Presentation on theme: "A Simple Technology for the Remediation of Waste Water Discharge from Tapioca Factories ER Indrayatie1), E Handayanto2), WH Utomo2) University of Lambung."— Presentation transcript:
A Simple Technology for the Remediation of Waste Water Discharge from Tapioca Factories ER Indrayatie1), E Handayanto2), WH Utomo2) University of Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarmasin, Indonesia University of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
Thanks to: CIAT Asia office Nippon Foundation Organizing committee Rector University of Brawijaya
Indonesia is known as one of the biggest cassava producers in World with the major use for humman consumption (In 2009 there was harvested area of 1,17 millions ha with production of about 21.9 millions ton). However, there was a changes in cassava utilization.. to Food utilization 2007: 64 % 2009: 53 % Industrial utilization 2007: 36 % 2009: 47% GOOD, BUT create Another problems
Those changes are good, BUT create another problems.....? Most cassava industry small to medium size, along Brantar river for example, there are about 343 tapioca factories
Wastewater treatment: 1.No wastewater treatment, discharge 2.The waste directly to river, or 3.Simple wastewater treatment: open pond Environmental problems
Table 1. Characteristics tapioca factory wastewater in East Java pH BOD COD Cyanide TSS mg L Fww 3.6 7,760 10, ,600 Ftw 4.6 3,600 3, ,200 IndStd East Java Reg Fww: Factory fresh waste water Ftw: Factory treated wastewater Ind. Std based on Ministry of Env. Decree No. 51/1995
East Java (Brantas River): JAWA POS: 28/04/2008: Ribuan ikan mati, nelayan rugi jutaan rupiah: Masalah pencemaran bendungan Sutami ternyata sudah berulang kali terjadi sejak tahun Namun tidak ada upaya kongkret pemerintah untuk menyelesaikan masalah ini. 1996: Laporan Perum Jasa Tirta terjadi pencemaran waduk Sutami, ikan mati karena kekurangan O2 Mei 2002 Waduk Ir Sutami tercemar limbah industri, ribuan ikan mati, Juni 2004: ribuan ikan mati terapung. Oktober 2007, di samping ribuan ikan sekarat, mati terapung, juga menyebabkan listrik padam. April 2008 kerugian karena ikan mati di bendungan Ir Sutami ditaksir mencapai Rp. 280 juta Central Java Kedaulatan Rakyat :24/07/ :39:40 BANJARNEGARA - KASUS PENCEMARAN SUNGAI SAPI; Pabrik Tapioka Diminta Sempurnakan IPAL Penanggung-jawab pabrik tapioka CV Bunga Mawar di Desa Kebondalem, Bawang Banjarnegara, Daryanto, merasa dipojokkan dalam kasus pencemaran air Sungai Sapi. Menurutnya, pabrik tapioka ini bukan satu-satunya. Karena di kawasan tersebut ada pabrik lain di Wanadri. Sedang Bupati Djasri 15 Juli lalu sudah melayangkan peringatan, agar perusahaan menyempurnakan IPAL sesuai peraturan baku mutu limbah cair.
Common tapioca wastewater treatments Open pond: Requires time (long time), large area, un-effective UASB: complicated, expensive Phytoremediation
Phytoremediation with Vetiver grass (Vetivera zyzanoides) Why phytoremediation? simple, cheaf, low risk Why vetiver grass? Easy to grow, can grow on any kind of medium (even in very unfavorable medium), grow very fast. Indrayatie et al. (2012) found that vetiver very tolerant to grow in tapioca factory wastewater
Metodhology 1.The first study aimed to explore the potential of vetiver for phytoremediation of tapioca factory wastewater 2.The second study was done to test the resulting wastewater remediation for fish culture and maize growing.
Objective: to obtain the suitable growth medium and the time (plant ages) when the remediation can result the maximum output Two factors were studied, i.e. two growth media were used, i.e. (1) wetland systems, and (2) hydroponics (solution); and the time of starting when remediation was started are: 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 days after planting. As the control, Vetiver was grown in wetland and hydroponic systems. The pot used had an area of 1,256 cm2. The potential of vetiver for tapioca wasterwater remediation
Table 3. The effect of the remediation system and plant age (biomass) at time of planting on the purification (η) of tapioca factory waste water after 60 days of remediation ___________________________________________________________ Vetiver at the η (%) start of remediation Ages biomass BODCODCN (days) (g/pot)WHWHW H Control/no plant 86.87ab 81.77a87.76a82.60a 65.23bc a b 87.82ab94.81b88.28a 76.42bcd 50.47ab cd 88.94ab97.39b89.84a 85.00cd 61.66ab cd 90.41bc99.11b90.88a 85.23cd 65.47bc d 92.50bcd 99.21b92.23b 93.33d 64.04bc d 92.18bcd 99.37b91.67ab 93.80d 66.67bc Until 60 days of remediation open pond (with no vetiver) was able to purify up to 87% (BOD); 88% (COD); 65% (CN). Planting vetiver increased the purification. With initial biomass of 37.4 g/pot (1,256 cm2), purification increased To 99.8% (BOD); 99.4% (COD); 93.8% (CN) Purification (η) = (Ci – Cf )/ Ci X 100 % where Ci is the initial concentration of pollutant and Cf is the final concentration.
