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Presentation on theme: "I WAYAN SUSANTO, D.A. SIHASALE DAN SOEMARNO. Diunduh dari: 23/9/2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 I WAYAN SUSANTO, D.A. SIHASALE DAN SOEMARNO

2 Diunduh dari: 23/9/2012

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11 Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 Tujuan integrasi Tujuan desain MM

12  Peningkatan minat dan advokasi tentang MMR  Berkembangnya pemahaman tentang apa itu MMR  Berkembangnya disain dan teknik-teknik inovatif  “The emergence of mixed methods as a third methodological movement in the social and behavioral sciences began during the 1980’s.” (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003: 697) Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

13 Mentioned several approaches for combining qualitative and quantitative research Advanced considerations for deciding what model to use (literature available, prior studies, realistic design, expertise) Suggested to describe each method thoroughly “Kombinasi metode kualitatif dan kuantitatif telah semakin berkembang dalam riset kesehatan masyarakat.” (1999) Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

14 BUKU-BUKU TENTANG MMR Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

15 Editors: John W. Creswell and Abbas Tashakkori Managing Editor: Vicki L. Plano Clark Journals Devoted to Mixed Methods: Fieldwork Quality and Quantity Mixed Method Approaches A New Journal Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

16  Mixed Methods Conference, Cambridge, England, July 21-24, 2008  Proposed mixed methods conference, Sydney, Australia, 2009  Discipline conferences with mixed methods papers Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

17  Is there a post-positivist leaning to mixed methods?  Howe, K. R. (2004). A critique of experimentalism. Qualitative Inquiry, 10,  Giddings, L. S. (2006). Mixed-methods research: Positivism dressed in drag? Journal of Research in Nursing, 11(3),  Holmes, C. A. (2007). Mixed(up) methods, methodology and interpretive frameworks. Contributed paper for the Mixed Methods Conference, Cambridge, University, July 10-12,  What are the limits for mixed methods research?  Sale, J. E. M., Lohfeld, L. H., Brazil, K. (2002). Revisiting the quantitative-qualitative debate: Implications for mixed-methods research. Quality and Quantity, 36,  Leahey, E. (2007). Convergence and confidentiality? Limits to the implementation of mixed methodology. Social Science Research, 36,  Is there a dominant discourse in mixed methods research? Freshwater, D. (2007). Reading mixed methods research: Contexts for criticism. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(2), Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

18 Collecting data Analyzing and interpreting data Identifying a purpose and stating questions Reporting and evaluating the study Identifikasi Masalah Riset Kajian literatur Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

19 EthnographyCase Study ResearchNarrative research Experimental research Qual Quan Qual---- Quan Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

20  Multi-method  Triangulation  Integrated  Combined  Quantitative and qualitative methods  Multi-methodology  Mixed methodology  Mixed-method  Mixed research  Mixed methods Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

21 Results Connect data: Results Data Konvergen: Embed the data: Quan data Qual data QualQuan QualQuan Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

22  Validitas – untuk “menguatkan” data quan dan qual.  Offset – offset weaknesses of quan and qual and draw on strengths  Completeness – more comprehensive account that qual or quan alone  Proses – quan menyediakan outcomes; qual menjelaskan proses  Eksplanasi – qual dapat menjelaskan hasil-hasil quan atau sebaliknya  Hasil yang tidak diharapkan – hasil-hasil yang mengherankan dari satu sudut pandang, sudut pandang yang lain menjelaskan  Pengembangan Instrument– qual menggunakan instrumenyang dirancang  Kredibilitas – kedua pendekatan memperbaiki integritas temuan  Konteks – qual menyediak konteks; quan menyediakan “general”.  Utilitas – lebih bermanfaat bagi praktisi. Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

23  Pragmatisme (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003)  Fokus pada pertanyaan penelitian  Apa “kerja,” konsekwensi  Metode-metode Multiple.  Transformatif (Mertens, 2003)  Transform lives of under represented, marginalized groups  Incorporate this focus into all phases of research Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

24  Notation  Typologies  Diagrams of procedures  Complex evaluation models  Reconceptualizing designs  Emergence of innovations in procedures  Unusual blends  Methodological issues  Data analysis techniques  Presentation techniques Perkembangan Penting Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

25 PendekatanTipeTujuanKeterbatas- an Resolusi QUAL + quan Simultan Enrich description of sample Qualitative sampleUtilize normative data for comparison of results QUAL Sekuensial Test emerging H, determine distribution of phenomenon in population Qualitative sampleDraw adequate random sample from same population QUAN + qual Simultan To describe part of phenomena that cannot be quantified Quantitative sample Select appropriate theoretical sample from random sample QUAN Sekuensial To examine unexpected results Quantitative sample Select appropriate theoretical sample from random sample quan qual Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

26 QUAN Data & Results Interpretasi QUAL Data & Results QUAN Pre-test Data & Results QUAN Post-test Data & Results Intervention qual Process Interpre- tasi Disain Triangulasi Disain Embedded Concurrent Mixed Methods Designs Parsimonious Designs ( Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007 ) Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

