Presentation on theme: "SUSTAINABLE GREEN SETTLEMENT MK. LANDUSE PLANNING & LAND DEVELOPEMNT smno.pdip.pdkl.2013."— Presentation transcript:
SUSTAINABLE GREEN SETTLEMENT MK. LANDUSE PLANNING & LAND DEVELOPEMNT smno.pdip.pdkl.2013
Sustainable settlement Green infrastructure EFISIENSI ENERGI AILA advocates that energy efficiency issues should be addressed within the context of broader sustainability challenges. AUSTRALIA INSTITUTE OF LANDSCHAPE ARCHITECTS
Manfaat Infrastruktur Hijau Green infrastructure is an effective and cost-efficient tool for absorbing and sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide (C02). Efficient use of green infrastructure can: Reduce energy usage through passive heating and cooling; Filter air and water pollutants; Decrease solar heat gain; provide wildlife habitat; Reduce the public cost of stormwater management infrastructure and provide flood control; Offer food sources; and Stabilize soil to prevent or reduce erosion. Infrastruktur hijau sangat penting untuk memerangi efek perubahan iklim, dengan menciptakan lingkungan terbangun yang nyaman dan sehat, meningkatkan kualitas hidup.
Konsep Kawasan Pemukiman Hijau Smno.rumahkampus.dau.2012
Pemukiman Ramah-Lingkungan Infrastruktur Hijau AIR Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) 1.Minimising negative impacts on existing ecological processes and systems 2.Minimising negative impacts on natural hydrologic processes of catchments 3.Protecting and enhancing surface and ground water quality 4.Minimising demand on reticulated potable water supply systems - e.g. incorporating fit-for-purpose/ multiple-use options into supply and distribution planning 5.Minimising pollution & improving quality of water discharges to the natural environment 6.Memasukkan pertimbangan kegiatan pengumpulan, pengolahan, dan penggunaan kembali limpasan air hujan ke dalam solusi desain
Pemukiman Ramah-Lingkungan Infrastruktur Hijau AIR Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) 1.Reducing runoff and peak flows from urban development 2.Minimizing wastewater generation - including appropriate treatment/discharge/re-use of effluent 3.Increasing social and recreational values in urban areas through integrated green infrastructure that addresses a wide range of objectives. 4.Adding value while minimising development costs (e.g. drainage infrastructure costs) 5.Acknowledging the link between water consumption and broader social, economic & community resource issues
Pemukiman Ramah-Lingkungan Infrastruktur Hijau AIR Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) 1.Integrating management practices within and between institutions responsible for waterway and open space management 2.Providing strategies that fundamentally integrate factors previously regarded as separate aspects of urban water management (e.g. stormwater harvesting enables recycling and can reduce peak flows and related erosion) 3.Taking advantage of increased property market interest in environmentally responsible development
Kualitas Lingkungan The environmental quality (capital) of cities includes those environmental resources that are contained within the boundaries of an urban centre and from which residents gain benefit. As such, they are distinct from the natural resources (capital) imported into the region to support the economic functioning of the settlement and its residents. They include urban air quality, water quality of urban creeks, rivers, bays and estuaries, levels of contamination of soil and groundwater, and urban biodiversity (refer to the commentaries on Atmosphere, Land, Inland Waters and Biodiversity).
Amenitas Lingkungan Huni It is at the ‘neighbourhood’ scale, where a range of housing (design) and subdivision and infrastructure (planning) factors intersect, and where success in the creation of liveable and sustainable communities can be assessed for a set of key performance indicators. Where housing and neighbourhoods can be planned and designed in tandem, the maximum potential for innovation and achieving desirable triple-bottom-line outcomes is likely to be obtained; examples include using energy efficient dwellings to generate electricity and sell surplus back to the grid, and building water-smart housing, which relies on water sensitive urban design of the subdivision to derive maximum benefit.
Konsumsi Perumahan Demand for housing—the acquisition of residential property for domestic or investment needs—has intensified over the past decade, and this is seen in house price statistics. The drivers of this trend include the continuing strong preference for owning their own home, which is closely interlinked to preferences for separate house and land. The attractiveness of housing as a form of investment from a taxation and long-term capital growth perspective (zero capital gains tax on owner-occupied houses; negative gearing for rental investments) has also been key to maintaining high levels of demand, despite challenges of affordability.
