Presentation on theme: "1 Ass. Wr. Wb. ECOPOLIS: KOTA RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Soemarno 2011 Ass. Wr. Wb. ECOPOLIS: KOTA RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Soemarno 2011."— Presentation transcript:
1 Ass. Wr. Wb. ECOPOLIS: KOTA RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Soemarno 2011 Ass. Wr. Wb. ECOPOLIS: KOTA RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Soemarno 2011
2 Ecopolis (city) An Ecopolis is a large city that follows ecological principles. The word ecopolis is a portmanteau created from ecology (interactions between living organisms and the environment) and polis (a city state).portmanteauecologypolis It was used in a 1991 article by architect Paul F. Downton, who later founded the company Ecopolis Architects.architectPaul F. Downton The term was used more recently in a 2006 article by New Scientist.New Scientist
3 An ecopolis can feed and power itself with minimal reliance on the surrounding countryside, and creates the smallest possible eco- footprint for its residents. This results in a city that is friendly to the surrounding environment, in terms of POLLUTION, land use, and alleviation of GLOBAL- WARMING. It is estimated that by 2007, over half of the world’s population will live in urban areas and this provides both challenges and opportunities for environmentally-conscious developers.
4 Ecological cities can be achieved though various means, such as: Small scale, private agriculture and agricultural plots in the city’s suburbs to reduce the distance food has to travel from field to fork. Renewable energyRenewable energy sources, such as wind turbines, solar cells, or bio-gas created from sewage.wind turbines Cities provide economies of scale that make such energy sources viable.economies of scale Akses Jalan Berfungsi Menghubungakan pusat produksi pertanian dengan pusat pasar….. foto smn 2011
5 Various methods to reduce the need for air conditioning (a massive energy demand), such as low lying buildings that allow air to circulate, an increase in water features, and green spaces equaling at least 20% of the city's surface.air conditioning This counters the environmental heating caused by factors such as an abundance of tarmac and asphalt, which can heat city areas by up to 6 degrees Celsius during the evening. Taman Pot Berfungsi untuk menjamin kenyamanan lingkungan sekitar bangunan rumah………….. foto smn 2011
6 Improved public transport and an increase in pedestrianisation to reduce car emissions.public transport This requires a radically different approach to city planning, with integrated business, industrial, and residential zones. Roads may be designed to make driving difficult. JEMBATAN BERFUNGSI MENGHUBUNGKAN ANTAR KAWASAN, foto smn 2010
7 Optimal building density to make public transport viable but avoid the creation of urban heat islands. Few real life examples of ecopolis exist. On a small scale, green open space such as the UB campuss in Malang city. KEPADATAN BANGUNAN HARUS DIIMBANGI DENGAN KEPADATAN VEGETASI PERMANEN UNTUK KENYAMANAN LINGKUNGAN, foto smn 2011
8 Many shanty towns in the underdeveloped world already practice the principles of an ecopolis: efficient power use, recycling, private agriculture, and pedestrianisation. The planned development of Sociópolis in Valencia, Spain will provide low-rise affordable housing integrated into traditional agricultural zones and irrigation systems.ValenciaSpain Perhaps the most ambitious project is a planned extension in the Chongming district of Shanghai, referred to as Dongtan. Dongtan is being designed with the specific aim of minimizing the eco- footprint of its residents, and includes plans to become self-sufficient in energy and water production.
9 Ecovillage Ecovillages are intended to be socially, economically and ecologically sustainable intentional communities. Most aim for a population of 50-150 individuals because this size is considered to be the maximum social network according to findings from sociology and anthropology (Hill & Dunbar, 2002). Larger ecovillages of up to 2,000 individuals may, however, exist as networks of smaller "ecomunicipalities" or subcommunities to create an ecovillage model that allows for social networks within a broader foundation of support.
10 Ecovillage members are united by shared ecological, social or spiritual values (Intentional community). An ecovillage is often composed of people who have chosen an alternative to centralized power, water and sewage systems. Many see the breakdown of traditional forms of community, wasteful consumerist lifestyles, the destruction of natural habitat, urban sprawl, factory farming, and over-reliance on fossil fuels, as trends that must be changed to avert ecological disaster.
11 They see small-scale communities with minimal ecological impact as an alternative. However, such communities often cooperate with peer villages in networks of their own. This model of collective action is similar to that of Ten Thousand Villages, which supports the fair trade of goods worldwide. Ten Thousand Villagesfair trade Kenyamanan pasar desa yang bedampingan dengan lahan sawah. foto smn 2011
12 In 1991, Robert Gilman set out a definition of an ecovillage that was to become a standard. Gilman defined an ecovillage as a: human-scale full-featured settlement in which human activities are harmlessly integrated into the natural world in a way that is supportive of healthy human development, and can be successfully continued into the indefinite future. Note: In recent years, Gilman has stated that he would also add the criterion that an ecovillage must have multiple centres of initiative.
13 The principles on which ecovillages rely can be applied to urban and rural settings, as well as to developing and developed countries. Advocates seek infrastructural independence and a sustainable lifestyle (for example, of voluntary simplicity) for inhabitants with a minimum of trade outside the local area, or ecoregion. Rural ecovillages are usually based on organic farming, permaculture and other approaches which promote ecosystem function and biodiversity. Some ecovillages integrate many of the design principles of cohousing, but with a greater ecological focus and a more "organic" process, typical of permaculture design.
An ecovillage usually relies on: "Green" infrastructural capital;Greeninfrastructural capital autonomous buildingautonomous building or clustered housing, to minimize ecological footprint;ecological footprint renewable energyrenewable energy; permaculturepermaculture; cohousingcohousing or other forms of supportive community. Kenyamanan jalan raya dan jalur hijaunya, foto smn 2008
15 The goal of most ecovillages is to be a Sustainable habitat providing for most of its needs on site. Its organization also usually depends upon some instructional capital or moral codes - a minimal civics sometimes characterized as eco- anarchism: 1. Local purchasing so as to support the local economy; 2. Local food production and distribution; 3. Moral purchasing to avoid objectionable consumption; 4. Consensus decision-making for governance; 5. A choice to respect diversity.
16 The term ecovillage should not be confused with micronation, a strictly legal, not infrastructural, concept. micronation Kenyamanan jalan – jalan di tengah kebun kelapa, foto smn 2008
17 References Christian, D.Christian, D. 2003. Creating a Life Together: Practical Tools to Grow Ecovillages and Intentional Communities New Society Publishers. ISBN 0-86571-471-1Creating a Life Together: Practical Tools to Grow Ecovillages and Intentional CommunitiesISBN 0-86571-471-1 Hill, R. and Dunbar, R. 2002. "Social Network Size in Humans." Human Nature, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 53-72. Jackson, H. and Svensson, K. 2002. Ecovillage Living: Restoring the Earth and Her People. Green Books. ISBN 1-903998-16-6ISBN 1-903998-16-6