27 Sequential Designs - Mixed Methods Designs QUAN Data & Results Interpretati on qual Data & Results Following up QUAL Data & Results quan Data & Results Interpretati on Building to Before- intervention qual QUAN Intervention Trial QUAN Intervention Trial After- intervention qual Interpreta tion Disain Eksploratori Desain Eksplanatori Disain Embedded Sekuensial Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912

28  Kombinasi metode-metode yang dapat dipilih  The epistemological and ontological implications of what is chosen  The practicalities of carrying out the research  How the data are going to be brought together (lack of theory?)  Ketegangan di antara pendekatan dan metode- metode

29  Multiple Method Research Designs (MMRD) ▪ Multi-method designs -1+ method within paradigms ▪ Mixed methods designs -1+ method mixed paradigms ▪ Combining methods – 1+ method, one subsumed to other? ▪ Integrating methods – 1+ method of equal weight? ▪ Triangulasi – outcome dari MMRD?* ▪ Transformasi Data  Mengkuantitatifkan data  Mengkualitatifkan data

30  Emic and etic understandings?  Multiple research-questions?  Multiple facets or contexts  Multiple of singular-reality?  Mixed phenomena?

31  Sequential atau parallel?  Linked atau independent?  Respondent enrolment  Development of research instruments  Time required  Costs – value for money?  Necessary expertise?  Organisasi Tim dan Komunikasi.

32  Where’s your theory? How does that help?  Assumptions and presumptions – negotiating a path through/round them  Integration; triangulation; combination?  When are you going to integrate? Have you missed the moment?  Will your audience understand?

33  Metodologis ▪ Differing findings ▪ Unit analisis  Politis ▪ Preferensi / persyaratan audien  Praktikal ▪ Waktu ▪ Biaya ▪ Umur data.

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35  Multi-faceted nature of all phenomena  Kontextualitas  Dimensi/hubunga n Micro-meso- macro  Agensi dan struktur. Multidata-monoanalysis —this is the analysis of both data types (qualitative AND quantitative) using only one analysis type. This results in: 1.Only quantitative analysis of your qualitative data, atau 2.Only qualitative analysis of your quantitative data. We recommend that you avoid this approach because it is not wise to only analyze your qualitative data quantitatively or only analyze your quantitative data qualitatively. Diunduh dari: …… 26/10/2012

36  Essentialist approaches  Constructionist approaches  Fixed state/status  Contextual and fluid  An inherent weakness or something managed and negotiated?  Children and vulnerability

37  Pendekatan yang mana dan mengapa yang itu?  Tidak cukup untuk beberapa tujuan tertentu  Mis. Pengembangan kebijakan  Cannot elaborate micro-meso-macro interfaces and relationships  Struktur dan agensi  Some presumptions are problematic

38  Fenomena Multi-dimensional  Access via different methods derived from an interpretivist stance  Dapat mengkaji kontingensi dan aspek-aspek dinamik  Draw on emic and etic conceptualisations to plan a strong design for mixed methods  Dapat mengkaji huungan struktural dan agensi/structure interfaces

39  Data sensus  Data nasional  National statistical returns (eg Crime statistics for HO)  Hasil-hasil penelitian yang dipublikasikan  Survei lokal (data primer)  Local statistics (secondary/primary data)  Data yang terbatas tentang anak-anak.  Pertanyaan Penelitian  Spesifik (hypotheses)  Determined at start by outside ‘experts’/prior research  Dibatasi oleh apa yang tersedia, mis. area; unit analisis.

40  Using a mixed methods approach  Interface between micro and macro dimensions of physical safety, distributions of risk, violence  Would need primary data to capture distributions of management strategies

41  Mengkombinasikan metode/data/analysis sedemikian rupa sehingga:  Mereka membentuk satu kesatuan  Menjaga sifat0sifat paradigmatiknya masing-masing (tidak mencampur-adukkan satu-sama lain)  Menghasilkan kontribusi yang sama nilainya

42 ▪ Integrasi sejak awal riset ▪ Selama pengumpulan data ▪ Melalui Analisis Data ▪ Melalui Interpretasi ▪ Sebagai hasil Presentasi Monodata-multianalysis —this is the analysis of one type of data using both qualitative and quantitative anslysis. The logic of this approach is to: 1.Analyze your data with the standard approach (e.g., qualitative analysis for your qualitative data or quantitative analysis for your quantitative data). 2.Either qualitative or quantitize one set of data for additional analysis. 1.Qualitize—transforming quantitative data into qualitative data (e.g., provide names or labels to quantitative characteristics). 2.Quantitize—transforming qualitative data into quantitative data (e.g., do numerical counts of qualitative categories and themes). Diunduh dari: …… 26/10/2012

43 MMR: Riset yang menggunakan prosedur – prosedur pelaksanaan yang lazim digunakan dalam riset kuantitatif dan riset kualitatif. Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

44 Tujuan The purpose of these studies is usually to inform sponsors about a program they are funding. The sponsors may want a descriptive study of the program in which the operations and processes are explained and clarified. They may also be interested in an effectiveness study in which the operations are assessed in relation to organizational goals and targets. Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