Kondisi Perumahan The most recent survey of housing quality found that over half of all occupied dwellings were in need of repairs, although less than eight per cent were considered in need of essential or urgent attention. The growth in major structural problems with age, however, and the shift in the cost ratio of dwelling: land from around 4:1 in the 1960s to 1:4 over the past five to ten years in major cities in WORLD has increased the likelihood of demolition and re-build rather than re-life of property. This has a consequential impact of increasing construction and demolition on the associated waste streams.
Kualitas Udara Dalam-Ruangan Indoor air quality is a component of a key factor that affects individual health and wellbeing—indoor environmental qualit. The URBAN population spends an average over 90 per cent of its time indoors—at home, at school, at work, in transit, and in retail and entertainment centres. The result is that most people experience extended exposure to a range of pollutants such as tobacco smoke, Legionella, dust mites, volatile organic compounds, small particle pollution, and ozone. All of these have been linked to a spectrum of illnesses that includes respiratory disease (including asthma), headaches and dizziness, fatigue, nausea, pneumonia, allergies, and skin rashes.
Cara-cara untuk meningkatkan kualitas udara dalam-ruangan meliputi : 1.Eliminasi sumber-sumber emisi polutan (Produk bangunan baru) 2.Perbaikan ventilasi bangunan (increased air tightness of buildings and low rates of mechanical ventilation were introduced in the 1980s to assist energy performance but this has negatively impacted on indoor air quality) 3.improving regulations that involve introducing guidelines and standards (NHMRC and NOHSC), and eco-labelling of materials, furnishings and appliances 4.improving workplace and community education, using materials of the type being developed by the Commonwealth air toxics programme.
Transport, Mobilitas & Aksesibilitas The sustained increase in personal mobility, whether in terms of transport communications, has been one of the key transitions. Private passenger vehicle travel represents three quarters of total road travel, but the rate of growth in the share of road travel is greatest in the category of light commercial vehicles (seven per cent per annum), which service intra-urban freight needs. Growth in the volume of freight that is transported by road, both urban and ex-urban, has also continued at rates more closely aligned to rates of economic growth than population growth.
Transport & Efek Negatifnya The negative environmental, human health and economic impacts of Australia’s transport system are seen in increasing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, urban air pollution, and traffic congestion. Transport contributes approximately 15 per cent of total greenhouse gas emissions as a result of its fossil fuel use. Urban traffic congestion is likely to remain an intractable problem for ANY big cities. The bulk of city traffic is now dominated by non-work activities, such as social and recreational, ferrying children, shopping and personal business.
Rumah Hunian Individual Wellbeing is a concept that is firmly centred on the individual in terms of key issues such as 1.Employment, 2. Economic resources, and 3. Health; TETAPI juga dipengaruhi oleh faktor kontekstual seperti: 1.Keluarga dan jaringan sosial, 2.Amenitas lingkungan hunian 3.Akses thd layanan atas dasar proximitas & affordabilitas
Income & Konsumsi Over the past decade, household debt (as a share of household income) has reached historically high levels, indicating that consumption aspirations have ‘overtaken’ disposable income. The economic context for this period has been growth in employment and a decline in unemployment. Also important, are the growth in national economy, high levels of consumer confidence, growth in investment markets, and growth in housing prices. All have combined to provide the economic environment that has encouraged growth in individual and household consumption.
