X) = log ( X / 1-XM ). © 2011 Nature Education Data from Verberk, W. C. E. P. et al. (2010) All rights reserved.

71 INTERSPECIFIC DISTRIBUTION-ABUNDANCE RELATIONSHIPS Diunduh dari: abundance-and There are two broad classes of ecologically based explanations for interspecific distribution-abundance relationships. The first class postulates the existence of a positive feedback between local abundance and the regional distribution of a species (Figure A). Species that occur in large numbers across many localities will be more likely to maintain their wide distributions and high abundance. Larger populations produce more offspring, which increases the chances that the species will reach other localities (higher colonization) and expand its geographic range. Similarly, being widespread will ensure the continuous arrival of individuals to all places and thus a species will be less likely to disappear from a particular locality (lower local extinction). A consequence of this positive feedback is that there is a dichotomy: Species will either be widespread and abundant (so called core species) or they will be restricted and scarce (so called satellite species).

72 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN ASAS 14 : Derajat pola keteraturan naik- turunnya populasi tergantung pada jumlah keturunan dalam sejarah populasi sebelumnya yang nanti akan mempengaruhi populasi itu. Diunduh dari:

73 AZAS DASAR ILMU LINGKUNGAN Ciri-Ciri Lingkungan/ Komunitasyang Mantap: 1.Jumlah jalur energi yang masuk melalui ekosistem meningkat (banyak) 2.Lingkungan fisik mantap (mudah“diramal”) 3.Sistem kontrol umpan balik (feedback) komunitas sangat kompleks 4.Efisiensi penggunaan energi 5.Tingkat keanekaragaman tinggi Diunduh dari: Energy Flow Through the Ecosystem The diagram above shows how both energy and inorganic nutrients flow through the ecosystem. We need to define some terminology first. Energy "flows" through the ecosystem in the form of carbon-carbon bonds. When respiration occurs, the carbon- carbon bonds are broken and the carbon is combined with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. This process releases the energy, which is either used by the organism (to move its muscles, digest food, excrete wastes, think, etc.) or the energy may be lost as heat. The dark arrows represent the movement of this energy. Note that all energy comes from the sun, and that the ultimate fate of all energy in ecosystems is to be lost as heat. Energy does not recycle!!

74 Diunduh dari: PRINCIPLES OF ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION AND ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS A.Energy Source 1.The ultimate source of energy on our planet: the sun. 2.The first basic principle of ecosystem sustainability: "For sustainability, ecosystems use sunlight as their source of energy.‘ Our planet is sustainable as long as the sun exists. Ecosystems do not use energy at a faster rate than that available from the sun. (The same cannot be said for humans because of our rate of fossil fuel consumption.) This figure shows energy flow through Trophic Levels in a Grazing Food Web. Each trophic level is represented as biomass boxes and the pathways taken by the energy flow are indicated with arrows.

75 NUTRIENT CYCLES: Energy flows but nutrients cycle. The molecules in an organism will eventually be found in another organism. Diunduh dari: Carbon Cycle: Changing the location of this element is the primary issue in global warming. We are moving carbon from where it has been stored (fossil fuels) to the atmosphere, where it acts to reduce the amount of heat reradiated to space. The rate of movement (flows) between pools can be slow or fast depending upon the nature of the pool. Boxes in the figure refer to pools of carbon, and arrows refer to the movement, or fluxes, of carbon from one pool to another.

76 PHOSPHORUS CYCLE Changing the location of this element is one of the primary reasons for the increased nutrient load in aquatic ecosystems. We move phosphorus from where it has been concentrated, e.g., in guano, and deposit it on soil (or in consumer products), where it is released to water. The rate of movement (flows) between pools can be slow or fast depending upon the nature of the pool. Diunduh dari: This figure shows the movement of phosphates through an ecosystem.

77 NITROGEN CYCLE Changing the location of this element is the other reason for the increased nutrient load in aquatic ecosystems. (Nitrogen and phosphorus are limiting factors in aquatic ecosystems.) The rate of movement (flows) between pools can be slow or fast depending upon the nature of the pool. The flow of nutrients into Chesapeake Bay (primarily nitrogen) has been cited as the primary reason for the outbreak of Physteria. Diunduh dari: This figure shows the movement of nitrogen through an ecosystem.

78 THE SECOND BASIC PRINCIPLE OF ECOSYSTEM SUSTAINABILITY Diunduh dari: " For sustainability, ecosystems dispose of wastes and replenish nutrients by recycling all elements." Arranging organisms by feeding relationships and depicting the energy and nutrient inputs and outputs of each relationship show a continuous recycling of nutrients in the ecosystem, a continuous flow of energy through it, and a decrease in biomass.