45 METODE-METODE Masalah-penelitian akan menentukan pilihan desain, tetapi beberapa metode berikut ini dapat digunakan: Survei Kunjungan lokasi. Wawancara Observasi Questionnaires Data Quantitatif. Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

46 Tiga Tipe Desain Tiga karaktersitik yang membedakan tipe-tipe MMR: 1.Priooritas diberikan pada pengumpulan data kuantitatif atau kualitatif. 2.Sekuens pengumpulan data kuantitatif atau kualitatif 3.Teknik-teknik analisis data yang dipakai adalah kombinasi analisis data atau analisis data sendiri- sendiri. Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

47 Tiga tipe Desain yang lazim: 1.Model QUAL-Quan The exploratory mixed methods design Qualitative data are collected first and are more heavily weighted 2.Model QUAN-Qual The explanatory mixed methods design Quantitative data are collected first and are more heavily weighted 3.Model QUAN-QUAL The triangulation mixed methods design Quantitative and qualitative data are collectedc oncurrently and both are weighted equally Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

48 10 Karakteristik Desain MM 1.The title of the research includes terms that suggest more than one method is being used Mixed methods Integrated Triangular 2. Quantitative – qualitative Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used in the study Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

49 Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs 3. The researcher describes the kinds of mixed methods being used 4. The data collection section indicates narrative, numerical, or both types of data are being collected 5. The purpose statement or the research questions indicate the types of methods being used 6. Questions are stated and described for both quantitative and qualitative approaches 7. The researcher indicates these quencing of collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data (i.e., QUAN-Qual, QUAL-Quan, or QUAN- QUAL) 8. The researcher describes both quantitative and qualitative data analysis strategies 9. The writing is balanced in terms of quantitative and qualitative approaches Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

50 Evaluating a Mixed Methods Design 1.Does the study use at least one quantitative and one qualitative research strategy? 2.What were the research questions addressed? 3.Who are the sponsors of the study and what are their expectations? 4.Does the study include a rationale for using a mixed methods design? 5.Does the study include a classification of the type of mixed methods design? 6.Does the study describe the priority given to quantitative and qualitative data collection and the sequence of their use? Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

51 Evaluasi Disain Mixed-Method 1.Was the study feasible given the amount of data to be collected and concomitant issues of resources, time, and expertise? 2.Who were the participants in the study? What did the samples consist of? 3.Does the study clearly identify qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques? 4.Apa tujuan dan pentingnya riset ini? Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

52 A mixed method approach allows researchers to simultaneously benefit from both quantitative and qualitative research methods in the context of one study addressing a single set of business objectives. Flow Monitor designs market research studies that take full advantage of the inherent benefits of both quantitative (e.g., surveys) and qualitative (e.g., focus groups, ethnographic techniques, etc.) research. The business objectives will greatly determine the appropriate sequence of methods. The diagrams below illustrate this. Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012

53 Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

54  Mixed methods research is not new but only recently been systematically described; ‘new era’ of mixed methods research (Tashakkori and Teddlie, 1998)  Different definitions of mixed methods research used by different researchers  Not simply the ad hoc combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, it is the planned mixing of methods at a pre- determined stage of the research (Halcomb et al., 2009)  “mixed methods [is] research which collects both qualitative and quantitative data in one study and integrates these data at some stage of the research process” (Halcomb et al., 2009)  Distinction between mixed methods (quant and qual) and multi method research (uses more than one method from same tradition) (Bazeley, 2007) Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012

55  Increased reflexivity about researcher-researched relationships   Increased political awareness about what and who research is for  Growing formalisation of research governance and ethics procedures  The availability and ease of new technologies to analyse mixed methods research (e.g. Nvivo, MaxQDA, Atlas.ti)  International Research Collaboration (Halcomb and Andrew, 2009) Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012

56  Triangulation - one of the first rationales for using mixed methods research (Denzin, 1970). Used to test the consistency of findings through different approaches.  Complementarity - clarifies and illustrates results from one method with the use of another method.  Development - the results of analysis using one method shapes subsequent methods or steps in the research process.  Initiation-stimulates new research questions or challenges results obtained through one method.  Expansion- provides richness and detail buy building on the findings of either qualitative or quantitative methods (Greene et al., 1989) Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012

57 Four central questions that inform the design of a mixed methods study: 1. In what sequence will the qualitative and quantitative data collection be implemented? 2. What relative priority will be given to the qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis? 3. At what stage of the project will the qualitative and quantitative data be integrated? 4. Will an overall theoretical perspective be used to guide the study? (Creswell, 2003) Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012

58 1. Principal Quantitative, Qualitative Preliminary (qual -> QUANT) 2. Principal Qualitative, Quantitative Preliminary (quant - > QUAL) 3. Complementary Quantitative, Qualitative Follow-Up (QUANT -> qual) 4. Complementary Qualitative, Quantitative Follow-Up (QUAL -> quant) (Morse, 1991; Morgan, 1998) Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012

59 Interviews/ Focus Groups/ Questionnaires/ Surveys/ Validated Tests and Scales/ Observation Pertimbangannya: 1. Keseimbangan antara kelebihan dan kelemahan masiong-masing metode 2. Waktu pengumpulan data Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012