Average wage and salary incomes for people in metropolitan are higher than those paid to employees in non-metropolitan areas, and the difference is widening : from a 15 per cent differential in 1995–06 to 19 per cent in 2000–01. The knowledge economy is also not uniformly represented across AREAS. There continues to be metropolitan–non- metropolitan differences in access to and use of computers and the internet—the basic tools of the information economy—as well as significant spatial concentrations of information and knowledge workers within cities linked to high income – high amenity suburbs. KERUGIAN LOKASIONAL
There is also an increasing divergence of incomes between areas within metropolitan and suburban areas. The concern is that an intergenerational pattern of welfare dependency could be reinforced by a combination of poor family and neighbourhood experiences in relation to employment. The high rates of residential mobility observed among households in such areas may also reflect their housing tenure status (rental)—a housing-related social justice issue in its own right. KERUGIAN LOKASIONAL
Hal ini berarti bahwa tanggapan kebijakan publik untuk daerah tersebut perlu lebih terfokus pada kesejahteraan, perumahan, kebutuhan pendidikan dan pelatihan warga dan amenitas lingkungan daripada penciptaan lapangan kerja lokal, yang kemungkinan besar tercermin ke dalam lapangan kerja yang akan dimanfaatkan oleh masyarakat dari luar '. KERUGIAN LOKASIONAL
Kerugian Lokasional Average wage and salary incomes for people in metropolitan are higher than those paid to employees in non-metropolitan areas, and the difference is widening : from a 15 per cent differential in 1995–96 to 19 per cent in 2000–01. The knowledge economy is also not uniformly represented across AREAS. There continues to be metropolitan–non-metropolitan differences in access to and use of computers and the internet—the basic tools of the information economy—as well as significant spatial concentrations of information and knowledge workers within cities linked to high income – high amenity suburbs. Ada juga peningkatan divergensi pendapatan di antara daerah-daerah di dalam wilayah metropolitan dan daera-daerah pinggiran kota.
Kerugian Lokasional The concern is that an intergenerational pattern of welfare dependency could be reinforced by a combination of poor family and neighbourhood experiences in relation to employment. The high rates of residential mobility observed among households in such areas may also reflect their housing tenure status (rental)—a housing-related social justice issue in its own right. It is suggested that the public policy responses for such areas need to be focused more on welfare, housing, educational and training needs of the residents and their neighbourhood amenity rather than local job creation, which would most likely translate into employment for better qualified ‘outsiders’.
The key human health indicators of life expectancy, mortality, subjective health, disability, illness, disease and injury need to be understood within a complex matrix of determinants that include environmental, social and urban settings as well as the biomedical. Death rates are on average 1.1 times higher in regional Australia and 1.4 higher in very remote regions than in major cities. There a number of contributing causes to higher rates of mortality in areas outside cities KESEHATAN MANUSIA
Infrastruktur transisi untuk Pemukiman Manusia The infrastructures upon which settlements have developed are unlikely to sustain future urban populations and economies beyond the next generation at current quality of life levels. The transitions envisaged are from linear, centralised systems that are wasteful of water, energy and material resources to closed-loop, distributed systems that attempt to maximise collection, recovery, reuse and recycling of each resource.
Infrastruktur transisi untuk Pemukiman Manusia Specifically, the required transitions are towards: 1.integrated urban water systems based on utilisation of stormwater and wastewater 2.green energy systems based on distributed renewable energy and a hydrogen economy 3.zero waste economies based around eco-industrial development (utilising solid and liquid waste streams as resources) and cradle-to-cradle manufacturing 4.sustainable subdivisions, integrating housing and neighbourhood innovation across ten key liveability dimensions 5.minimal traffic congestion by utilising intelligent transport systems, road pricing, spreading peak travel, and broadband communications.