Table 2. waste water quality after 60 days of remediation Vetiver at the Solution concentration start of remediation(mg/L) Ages biomass BOD COD DO CN (days) (g/pot) W H W H W H W H Control/no plant 445g 618h 470e 688f 1.10a 0.96a 1.46cd 2.60e c 413f 199b 450e 2.42b 1.06ª 0.99bc 2.08de b 375f 100b 390c 3.04b 0.98ª 0.63ab 1.61cd ª 325e 34ª 350c 3.48c 1.24ª 0.62ab 1.45cd ª 270d 30ª 298c 5.98cd 2.36b 0.28ab 1.51cd a 265d 24a 320c 6.40d 2.46b 0.26 a 1.40cd 1.Wetland system was better compared to hydrophonic 2.After 60 days of remediations using vetiver, wastewater of tapioca factory in East Java has fullfilled the standard quatily of East Java Governor decree
Time of remediation is an important factor. A shorter is the time for remediation is better Addition experiment with objective of determining the remediation period required to attain the quality standard for cyanide concentration was carried out Remediation was performed using initial vetiver biomass values of 0 (control); 5.1 g/pot; 9.4 g/pot; 17.7 g/pot; 35.1 g/pot; and 51.4 g/pot) for up to 60 days Medium of growth: wetland system. The waste water for this experiment had an initial BOD concentration of 3,600 mg/L; COD concentration of 3,840 mg/L and cyanide concentration of 4.2 mg/L.
within a 30 day remediation period, the prescribed cyanide quality standard could be obtained using initial vetiver biomass values 51.4 g/pot Table 4. The cyanide concentration in tapioca factory waste water as a function of varying initial vetiver biomass and the length of the remediation period (up to 60 days) for a model wetland system Remediation Cyanide concentration in waste water (mg/L) period (days) Vetiver biomass at the start of theremediation (g/pot) Values are the mean of two replicates
Utilization of remediated tapioca factory waste water 1.Maize growing: Maize was grown on 10 kg soil in a plastic pot of 15 L capacity. The treatments were: (1) fresh tapioca factory wastewater (FW), (2) factory treated wastewater: watered with factory treated wastewater (TTW), (3) factory remediated wastewater: watered with remediated wastewater (TRW), and (4) remediated waste water, watered with remediated wastewater (RW), and (5) de-ionized water as the control (C). 3 replications
Utilization of remediated tapioca factory waste water Maize growing: Maize was grown on 10 kg soil in a plastic pot of 15 L capacity. The treatments were: (1) fresh tapioca factory wastewater (FW), (2) factory treated wastewater: watered with factory treated wastewater (TTW), (3) factory remediated wastewater: watered with remediated wastewater (TRW), and (4) remediated waste water, watered with remediated wastewater (RW), and (5) de-ionized water as the control (C). 3 replications
Table 5.The effect of remediated tapioca wastewater on the total maize biomass and cyanide content at 45 days old Treatment total biomass plant-CN Soil-CN g/plant mg/kg mg/kg Fresh wastewater, FW c Factory treated wastewater,TW c1.80 b2.25 b TW, then watered with RW ab 0.80 a0.22 a Vetiver remediate wastewater,RW a0.76 a0.12 a De-ionized water, C ab0.60 a0.04 a maize could not germinate on the medium watered with fresh tapioca. Maize grown on the other treatment grew quite well. The highest total biomass of maize (24.67g)/plant) was obtained by the maize planted in factory treated wastewater, and this is significantly different from the other treatments. However, CN content of this maize was very high
Fish culture: Fish was cultured in a glass aquarium of 5 L. The treatments were (1) Factory fresh wastewater (FW), (2) Factory treated wastewater (TW), (3) Vetiver remediated wastewater (RW), (4) Vetiver remediated wastewater + spring water (1:1) (RWS), and (5) spring water (SW). Ten freshwater fish of Barbonymus gonionofus species with 5 – 7 cm length were put into these aquariums, and grown for 30 days. Duplicates
No fish could life in fresh wastewater and factory treated waste water. Vetiver remediated wastewater safe for fish culture, its quality (for fish culture) was comparable with spring water. Table 6.The utilization of Vetiver remediate tapioca industrial wastewater for freshwater fish culture Treatment No of dead fish at fish weight at 30 days 0 days 2 days 7 days 15 days 30 day g/fish---- Fresh wastewater, FW Factory treated wastewater, TW Vetiver remediated wastewater, RW RW + Spring water ( 1:1), RWS Spring water, C