60 Qualitative and quantitative data sets analysed separately and conclusions drawn that incorporate both data sets. Can be used for the following purposes: 1. Triangulation 2. Expansion or Complementarity 3. Development Separate analyses may give rise to contradictory or discrepant results which need to be explained (Halcomb and Andrew, 2009) Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012

61 Combining of data types for analysis requires transformation of data in some form in order to ‘marry’ diverse sources. Can be done through: 1. Meta matrices, databases, spread sheets e.g. systematic reviews 2. Qualitising numerical data e.g. using scores to provide a descriptive classification 3. Counting 4. Quantitising qualitative data e.g. 0/1 transformation for absence/presence of code, numerical weighting of codes (MaxQDA) (Halcomb and Andrew, 2009) Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012

62  Combined analysis can be used to: 1. Merge and compare (e.g. themes can be quantified, independent t tests and bivariate linear regression analyses in SPSS) 2. Explore, predict and explain (e.g. case by case variable matrix, cluster analysis) 3. Blend to created new variable to use in further studies (Halcomb and Andrew, 2009) Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012

63  ‘paradigm wars’, reconciling philosophical assumptions of each methodological perspective.  Selecting and managing research team with diverse specialities.  Practicalities of data collection and analysis, may make concurrent analysis difficult  Statistical analysis often relies on large sample sizes which are not common in qualitative research  Transforming qualitative data into numerical form may lose some of the richness and nuances in the text  A lack of templates for the writing up and publishing mixed methods research, sometimes qualitative and quantitative results published separately  Not all journals publish mixed methods research which may limit publication opportunities Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012

64  Gives researchers an opportunity to creatively rethink research design and the various different ways they can be linked to research questions  Potential to generate new insights and levels of analysis  Challenges taken for granted assumptions across a wide range of research methods topics  Brings together researchers from different backgrounds and different specialisms and allows them to think together on a given research problem (Bergman, 2008) Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012

65 Diunduh dari: 26/10/2012

66 Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

67  1959: Concept of mixing different methods by Campbell & Fiske. (Psychologists)  1973: Combined the Qualitative & Quantitative data by S.D. Sieber.  1979: Converging or triangulating different Qualitative & Quantitative data sources by Jick.  : Expanded procedures for Mixed methods By Tashakkori & Teddli and then Creswell. Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

68  Quantitative data can reveal generalizable information for a large group of people  These data often fail to provide specific answers, reasons, explanations or examples  Qualitative research provides data about meaning and context regarding the people and environments of study  Findings are often not generalizable because of the small numbers & narrow range of participants  Both methods have strengths and weaknesses  When used together, these methods can be complimentary Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

69 Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Methods Mixed Methods Research Methods Qualitative research Methods Quantitative research Methods Sequential Concurrent Transformative Narratives Phenomenologies Ethnographies Grounded theory Case Studies Experimental designs Non- Experimental designs, such as survey Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

70 Four decisions go into selecting a mixed methods strategy Theoretical Perspective IntegrationPriority Implement ation Explicit At data collection Equal No Sequence Concurrent At data analysis Qualitative Sequential- Qualitative first At data interpretation Implicit Quantitative Sequential- Qualitative first With some combination Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

71  What is implementation sequence of the quantitative and qualitative data collection in the proposed study?  What priority will be given to the quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis?  At what stage in the research project will the quantitative and qualitative data and finding be integrated?  Will an overall theoretical perspective (e.g., gender, race/ ethnicity, lifestyle, class) be used in the study? Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

72 Sequential Explanatory Design QUAN Data Collection QUAN Data Analysis Qual Data Collection Qual Data Analysis Interpretation of Entre analysis Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

73 Sequential Exploratory Design QUAL Data Collection QUAL Data Analysis Quan Data Collection Quan Data Analysis Interpretation of Entre Analysis Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

74 Sequential Transformative Design QUAN qual Vision, Advocacy, Ideology, Framwork QUAL quan Vision, Advocacy, Ideology, Framework Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

75 Concurrent Triangulation Strategy QUAL Data Collection QUAN Data Collection QUAN QUAL Quan Data Analysis Qual Data Analysid Data Results Compared Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

76 Analysis of Findings Concurrent Nested Strategy Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

77 Concurrent Transformative Strategy Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

78  Identify and be specific about the type of data. Some forms of data such as interviews and observations can be either quantitative or qualitative. Although reduction information to numbers is the approach used in quantitative research, it is also used in qual. Research.  Recognize that quantitative data often involve random sampling, so that each individual has no equal probability of being selected and the sample can be generalized to the larger population. In qualitative data collection, purposeful sampling is used to that individuals are selected because they have experienced the central phenomenon. Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

79  Relate the procedures specifically to the visual model. For e.g, in a sequential explanatory model, the general procedures can be detailed even further. A discussion of this approach might include describing the use of survey data collection followed by both descriptive and infertial data analysis in the first phase. Then qualitative observations and coding and thematic analysis within an ethnographic design might be mentioned for the second phase. Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

