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Presentation on theme: "PROSES MANAJEMEN Sri Hermawati."— Presentation transcript:


2 Siapa yang membutuhkan manajemen ?
 Perusahaan (bisnis)  Semua tipe organisasi  Semua tipe kegiatan Mengapa manajemen dibutuhkan ? Untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi Untuk menjaga keseimbangan di antara tujuan-tujuan yang saling bertentangan Untuk mencapai efisiensi dan efektifitas

3 What Is Management? Management Managers
The planning, organizing, leading, and controlling of human and other resources to achieve organizational goals effectively and efficiently. Managers The people responsible for supervising the use of an organization’s resources to meet its goals. Resources are organizational assets People Skills Knowledge Information Raw materials Machinery Financial capital

4 Getting work done through others
Management Is… Effectiveness Efficiency Getting work done through others Management is getting work done through others. Managers have to be concerned with efficiency and effectiveness in the workplace. Efficiency is getting work done with a minimum of effort, expense, or waste. Effectiveness is accomplishing tasks that help full organizational objectives, such as customer service and satisfaction.

5 Efficiency and Effectiveness
Efficiency (Focus on Process/means) Getting work done with a minimum of effort, expense, or waste Doings things right—most output for least input Effectiveness (Focus on ends) Accomplishing tasks that help fulfill organizational objectives Doing the right things (you do your job well)

6 Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Performance in an Organization

7 Peter Drucker mengatakan bahwa:
Efektifitas adalah melakukan pekerjaan yang benar (doing the right things) Efisiensi adalah melakukan pekerjaan dengan benar (doing things right)

8 Functions of Management
Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Leading, Controlling Here we have generic distribution of management functions.

9 Planning Identifying and selecting appropriate goals and courses of action for an organization. The planning function determines how effective and efficient the organization is and determines the strategy of the organization. Three Steps in the Planning Process: Deciding which goals to pursue. Deciding what courses of action to adopt. Deciding how to allocate resources. © Copyright 2004 McGraw-Hill. All rights reserved .

10 Organizing Structuring working relationships in a way that allows organizational members to work together to achieve organizational goals. Organizational Structure A formal system of task and reporting relationships that coordinates and motivates organizational members. Creating organizational structure: Grouping employees into departments according to the tasks performed. Laying out lines of authority and responsibility for organizational members.

11 Functions of Management (Staffing)
Staffing is a process of Getting right people, for right job, at right time. People are asset for an organisation. Attracting people to the organization. Creating good working conditions Specifying job responsibilities and training. Grouping jobs into work units and development.

12 Functions of Management (Leading)
Leading is a process of Inspiring, motivating or directing people so that they will contribute to organizational objective. Leading involves motivation, leadership theories and communication. An important role of a manager is to motivate the people working on a project.

13 Controlling Evaluating how well an organization is achieving its goals and taking action to maintain or improve performance. Monitoring individuals, departments, and the organization to determine if desired performance standards have been reached. Taking action to increase performance as required. The outcome of control is the ability to measure performance accurately and to regulate the organization for efficiency and effectiveness.

14 Tingkatan Manajer Top Managers. Middle Managers. First-Line Managers.

15 Responsibilities of Top Managers
Creating a context for change Developing commitment and ownership in employees Creating a positive organizational culture through language and action Monitoring their business environments Top managers hold positions like the CEO, the COO, the CFO, and the CIO and are responsible for the overall direction of the organization.

16 Responsibilities of Middle Managers
Plan and allocate resources to meet objectives Coordinate and link groups, departments, and divisions Monitor and manage the performance of subunits and managers who report to them Middle managers hold positions like plant manager, regional manager, or divisional manager. Note how middle managers’ responsibilities are influenced by those of top managers. Note also how their responsibilities are more narrowly focused than of top managers. Implement changes or strategies generated by top managers

17 Responsibilities of First-Line Managers
Manage the performance of entry-level employees Encourage, monitor, and reward the performance of workers Teach entry-level employees how to do their jobs First-line managers hold positions like office manager, shift supervisor, or department manager. First-line managers are the only managers who don’t supervise other managers. They are closest to employees and have daily contact with employees. Make detailed schedules and operating plans

18 Relative Amount of Time That Managers Spend on the Four Managerial Functions
Figure 1.4

19 Skill Types Needed by Managerial Level

20 Management Skills (R. L. katz)
Top Managers Middle Managers First line Managers Conceptual Skills Human Skills Technical Skills Today manager job is very complex. He needs certain skills to perform the duties. R.L Katz concluded that manager needed three essential skills. Technical skills are job specific knowledge and techniques needed to proficiently perform specific tasks or the ability to apply the specialized procedures, techniques, and knowledge required to get the job done. Technical skills are most important for lower level managers, because these managers supervise the workers who produce products or serve customers. Technical skills become less important as managers rise through the managerial ranks, but they are still important. Human skills, the ability to work well with others, are equally important at all levels of management, from first-line supervisors to CEOs. However, because lower level managers spend much of their time solving technical problems, upper level managers may actually spend more time dealing directly with people. Conceptual skills are the ability to see the organization as a whole, how the different parts of the company affect each other, and how the company fits into or is affected by its external environment. Conceptual skill increases in importance as managers rise through the management hierarchy. Managers typically have a stronger motivation to manage than their subordinates, and managers at higher levels usually have stronger motivation to manage than managers at lower levels. Furthermore, managers with stronger motivation to manage are promoted faster, are rated by their employees as better managers, and earn more money than managers with a weak motivation to manage.

21 Management Skills Technical skills
Knowledge and proficiency in a specific field. Resource Management (Different) Human skills Networking within and outside the organization. Working in teams. Monitoring and coaching Understanding of cultural differences

22 Management Skills Conceptual skills Ability to identify opportunities
Recognize problem areas and its solutions Understating of business model Ability to transform ideas into words and actions.

23 SUMBER ppt
John, Garet R. and jenneifer M, George ESSENTIAL OF CONTEMPORARY MANAEMENT, third ed, McGraww Hill- Irwin.

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