The problem of conventional sewerage systems is the mixing of the food and water cycles. Central sewerage systems not only consume high amounts of freshwater but also dilute nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen) and organic substances to such an extent that only a small part can be reclaimed for agricultural use. The nutrients are washed away with the purified wastewater and are emitted to rivers and the sea where they are extremely harmful (eutrophication). In turns, more nutrients have to be produced for agriculture, causing depletion of fossil resources and high energy demand. Sanitasi ramah-lingkungan
The purpose of sustainable sanitation systems is the closing of the water and nutrients cycles, taking into account that the main task of sanitation is to assure highest hygienic standards in a cost- effective, environmental sustainable way, saving both water and energy and keeping soils fertile. This can be achieved by separating different qualities of waste from human settlements: Blackwater (toilet wastewater), greywater (washing, cleaning), stormwater runoff, biodegradable and non- biodegradable waste. Sanitasi ramah-lingkungan
Sistem pengelolaan limbah terpusat, limbah air toilet dan unit pengolahan air limbah secara aerobik tidak dianggap sebagai satu-satunya solusi untuk mengatasi sanitasi. Sistem yang canggih dengan kontrol-sumber dapat menghindari banyak masalah yang terkait dengan teknologi konvensional end-of-pipe dengan memperhatikan beragam kualitas air limbah dan limbah dan memperlakukannya untuk digunakan kembali. SISTEM SANITASI BERKELANJUTAN: TEKNIS
Klasifikasi Limbah Domestik dan Air Limbah untuk Sanitasi Waste StreamTreatment Related Cycle Kitchen waste and blackwater of low-diluted feaces (high nutrient content) anaerobic digestion or composting food cycle Brownwater, blackwater without urine or yellowwateranaerobic digestion or composting food cycle Yellowwater, urine from no-mix-toilets and urinals (with or without water for flushing) long-term storage, drying, treatment with acid food cycle Greywater from bathrooms, washing and kitchen (low nutrient content) aerobic treatment by biofilm technology or plants water cycle Stormwater run-off (very low nutrient content)local discharge or infiltrationwater cycle Non-biodegradable solid waste (small fraction with reuse of packages) processing to raw materialmaterial cycle
Komunitas Hijau adalah Organisasi Nirlaba yang mempromosikan peningkatan status sosial melalui lingkungan kota hijau berkelanjutan di lokasi perumahan berpenghasilan rendah. We promote and deliver these initiatives in a consultative, well planned and effective manner to help alleviate social dilemmas such as: 1. Kesehatan 2. Kemiskinan 3. Kejahatan Siapa Masyarakat Hijau?
Green Communities has created the "Best Practice" models within national and local Integrated Development Plans, focusing primarily on job creation, the alleviation of crime and poverty and the health and well being of our indigent communities through greening interventions. We have done this through our social change management methodologies which require full community participation and our aim is to stimulate, grow and sustain these settlements into integrated, coordinated and holistic communities. Siapa Masyarakat Hijau?
This house is designed to be a “gem” in any neighborhood. It’s small size and beautiful proportions are reminiscient of many older homes but with a modern flexible plan. The floor plans and the construction couldn’t be much simpler. The site layout allows for a traditional side driveway to a small backyard garage. The backyard space can be used for gardening, a dog yard, entertaining, play etc. The front of the house works well either pushed up to the sidewalk or set back with a short walk to the front steps. The front porch is large and deep enough to serve as an outdoor room in warmer months. Disain Rumah Ramah-Lingkungan
This house demonstrates that green design need not be eccentric to make a strong statement. This house provide a role model for simple forms that create opportunities for distinctive yet neighborly character through elements like this house’s entry tower. The alternate plan demonstrates how the proportions of the basic design allow dramatically different facades and roof styles. Unique tower “toppers” allow individual expression and an opportunity for exploration and learning, whether it is connecting to nature with star-gazing or plantings or a platform for wind-catching turbines. The design places a strong emphasis keeping energy use low. High efficiency cellulose insulation made from recycled newspaper provides exceptional efficiency. Disain Rumah Ramah-Lingkungan
Natural ventilation is key to avoid wasteful air conditioning, and is entirely realistic with Rhode Island’s climate. The entry tower and loft above with its high-placed windows promote convection current, and large windows and bays promote cross-ventilation. The footprint is extremely compact yet the floor plan has clear and circulation and an open airy feel. The eat-in kitchen is ample and well- suited for families. Construction methods such as off-site panelization of otherwise standard wood framing, pre-engineered trusses instead of stick-construction, and placement of the central bearing wall to allow lightweight joists are not revolutionary but limit material waste. The site emphasizes permeable materials and drought-resistant ground cover that reduces water consumption. The drywell in the rear yard helps direct stormwater to our aquifers instead of the sewer system. Indoors, low-flow fixtures reduce water use. Disain Rumah Ramah-Lingkungan