80 It’s related to the type of research strategy chosen for the procedures. Some of the more popular approaches: Data transformation: In the concurrent strategies involve creating codes and themes qualitatively, then counting the number of times they occur in the text data. This quantification of qualitative data enables a researcher to compare quantitative results with the qualitative data. For instance, in a factor analysis of data from a scale on an instrument, the researcher may create factors or themes that then can be compared with themes from the qualitative database. Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

81  Explore outliers: In a sequential model, an analysis of quantitative data in the first phase can yield extreme or outlier cases. Follow-up qualitative interviews with these outlier cases can provide insight about why they diverged from the quantitative sample.  Instrument development: In a sequential approach, obtain themes and specific statements from participants in an initial qualitative data collection. In the next phase, use these statements as specific items and the themes for scales to create a survey instrument that is grounded in the views of the participants. A third, final phase might be to validate the instrument with large sample representative of a population.  Examine multiple levels: in a concurrent nested model, conduct a survey at one level (e.g. with families) to gather quantitative results about a sample. At the same time, collect qualitative interviews (e.g., with individuals) to explore the phenomenon with specific individuals in families. Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

82 Validasi diperlukan, baik pada fase kualitatif maupun fase kuantitatif. Masing-masing metode mempunyai cara khusus; untuk data kualitatif, strateginya adalah menguji akurasi temuan-temuan riset. Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009

83 by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Co-editor, Journal of Mixed Methods Research, and Co-Director, Office of Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research

84  Deskripsikan pendekatan ini dalam proposal- penelitian  Pelacakan sejarahnya  Definisi yang jelas ▪ Mixed methods research is an approach to inquiry that combines or associates both qualitative and quantitative forms. It involves philosophical assumptions, the use of qualitative and quantitative approaches, and the mixing of both approaches in a study. Thus, it is more than simply collecting and analyzing both kinds of data; it also involves the use of both approaches in tandem so that the overall strength of a study is greater than either qualitative or quantitative research (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007).  Membahas tantangan yang dihadapi pendekatan ini. Sumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska- Lincoln

85 TimingWeightingMixingTheorizing No Sequence Concurrent EqualIntegratingExplicit Sequential - Qualitative first QualitativeConnectingImplicit Sequential - Quantitative first QuantitativeEmbedding Sumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska- Lincoln

86 TimingWeightingMixingTheorizing No Sequence Concurrent EqualIntegratingExplicit Sequential - Qualitative first QualitativeConnectingImplicit Sequential - Quantitative first QuantitativeEmbedding Sumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska- Lincoln

87  Disain Eksplanatori Sekuensial  Disain Eksploratori Sekuensial  Dian Transformatis Sekuensial QUANqual QUALquan QUAL quan Social science theory, qualitative theory, advocacy worldview QUAN qual Social science theory, qualitative theory, advocacy worldview Sumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska- Lincoln

88  Disain Triangulasi Konkuren (bersamaan) +  Disain Embedded Konkuren  Disain Transformatif Konkuren QUANQUAL QUAN qual QUAN + QUAL Social science theory, qualitative theory, advocacy worldview QUAL quan QUAL Social science theory, qualitative theory, advocacy worldview quan Sumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska- Lincoln

89  Identifikasi tipe-tipe data quantitative dan qualitatif  Menyusun prosedur sampling yang dapat mencakup aspek-aspek random-sampling dan purposeful-sampling  Membuat bagan / diagram alir yang detail tentang penelitian Sumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska- Lincoln

90  Match data analysis to the mixed methods strategy of inquiry  Prosedur-prosedur yang populer meliputi :  Transformasi Data  Explore outliers  Instrument development  Examine multiple levels  Membuat Matriks.  Prosedur Validasi:  Quantitative procedures (e.g., validity and reliability of scores)  Qualitative procedures (e.g., check accuracy of findings)  Mixed methods procedures (e.g., legitimation of the mixed methods study) Sumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska- Lincoln

91  Report structure follows from the mixed methods strategy of inquiry  Studi Sequential : ▪ Organize the report into sections ordered to match the phases of the study  Studi Konkuren : ▪ Organize the data collection into separate sections ▪ The analysis and interpretation may be combined  Studi Transformatif: ▪ Use either a sequential or concurrent report structure ▪ Advance the advocacy issue at the beginning and an agenda for change at the end Sumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska- Lincoln

92 by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln Andrews University, July, 2004

93 Data Teks Kualitatif This is a sample of a text file of words that might be collected on transcripts through interviews, fieldnotes from observations, or from optically-scanned documents. Data numerik kuantitatif Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

94  Data Kuantitatif  Close-ended scales  Attitudinal/behavioral scales  Behavioral checklists  Census, attendance records  Data Kualitatif  Open-ended responses  Semi-structured interviews  Semi-structured observations  Records/documents  Videotapes Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

95 1. Together quantitative and qualitative data provide both precise measurement and generalizability of quantitative research and the in-depth, complex picture of qualitative research 2. To validate quantitative results with qualitative data 3. We do not have an adequate instrument. Thus, we need to explore views and develop an instrument 4. Our quantitative data provide a general explanation and we need to follow-up with participants and have them explain the quantitative results 5. In our experiment, outcomes to be measured are not enough; they need to be complemented by understanding the process of participants Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

