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Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Historisches.

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Presentation on theme: "Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Historisches."— Presentation transcript:

1 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg 1 Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg Curt-Engelhorn Chair in American History Prof. Dr. Manfred Berg Winter Term 2008/2009 The Reluctant Empire? U.S. Foreign Relations in the 20th Century

2 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg The U.S. and the Middle East  The U.S. and the Founding of Israel  From the Suez Crisis to the Jom Kippur War  The Camp David Peace Accords  The Iranian Revolution

3 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg The Middle East between the Two World Wars

4 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg U.S. Goals in the Middle East during the Era of the Cold War  Secure Access to Middle Eastern Oil  Containment of Soviet Communism  Protection of Israel

5 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Palestine in 1948

6 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg The Palestine War of 1948

7 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Gamal Abdel Nasser,  President of Egypt,  Foremost exponent of Arab nationalism in the 1950s and 1960s commonly referred to as “Nasserism.”

8 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg The Suez Crisis, 1956

9 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Eisenhower Doctrine, 1957  United States pledges “to secure and to protect the territorial integrity and political independence of nations requesting such aid against overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by International Communism.”

10 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg The Six-Day War of 1967

11 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg UN Resolution 242 of 1967  Israel must withdraw from occupied territories!  Israel has a right to live within recognized borders!  A just solution for the Palestinian refugees must be found!

12 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Anwar El-Sadat,  President of Egypt,  First Arab leader to officially visit Israel in 1977  Nobel Peace Prize Winner, 1979  Assassinated on Oct. 6, 1981 by the Egyptian Islamic Jihad organization

13 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg The Jom Kippur War 1973

14 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg The 1973 OPEC Oil Embargo

15 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg The Camp David Accords of 1978

16 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg The Camp David Accords of 1978  Final status of the West Bank and Gaza will be determined within five years based on “full autonomy” and “self- governing authority.”  Israel and Egypt will sign a peace treaty.  Israel will evacuate the Sinai within three years.  Egypt will recognize Israel and establish full diplomatic relations.

17 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Shah Reza Pahlavi,  Shah of Iran,  Launched series of reforms known as the “White Revolution” in  Forced into exile on January 16, 1979 with the dawn of the Iranian Revolution.

18 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini,  Iranian Shi'a Muslim cleric, and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 Islamic Revolution.  “Supreme Leader of Iran,” i.e. central political and religious leader of the Islamic Rep. of Iran,

19 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg The Iran Hostage Crisis, 1979 to 1981

20 Historisches Seminar der Universität Heidelberg Rescue Mission, April 1980


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