2 Siapa yang membutuhkan manajemen ? Perusahaan (bisnis) Semua tipe organisasi Semua tipe kegiatanMengapa manajemen dibutuhkan ?Untuk mencapai tujuan organisasiUntuk menjaga keseimbangan di antara tujuan-tujuan yang saling bertentanganUntuk mencapai efisiensi dan efektifitas
3 What Is Management? Management Managers The planning, organizing, leading, and controlling of human and other resources to achieve organizational goals effectively and efficiently.ManagersThe people responsible for supervising the use of an organization’s resources to meet its goals.Resources are organizational assetsPeople Skills Knowledge InformationRaw materials Machinery Financial capital
4 Getting work done through others Management Is…EffectivenessEfficiencyGetting work done through othersManagement is getting work done through others.Managers have to be concerned with efficiency and effectiveness in the workplace. Efficiency is getting work done with a minimum of effort, expense, or waste. Effectiveness is accomplishing tasks that help full organizational objectives, such as customer service and satisfaction.
5 Efficiency and Effectiveness Efficiency (Focus on Process/means)Getting work done with a minimum of effort, expense, or wasteDoings things right—most output for least inputEffectiveness (Focus on ends)Accomplishing tasks that help fulfill organizational objectivesDoing the right things (you do your job well)
6 Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Performance in an Organization
7 Peter Drucker mengatakan bahwa: Efektifitas adalah melakukan pekerjaan yang benar (doing the right things)Efisiensi adalah melakukan pekerjaan dengan benar (doing things right)
8 Functions of Management Planning,Organizing,Staffing,Leading,ControllingHere we have generic distribution of management functions.
10 OrganizingStructuring working relationships in a way that allows organizational members to work together to achieve organizational goals.Organizational StructureA formal system of task and reporting relationships that coordinates and motivates organizational members.Creating organizational structure:Grouping employees into departments according to the tasks performed.Laying out lines of authority and responsibility for organizational members.
11 Functions of Management (Staffing) Staffing is a process ofGetting right people, for right job, at right time.People are asset for an organisation.Attracting people to the organization.Creating good working conditionsSpecifying job responsibilities and training.Grouping jobs into work units and development.
12 Functions of Management (Leading) Leading is a process ofInspiring, motivating or directing people so that they will contribute to organizational objective.Leading involves motivation, leadership theories and communication.An important role of a manager is to motivate the people working on a project.
13 ControllingEvaluating how well an organization is achieving its goals and taking action to maintain or improve performance.Monitoring individuals, departments, and the organization to determine if desired performance standards have been reached.Taking action to increase performance as required.The outcome of control is the ability to measure performance accurately and to regulate the organization for efficiency and effectiveness.
15 Responsibilities of Top Managers Creating a context for changeDeveloping commitment and ownership in employeesCreating a positive organizational culture through language and actionMonitoring their business environmentsTop managers hold positions like the CEO, the COO, the CFO, and the CIO and are responsible for the overall direction of the organization.
16 Responsibilities of Middle Managers Plan and allocate resources to meet objectivesCoordinate and link groups, departments, and divisionsMonitor and manage the performance of subunits and managers who report to themMiddle managers hold positions like plant manager, regional manager, or divisional manager.Note how middle managers’ responsibilities are influenced by those of top managers.Note also how their responsibilities are more narrowly focused than of top managers.Implement changes or strategies generated by top managers
17 Responsibilities of First-Line Managers Manage the performance of entry-level employeesEncourage, monitor, and reward the performance of workersTeach entry-level employees how to do their jobsFirst-line managers hold positions like office manager, shift supervisor, or department manager.First-line managers are the only managers who don’t supervise other managers. They are closest to employees and have daily contact with employees.Make detailed schedules and operating plans
18 Relative Amount of Time That Managers Spend on the Four Managerial Functions Figure 1.4
20 Management Skills (R. L. katz) Top ManagersMiddle ManagersFirst line ManagersConceptual SkillsHuman SkillsTechnical SkillsToday manager job is very complex. He needs certain skills to perform the duties. R.L Katz concluded that manager needed three essential skills. Technical skills are job specific knowledge and techniques needed to proficiently perform specific tasks or the ability to apply the specialized procedures, techniques, and knowledge required to get the job done.Technical skills are most important for lower level managers, because these managers supervise the workers who produce products or serve customers. Technical skills become less important as managers rise through the managerial ranks, but they are still important.Human skills, the ability to work well with others, are equally important at all levels of management, from first-line supervisors to CEOs. However, because lower level managers spend much of their time solving technical problems, upper level managers may actually spend more time dealing directly with people.Conceptual skills are the ability to see the organization as a whole, how the different parts of the company affect each other, and how the company fits into or is affected by its external environment. Conceptual skill increases in importance as managers rise through the management hierarchy.Managers typically have a stronger motivation to manage than their subordinates, and managers at higher levels usually have stronger motivation to manage than managers at lower levels.Furthermore, managers with stronger motivation to manage are promoted faster, are rated by their employees as better managers, and earn more money than managers with a weak motivation to manage.
21 Management Skills Technical skills Knowledge and proficiency in a specific field.Resource Management (Different)Human skillsNetworking within and outside the organization.Working in teams.Monitoring and coachingUnderstanding of cultural differences
22 Management Skills Conceptual skills Ability to identify opportunities Recognize problem areas and its solutionsUnderstating of business modelAbility to transform ideas into words and actions.
23 SUMBER gcuf.edu.pk/online_lectures/1323201621. ppt John, Garet R. and jenneifer M, George ESSENTIAL OF CONTEMPORARY MANAEMENT, third ed, McGraww Hill- Irwin.