96 1. We need minimum skills in both qualitative and quantitative data collection. What do we need? 2. We need time and resources for extensive data collection and analysis. How much time and resources do we need? Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

97 Data KuantitatifData Kualitatif Mixing: converging the data or connecting the data Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

98 Mencampur/ Memadukan data : QualQuanResults Menghubungkan data: Qual Quan Results Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

99 “Combining qualitative and quantitative methods has gained broad appeal in public health research. The key question has become not whether it is acceptable or legitimate to combine methods, but rather how they will be combined to be mutually supportive and how findings achieved through different methods will be integrated.” (NIH, Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research, 1999). Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

100 1. Mixed methods research is a design for collecting, analyzing, and mixing both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study or series of studies to understand a research problem. 2. The purpose of this form of research is that both qualitative and quantitative methods, in combination, provide a better understanding of a research problem or issue than either method alone. Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

101 Single Study: Results QualQuan Multiple Studies (called multimethod research): Study 1 Study 2 Study 3 Study 4 Quan Qual Qual Quan Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

102 Type of mixed methods design Procedures for: designing the title writing the introduction to a study writing the purpose statement and research questions/hypotheses data collection data analysis writing the mixed methods report evaluating the mixed methods research Worldviews, theoretical frameworks, problem and research question, skills, resources Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

103 Disain apa yang mungkin sesuai? Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

104 I. Triangulation Mixed Methods Design II. Nested Mixed Methods Design QUAN Data and Results QUAN Pre-test Data and Results + QUAL Data and Results QUAN Post-test Data and Results Interpretation Qual Process Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

105 III. MMR Eksplanatori IV. MMR Eksploratori QUAN Data and Results QUAL Data and Results qual Data and Results quan Data and Results Follow-up Building Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

106  Collecting both quantitative and qualitative data  Collecting these data at the same time in the research procedure  Analyzing the quantitative and qualitative data separately  Comparing or combining the results of the quantitative and qualitative analysis  Example: collect survey data (quantitative) and collect individual interviews (qualitative) and then compare the results Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

107 1. When you want to combine the advantages of quantitative (trends, large numbers, generalization) with qualitative (detail, small numbers, in-depth) 2. When you want to validate your quantitative findings with qualitative data 3. When you want to expand your quantitative findings with some open-ended qualitative data (e.g., survey with closed- and open-ended data) Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

108 Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

109  Collecting both quantitative and qualitative data  Collecting both types of data at the same time  Having ONE form of data play a smaller role in the study than the other form of data  Also,  Using one form of data to answer one question; the other form another question  Collecting one form of data at one level of analysis and another at another level of analysis  Example: You conduct an experiment and during the experiment you gather qualitative interview data. The outcomes of the experiment assessed quantitatively address different questions than the process of the experiment explored qualitatively. Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

110  When you do not have time or resources to commit to extensive quantitative and qualitative data collection  When you want to study the process of an experiment as well as the outcomes  When you want to examine different levels in an organization Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

111 Quan Data collection Pre-test Quan Data collection Post-test Process – collection and analysis of qualitative data Nested Research Design Eksperimen Intervention Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

112  Viewing the study as a two-phase project  Collecting quantitative data first followed by collecting qualitative data second  Typically, a greater emphasis is placed on the quantitative data in the study  Example: You first conduct a survey and then follow up with a few individuals who answered positively to the questions through interviews Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

113  When you want to explain the quantitative results in more depth with qualitative data (e.g., statistical differences among groups, individuals who scored at extreme levels)  When you want to identify appropriate participants to study in more depth qualitatively Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

114 Contoh Disain Eksplanatori Quantitative Data* Number of cigarettes CES - D6 Qualitative Data* Semi - structured interviews, audio recorded and transcribed * Data collected 10 times over the course of a calendar year for 40 participants Quantitative Analysis Graphic plot of CES - D6 scores over time for each participant Graphic plot of cigarettes/day values over time for each participant Case Selection Qualitative Analysis Description of each case Identification of life events occurring during critical months where smoking increased or decreased Thematic analysis of life events for each case Cross - case thematic analysis Interpretation Why did changes in smoking occur? Quantitative Data Collection (quan) Qualitative Data Collection Interpretation – based on quan and QUAL results Qualitative Data Analysis (QUAL) Case Selection Quantitative Data Analysis (quan) Selected 5 cases maximally varying Identified critical months in which smoking varied Creswell et al. (in progress) + Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

115  Viewing the study as a two-phase project  Qualitative data collection precedes quantitative data collection  Typically, greater emphasis is placed on the qualitative data in the study  Example: You collect qualitative diary entries, analyze the data for themes, and then develop an instrument based on the themes to measure attitudes on a quantitative survey administered to a large sample. Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

116  To develop an instrument when one is not available (first explore, then develop instrument)  To develop a classification or typology for testing  To identify the most important variables to study quantitatively when these variable are not known Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