79 Seven Dimensions of Sustainable Agriculture by Nicanor Perlas Diunduh dari: Almost everybody talks about sustainable agriculture as an alternative to the outworn “green revolution” agriculture. However, the term has quickly become an empty phrase meaning almost anything including such oxymoron terms as “safe pesticides” and “environmentally friendly” biotechnology. Even WTO advocates use sustainable agriculture to justify corporate control of the food chain. It is important for civil society, which originated the idea, to concretely articulate what it understands by the term “sustainable agriculture.”

80 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Sustainable Development is the process by which we move towards sustainability “…development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987) This was endorsed in 1992 at the Earth Summit in Rio Diunduh dari: Seven Dimensions of Sustainable Development The five dimensions of sustainable development are clearly visible. These are—the human being, culture, polity, economy, and Nature. However, to this five, we need to consider society as a separate dimension. Society can be understood as the integrative result of interactions of the different activities in culture, polity, and the economy. The population issue, for example, is a development issue that can only be addressed from a societal perspective, not just from culture alone, or the economy alone, or polity alone.. From

81 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Diunduh dari: What is sustainable development? Sustainable development is defined as balancing the fulfillment of human needs with the protection of the natural environment. A common definition of sustainable development is "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." The field of sustainable development can be conceptually broken into three constituent parts: environmental protection, economic sustainability, and social justice Source: Adapted from Ralph Hall, Introducing the Concept of Sustainable Transport to the U.S. DOT through the Reauthorization of TEA-21

82 Youth and the Environment: 7 Environmental Principles Diunduh dari: The key to understanding the environmental problems that we encounter today is to learn about our ecosystem. This section highlights the basic environmental principles, varied types of ecosystem, current environmental issues, anthropogenic activities that threat the environment and the role of youth in protecting our environment. Nature knows best. This principle is the most basic and in fact encompasses all the others. Humans have to understand nature and have to abide by the rules nature dictates. In essence, one must not go against the natural processes if one would like to ensure a continuous and steady supply of resources. One natural process that needs serious attention is nutrient cycling. In nature, nutrients pass from the environment to the organisms and back to the environment. Any disruption in the cycle can bring about imbalance. For example, burning of farm wastes instead of allowing them to decompose naturally disrupts the cycle. In burning, most of the organic compounds are lost. The combustion products bring greater havoc as in the case of carbon dioxide build-up, which results in the warming-up of the earth, or the so-called "greenhouse" effect. Nature has also its built-in mechanisms to maintain balance of homeostasis - the availability of nutrients, conduciveness of the environment for growth and reproduction, and the feeding relationships that exist between and among organisms which serve as population controls. For example, the rat population is controlled by the presence and number of its predators, e.g., snakes. The use of chemical pesticides and fertilizer disrupts check and balance in the ecosystem. Pesticides can either kill vital organisms directly or induce genetic changes that result in resistant pests or organisms. Chemical fertilizers increase the acidity of the soil through time making a number of nutrients unavailable and thus, unfit for the survival of plants and other organisms. History and our experiences are full of examples to prove the validity of this principle. In fact, this principle only surfaced when many of the detrimental effects of technology were recognized and coined thereon as "ecological backlash." Source: Science and Health: Matrix and Modules on Environmental Management

83 Youth and the Environment: 7 Environmental Principles Diunduh dari: All forms of life are important Each organism plays a fundamental role in nature. Since such occupational or functional position, otherwise known as niche, cannot be simultaneously occupied by more than one specie, it is apparent that all living things must be considered as invaluable in the maintenance of homeostasis in the ecosystem. It is easy to appreciate the beautiful butterflies, especially knowing their important role in pollination. The giant beasts – the elephants, the whales, the alligators – are objects of awe and the products they yield – ivory, oil, leather, respectively – are highly prized. But when it comes to unlovely, wriggly, and troublesome creatures, this principle is unusually overlooked. For instance, it has been customary for many to step on any wriggling creature (e.g. earthworms) without even considering why God made them in the first place. People also react adversely to the presence of snakes. At home, spiders are looked at with disdain. Awareness of the snakes' role in limiting the rat population and of the spiders' role in checking the population of mosquitoes and flies may, however, change this attitude. Source: Science and Health: Matrix and Modules on Environmental Management