Method Homes offers beautiful, energy-efficient factory-built houses that can be manufactured and constructed in only 3 months. The model cabin shown above was completed in August, 2008 and can be rented for $250/night. Method Homes offers a variety of floor plans, available in 3 series – the Cabin series, customizable homes ranging from 1,200 to 2,800 square-feet; Balance S-M-L series, a collection of small, medium, and large prefab units with a variety of functions. Pilihan Rumah Ramah-Lingkungan
Kampus Ramah-Lingkungan : ECOLOGY Building Kampus jurusan Teknik Sipil-FTUB-2012
Last decade, development of sustainable housing began to take speed. Donald Watson was commissioned to produce an eco-house that could be built for the same price as an average starter home would cost. The ‘Ecology House’ was the result, winning design awards in 1990 and leading the way for low-energy housing focusing on sun-path positioning, suitable for ANY locations. By saving people money on energy costs, these houses gradually pay for themselves, even with an initial cost slightly home than average homes. Rumah Ramah-Lingkungan: Ecology House
Perumahan Ramah-Lingkungan : ECO-FRIENDLY HOUSE
With an increasingly eco-friendly housing regulation coming into force in the urban areas, houses like those built by Rural Zed will not be a novelty for long. Rural Zed is realistic, understanding that housing needs to be constructed in medium density locations and occasionally on flood plains, adjusting their designs for both situations. The basic design can be utilized as terraces, or as north/south or east/west facing constructions and can be optimized so that they can be built on flood plains. Rumah Ramah-Lingkungan
When taken together, site, resources, energy and health are inseparable aspects of design consideration with each affecting the other. As a result, each aspect should always be considered in relation to the others. For the sake of convenience, however, it is useful to refer to these headings individually. The following four chapters deal with these four different aspects of dwelling design and cover all types of housing activity Lokasi dan Rumah Hunian
1.HOLISTIC APPROACH — An integrated design approach is preferable to a fragmented one; everything is connected to everything else 2.SITE — The specific nature of a place controls sustainable design 3.ENERGY USE — Reducing energy use is more cost effective than producing or reclaiming it 4.RESOURCE USE — Aiming for durability and re-use is more efficient than recycling products and materials 5.HEALTH — A sustainable environment is a healthy one for people 6.SIMPLICITY — Simple solutions are better than those which are complicated, over-designed or rely on “technical fixes” 7.EFFICIENCY — Good sustainable design produces multiple benefits from one feature 8.PARTICIPATION — Sustainable design involves the user at all stages Prinsip Disain Ramah-Lingkungan unt Hunian
Climate is a key factor in sustainable design and its variation has great influence on the effectiveness of housing in terms of social activity, human comfort, health, physical resource use and energy use. The correct orientation of housing layouts and the plan of the individual dwelling will ensure an optimal response to the climate. Even in existing housing or tight urban locations where orientation is restricted, it is still possible to significantly improve the response of the dwelling to the climate. Iklim dan Orientasi
The four key site variables of climate for optimising sustainable design are: 1.Energi Matahari 2.Angin 3.Hujan 4.Temperatur.
Solar Energy: maximising passive solar gain A certain location has ample sunshine to make its use worthwhile in a variety of ways in housing for heating purposes. The heating season in a certain location is longer than in others which makes the use of solar energy more cost effective in terms of reducing heating bills. Even on cloudy days approximately 30% of solar radiation can be usefully harnessed for lighting and energy use. ENERGI MATAHARI
The following benefits can be obtained from using solar energy: 1.the building form itself can capture solar energy for heating and save around 10-15% on annual heating costs 2.mechanical systems which capture solar energy for the heating of hot water can save up to 50% on annual hot water costs 3.both passive and active modes of solar heating can be retrofitted to old stock 4.active solar water heating using solar water panels has an average financial payback of 10 years, well within the life of the panel itself 5.retro-fitted sunspaces can save energy and offer an additional low cost amenity space for three seasons of the year. ENERGI MATAHARI
The main method of capturing and storing solar energy is through large south facing windows situated in a highly insulated dwelling but an additional means is through using sunspaces. These are highly glazed south facing amenity areas or porches which are either added or incorporated in to the dwelling layout to enhance passive solar gain and reduce heat loss. There are four ways in which sunspaces save energy: 1.Thermal Buffering 2.Pre-heated Ventilation 3.Draught lobby 4.Evening heating ENERGI MATAHARI
Pre-heated Ventilation: fresh air can be pre-warmed by sunspaces before it enters the house via windows, doors and ventilators. (After Borer and Harris, 1998).
Evening heat: by storing and re-radiating heat stored in solid walling solar sunspaces can continue to provide warmth in the evenings once outside temperatures have cooled. (After Borer and Harris, 1998).