117 Phase I Qualitative Research - Year 1 Qualitative Data Collection Unstructured Interviews - 50 participants 8 observations at the site 16 documents Qualitative Data Analysis Text Analysis: Using QSR N6 Qualitative Findings Development of codes and themes for each site Phase II Quantitative Research - Year 2 Quantitative Instrument Development Quantitative Test of the Instrument Create approximately a 80-item instrument plus demographics Administer survey to 500 individuals Determine factor structure of items and conduct reliability analysis for scales Quantitative Results Determine how groups differ using ANOVA test Sequential Exploratory Mixed Methods Design Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

118  Qualitative analysis  Text/image data  Coding  Themes  Description  Interrelated themes Types of analysis:  Quantitative analysis  Numeric data  Descriptive trend analysis  Hypothesis testing, effect size, interval estimates Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

119 QUAN data collection QUAN data analysis QUAL data collection QUAL data analysis Results Separate QUAN and QUAL data analysis Two options Data transformation (change QUAL to QUAN or QUAN to QUAL) Comparison (keep separate and compare/contrast) Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

120 Count Adj.Count** Row Pct Column Pct Patients N=2 Physicians N=4 Medical Assistants N=4 Themes Familiarity With the Form Reactions to the Form Use for Managing Depression Changes to the Form Situational Use of the Form Contoh transformasi data dari “satuan teks” menjadi “satuan numerik” Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

121 Quan Data collection Pre-test Quan Data collection Post-test Qualitative Process Analisis Data Tersarang (Nested) Post-test scores or gain scores Themes/Codes/ Interrelated Themes Pre-test scores Data Analysis Compare/Describe Results Quantitative Experiment Intervention Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

122 QUAN data analysis Statistical results Outlier cases Extreme cases Qual data collection (purposeful sampling) Select cases based on s.d. variables Select cases to represent outliers Select cases to represent extreme cases Select cases to make group comparisons Qual analysis codes themes cases Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

123 QUAL data analysis Quotes Codes Themes Quan data analysis instrument development Items on a survey Variables on a survey Scales on a survey Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

124  Let’s draw a picture of our design  Identify the type of design  Add in data collection  Add in data analysis  Show the flow of activities  Add in “products” for our audiences Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

125 1. Give a title to the visual model. 2. Choose either horizontal or vertical layout for the model. 3. Draw boxes for quantitative and qualitative stages of data collection, data analysis and interpretation of the study results. 4. Use capitalized (QUAN) or small letters (quan) to designate priority of quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis. 5. Use single-headed arrows to show the flow of procedures in the design. 6. Specify procedures for each quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis stage. 7. Specify expected products or outcomes of each quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis procedure. 8. Make your model simple. 9. Size your model to one page. Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

126 “The purpose of this concurrent mixed methods study is to better understand a research problem by converging both quantitative (numeric) and qualitative (text or image) data. In this approach, ___________ (quantitative instruments) will be used to measure the relationship between the ________ (independent variables) and __________ (dependent variables). At the same time in the study, the __________ (central phenomenon) will be explored using _____________ (qualitative interviews, documents, observations, visual materials) with _________ (participants) at ____________ (the research site).” Sample Script for a Concurrent Design (Triangulation or Nested) Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

127 “The purpose of this two-phase, exploratory mixed methods study will be to explore participant views with the intent of using this information to develop and test an instrument with a sample from a population. The first phase will be a qualitative exploration of a _______(central phenomenon) by collecting ___________(data) from ____________ (participants) at _______ (research site). Themes from this qualitative data will then be developed into an instrument (or survey) so that the __________ (theory and research questions/hypotheses) can be tested that ________ (relate, compare) ____________ (independent variable) with __________ (dependent variable) for _________(sample of a population) at _________ (research site).” Sample Script for a Sequential Exploratory Design Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

128 “The purpose of this two-phase, explanatory mixed methods study will be to obtain statistical, quantitative results from a sample and then follow-up with a few individuals to probe or explore those results in more depth. In the first phase, quantitative research questions or hypotheses will address the relationship or comparison of __________ (independent) and ________ (dependent) variables with ___________ (participants) at ___________(the research site). In the second phase, qualitative interviews or observations will be used to problem significant _______(quantitative results) by exploring aspects of the ________ (central phenomenon) with _______ (a few participants) at ____________ (research site).” Sample Script for a Sequential Explanatory Design Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

129  Use appropriate terminology for title and design  Provide a rationale for mixing and include it early in the study (“when you use…”)  Create a mixed methods purpose statement  Identify types of qual and quan data to be collected and qual and quan data analysis steps  Include a visual/procedural diagram of methods with timeline  Use rigorous procedures for the quantitative data collection and analysis Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004

130 Diunduh dari: 26/10/2012

131 Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)

132  Riset Kuantitatif murni  Riset Kualitatif Murni  MMR = Mixed-methods research  Collecting both QUANT and QUAL data using different instruments  MMDA = Mixed-methods data analysis  Usually only QUAL data collected  Data is treated both quantitatively and qualitatively  Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)

133  QUANT – QUAL distinction in applied linguistics research  QUANT: data is numbers; uses statistics  Experimental research; surveys  QUAL: data is words; uses thematic or narrative interpretation  Conversation analysis; ethnography  Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)