84 Youth and the Environment: 7 Environmental Principles Diunduh dari: Everything is connected to everything else This principle is best exemplified by the concept of the ecosystem. In an ecosystem, all biotic and amniotic components interact with each other to ensure that the system is perpetuated. Any outside interference may result in an imbalance and the deterioration of the system. In a lake ecosystem, the organisms are linked to one another through their feeding habit/level and are also dependent on other physico-chemical factors in the lake (e.g. amount of nutrients, amounts and types of gases, temperature, PH, etc.). At the same time, the physico-chemical factors in the lake are influenced by the terrestrial environment that surrounds it. The fertilizers that reach the lake cause a faster growth of phytoplankton, which may lead to algae bloom, red tide, or other such phenomena. This principle may be discussed in local, regional, or global perspective. Deforestation in the mountains may affect the lowlands through floods, drought, and erosion. Whatever happens to one country may affect other countries. An example of this is the Chernobyl accident, which affected a lot of countries through the transfer of radioactive substances by natural agents such as wind and water, as well as human activities like the export of contaminated food. Source: Science and Health: Matrix and Modules on Environmental Management

85 Youth and the Environment: 7 Environmental Principles Diunduh dari: Everything changes It is said that the only permanent thing is change. As a general classification, change may be linear, cyclical or random. As example of linear change is evolution of species, which has brought about higher and more complex types of organisms. Cyclical change may be exemplified by seasons and the rhythms in floral and faunal life stages that go with the seasons. An example of random change is the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, which brought about great upheaval in many parts of Luzon and changes in the topography of the land. The environment is constantly changing. Organisms also evolve through time. However, man’s technology has affected these natural changes often to a problematic extent. Although mutation is a natural change, pesticides have induced insect mutations, which are not matched by natural checks and balances. Humans should rethink their relationship with the environment. Changes that they think may be beneficial to the environment often turn out to be disastrous. Environmental technologies should be given priority if man would want more positive changes in the environment. Source: Science and Health: Matrix and Modules on Environmental Management

86 Youth and the Environment: 7 Environmental Principles Diunduh dari: Everything must go somewhere When a piece of paper is thrown away, it disappears from sight but it does not cease to exist. It ends up elsewhere. Gases released in smokestacks may disperse but it will end up a component of the atmosphere or brought down by rains. What a particular type of waste does to the earth's repository should be of concern to us. It may be a pollutant or a resource depending on certain factors. Since wastes are not lost to oblivion, and even goes back to one's own backyard in some other forms, it is important that one becomes aware of the different types of wastes – whether they are hazardous or not. Classification of wastes facilitates their proper disposal and minimizes, if not prevents, the entry of toxic wastes in vital ecosystems and ensures reconversion into useful forms. Source: Science and Health: Matrix and Modules on Environmental Management

87 Youth and the Environment: 7 Environmental Principles Diunduh dari: Ours is a finite earth The earth’s resources can be classified as either renewable or non-renewable. Renewable resources are those that can easily be replenished by natural cycles (e.g. water, air, plants, and animals) while non-renewable resources are those that cannot be replenished through natural cycles (e.g. ores of various metals, oil, coal). Although renewable resources can be replenished, it is important to note that these are renewable only as long as they are not overused nor destroyed from such factors such as pollution. To ensure that these resources will be continually replenished, it is essential to know how much of a resource can be consumed at a given time to balance the rate of exploitation with the rate of replenishment. Just how long would the earth be able to sustain demands on its resources? This is a question that needs serious reflection. Unless the factors of population growth, lifestyles, and polluting technologies are checked, the collapse of the earth might be inevitable. Awareness of the earth's limited resources leads to a conscious effort to change one's consumerist attitude as well as to develop processes and technology that would bring about effective recycling of a great number of resources. Source: Science and Health: Matrix and Modules on Environmental Management

88 Youth and the Environment: 7 Environmental Principles Diunduh dari: Nature is beautiful and we are stewards of God's creation Among all creatures, humans are the only ones made in God's image and have been given the right to have dominion over all His creations. Being the most intelligent and gifted with reason, humans are capable of manipulating creation to their own advantage. Yet, creation exists not to be ravaged or abused but to be taken care of. Humans cannot exist without nature. They are co-natural with the environment they live in. If the environment they live in is destroyed, with it will go Homo Sapiens. This principle is inherent in all religious and tribal beliefs. Teachings of Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam enjoin everyone to respect all life and the order of nature. Words of Chief Seattle, Macli-ing Dulag, and Chito Mendez point to our duty to discern the true worth of modern systems and techniques to reject those that degrade, and promote those that elevate the human condition. Source: Science and Health: Matrix and Modules on Environmental Management


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