Siting of trees relative to the house is critical to ensure that sun can still penetrate into the building. If trees are too close overshadowing will occur (After Borer and Harris, 1998).
Passive solar gain: Praktek yang Bagus 1.Site layout should provide access to sunshine for as many dwellings as possible and avoid overshading 2.housing layouts should be orientated within 30 degrees of due south wherever possible in order for the solar gain to be useful 3.plan cooler service spaces on the north side and habitable rooms needing warmth on the south side 4.make sure the building is well insulated and relatively airtight 5.allow for adequate and controllable ventilation to avoid overheating in summer 6.incorporate draught lobbies to minimise heat loss 7.glazing should be optimised with a 70:30 ratio of glazing from south to north elevations to maximise passive solar gain
Passive solar gain: Praktek yang Bagus 1.provide thermal mass where possible to absorb solar gain (up to 100mm blockwork is effective) and avoid overheating 2.the use of conservatories or sunspaces purely for energy reasons is not effective unless they are a cheap, unheated, preferably single glazed (which uses considerably less material resources than double glazing and doesn’t rely on vulnerable sealants), three season amenity space 3.narrow width sunspaces (under 1500 mm wide) are preferable to room sized ones or conservatories to prevent them from being treated as an additional room and being heated 4.provide full separation and insulation between sunspaces and the main dwelling 5.provide structural overhangs, external shutters and internal blinds to prevent both overheating in summer and heat loss at night 6.cover as much of the south facing wall as practical with a sunspace to act as a thermal buffer 7.use deciduous trees and planting to provide partial shade to sunspaces in the summer
ANGIN: Design With Form, Layout &Land Cover Did you Know? A careful assessment of the local climatic conditions combined with design strategies that optimise the microclimate can reduce energy costs by 5%.
Wind: Design With Form, Layout And Land Cover Even if an urban development site does not offer much opportunity for passive solar gain, all housing can benefit from design for shelter as wind chill contributes significantly to energy loss. Generally, the best orientation for solar gain is also the best for preventing heat loss due to prevailing wind chill from the southwest and north east. Regional wind data can be obtained from the Meterological Office but site measurements and analysis will give a more accurate picture for design purposes.
Vegetation, as third skin, on a building can offer protection from the elements and reduce pollution.
Housing form can reduce the effect of windchill and heat loss. The ideal form for housing will minimise surface area for heat loss but retain surface variation and texture to increase wind drag. One of the most energy efficient forms of housing is the tenement block. Terraced two storey housing is also very effective. The least effective are the semi-detached and detached house. Providing external structures such as porches, trellising and fencing can all help to reduce wind speeds without increasing heat loss from the building. Vegetation, carefully planned, can act as a “third skin” on appropriate walls of buildings by providing wind drag and an additional thermal buffer. In effect it becomes “free” and renewable insulation material with minimal manufacturing costs
Housing layouts should be self-sheltering wherever possible. The traditional Scottish village provides a good rural example of this with the tight layout of buildings creating a milder micro- climate and helping to shelter the inner faces and entrances of the buildings. The traditional Victorian tenement block provides an urban example of the same principle.
Layout of traditional Scottish village to shelter from harsh elements and take full advantage of sun.
JALUR PERLINDUNGAN The use of trees combined with planting and fencing in garden areas also provides some degree of wind shelter through landcover. The most effective height for trees is the height of the dwelling and placed 1-3 heights away, or 3-4 heights where solar access is required. Larger shelterbelts of trees can provide the same effect over a whole housing development. There may be a conflict with the need for visibility and observation when providing planting. This can be overcome by planning lines of vision along public routes from the housing.
Shelter belts of trees should be planted at a distance of 1 to 3 x house height from the building to maximise wind drag. In addition fences in front of the building can assist this further (After Borer and Harris 1998).
Mengurangi bahaya Angin dan Panas : Praktek yg Bagus 1.avoid exposed, windy sites and take advantage of any shelter offered by a site 2.visit site to establish local wind conditions and design for these 3.orientate housing to minimise wind chill by presenting narrow ends to the prevailing wind 4.minimise surface to volume area of buildings by maximising use of terrace or tenement layouts and using compact forms 5.use shared party walls to reduce heat loss through the building envelope 6.increase shelter and wind drag through use of planting and external structures 7.design housing to be self-sheltering 8.avoid housing layouts and forms that accelerate the wind 9.use evergreen planting to increase effectiveness of shelterbelts in winter but avoid overshading
Site layout to improve local climate showing optimum positioning for shelterbelt in relation to housing.
A correctly curved shelter belt will help to deflect wind, depending on tree type, density, height, etc.
Hujan - Precipitation: Desain mengantisipasi efek perubahan Iklim Housing developments should be “future proofed” against increased precipitation and storm frequency with suitably robust layout and detailing. Consultants should be asked if they have taken the predicted effects of global climate change, such as increased storms and precipitation, into account.
Taking account of global climate change: pointers for good practice 1.check existing water table and natural patterns of drainage 2.calculate rainwater guttering and pipework on the basis of up to 30% increase in precipitation 3.use soft landscaping to reduce storm water runoff and help the rain to percolate naturally back into the water table 4.use porous paving schemes to allow water to flow down through hard landscaping directly into the water table to minimise drainage requirements and relieve pressure on existing drainage 5.retain robust roofing details including sarking in preference to battens 6.ensure all details take account of increased intensity and number of storms 7.preserve and increase planting of trees to absorb CO2 to help reduce global climate change
Temperatur: Tutupan Lahan untuk memodifikasi kondisi Ekstrim Large urban areas in Scotland create particular local climates which trap pollution, have less solar radiation, and are generally warmer than the surrounding countryside by several degrees. Planting modifies heat difference by trapping solar heat and providing cool air through transpiration. Hard landscaping in the immediate vicinity of the dwelling can also capture solar heat during the day and re-radiate it in the evening which helps to even out daily temperature swings
Temperatur: Tutupan Lahan untuk memodifikasi kondisi Ekstrim To replenish the oxygen we use up, each human needs 30 m2 of planting, either in housing schemes or elsewhere. Trees are effectively the “lungs” of the Earth. They not only clean air by removing 75% of dust particles, they oxygenate it, and remove carbon dioxide as well as sulphur monoxide. Meanwhile their roots break down the soil, take up nutrients and provide the soil with nutrients in return through dead leaf mould. Scotland’s major cities have some of the highest concentrations of air pollutants in Europe, principally arising from traffic. In inner city areas the use of trees and other planting can act as a pollution filter between housing and busy, congested roads.
Temperatur: Tutupan Lahan untuk memodifikasi kondisi Ekstrim Trees are also of high amenity value and can form a focus for community involvement by combining community woodland development with housing Many of our housing estates have few trees because landscaping is traditionally the first cost saving to be made. This is shortsighted given the environmental benefits that trees and planting in generally can generate.
Swale Drain. Soft landscaping allows surface water to drain away naturally.
Pertamanan : Praktek yang Bagus 1.require contractors to preserve biodiversity 2.minimise hard landscaping and encourage the use of deciduous trees to enhance microclimate 3.preserve existing mature trees and wildflower areas as much as possible 4.increase planting generally to increase opportunities for local wildlife to proliferate 5.set aside wild areas using native plants and trees with minimal cultivation to encourage local biodiversity 6.provide corridors of linked planting to allow cross-pollination and provide routes for wildlife 7.establish which parts of the site are optimum for growing vegetation and allow re-development to take place on the least ecologically promising part of the site 8.replace soil sterilised by additional housing with soil and plant cover on the roofs of the housing where suitable 9.use planting as pollution filters and sound barriers between busy, congested roads and housing developments 10.use hard landscaping on south side of building as thermal mass to modify climate
KONTAMINASI LOKASI The increasing use of brownfield sites often means dealing with contaminated sites. Consultants should establish an accurate site history using local records and carry out a contamination survey where necessary. Site de-contamination can be carried out in a number of ways: 1.scrape clean and removal of toxic soil 2.capping the contaminated soil 3.chemical de-contamination 4.biological de-contamination
Key features 1.Biodiversity Initiatives 2.Energy Efficiency 3.Managed Public Space 4.Mixed Use Development 5.Modern method of construction 6.Sustainable Materials 7.Sustainable Transport RTH kampus dengan aneka jenis pohon dan perdu RTH kampus UB.smno.2012