134  “MMR melibatkan pengumpulan atau analisis data kuantitatif dan kualitatif dalam suatu studi dengan upaya mengintegrasikan kedua pendekatan pada satu fase atau lebih dalam proses penelitiannya” (Dörnyei, 2007)  Tujuan:  Mencapai pemahaman yang tuntas  Triangulasi temuan-temuan.  Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)

135  Contoh yang jelek  Research into attitudes: survey a large number and interview a predetermined small number of subjects  Purpose: unclear  Contoh yang agak lebih baik  Research into attitudes: survey a large number of subjects, then, selecting based on questionnaire responses, interview a small number  Purpose: follow-up on interesting results  Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)

136  An example of the opposite  Interview a small number to gain insights to design a questionnaire, then survey a large number  Purpose: informing instrument design  Another similar example  Research into beliefs: interview 4 teachers but survey 80 students  Purpose: accounting for practicality in using instruments  Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)

137  Contoh yang fokus pada triangulasi  Research into strategies: comparing results from different instruments  Much strategy research involves the use of SILL  SILL asks respondents to identify how often they use a particular strategy  Strategy use is context-dependent  Research question: Will recent context of learning change responses to SILL?  Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)

138  Metode  Subyek tunggal  Time 1: read academic articles  Time 2: read short stories for pleasure  Responded to SILL twice  Interviewed 4 times (background interview, after SILL responses, summary interview)  Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)

139  SILL responses  Showed major differences between 2 times e.g. “If I guess the meaning of a word, later I will check whether my guess is correct by using a dictionary.” rated Always at Time 1; Never at Time 2  Interview responses  Showed that recent learning contexts influenced different ratings  Triangulation to confirm results or triangulation to provide different perspectives  Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)

140 “The most common perception of mixed methods research is that it is a modular process in which qualitative and quantitative components are carried out either concurrently or sequentially. Although this perception is by and large true, it also suggests that the analysis of the data should proceed independently for the QUANT and QUAL phases and mixing should occur only at the final interpretation stage. This conclusion is only partially true … we can also start integrating the data at the analysis stage, resulting in what can be called mixed methods data analysis” Dörnyei (2007)  Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)

141  MMDA berarti:  Quantitising qualitative data  Qualitising quantitative data  Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt) Monodata-multianalysis —this is the analysis of one type of data using both qualitative and quantitative anslysis. The logic of this approach is to: First, analyze your data with the standard approach (e.g., qualitative analysis for your qualitative data or quantitative analysis for your quantitative data). Second, either qualitative or quantitize one set of data for additional analysis. Qualitize—transforming quantitative data into qualitative data (e.g., provide names or labels to quantitative characteristics). Quantitize—transforming qualitative data into quantitative data (e.g., do numerical counts of qualitative categories and themes).

142  Kuantifikasi seringkali dilakukan secara tidak sadar  Melakukan analisis “keyword”  Menggunakan skor IELTS dalam riset  Quantitising helps a qualitative analysis by allowing a reliability check  Quantitising can be used to count and compare frequency of themes  Quantitising allows further statistical analysis of data, but information is always lost when converting QUAL to QUANT  Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)

143  Tidak lazim, jarang dilakukan  Penyusunan profil naratif  Using quantitatively obtained questionnaire data in a qualitative description of a subject  Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt) Websites for Qualitative Data Analysis Programs Program name and Website address AnSWR (freeware) ATLAShttp://atlasti.de/http://atlasti.de/ Ethnograph HyperResearchhttp://researchware.comhttp://researchware.com Nvivohttp://www.qsrinternational.comhttp://www.qsrinternational.com NUD*ISThttp://www.qsrinternational.com/products_previous- products_n6.aspx (Note: NUD*IST is being replaced by NVivo).http://www.qsrinternational.com/products_previous- products_n6.aspx

144  Sifat Data of QUANT  Ringkas  Memnungkinkan analisis lanjut (Statistika inferensial)  Menyediakan informasi ringkas (ikhtisar)  Sifat Data QUAL  Detail dan informatif  Memungkinkan pemahaman kasus-kasus  Menyediakan informasi yang mendalam  Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)

145  What purposes can mixing QUANT and QUAL data analysis serve?  Illustration for insight  Concise summary to give overview  Preliminary overview to inform analysis  Providing a more well-rounded and more persuasive analysis  Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)

146  In many QUANT studies, it is easy to get lost in the numbers and forget what they mean  If the numbers are derived from QUAL data, it is useful to give a QUAL example to concretise the QUANT findings  In Case 1, the original data is QUAL; this is quantitised for analysis; a QUAL example is given to concretise the data and to show how the quantitative analyses was applied  Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)

147  In some QUAL research (primarily involving categorisation or thematisation), the lengthy, detailed data make it difficult to see the overall pattern  It can be useful to provide a QUANT summary as an overview  In Case 2, the data is QUAL and analysed in a QUAL way, but the overall pattern of results is presented as QUANT  Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)

148  In QUAL studies with large amounts of data, it is difficult for the researcher to ensure that all relevant issues have been identified  It is also difficult to see underlying patterns that can be drowned in the sheer quantity of data  It is useful to conduct a preliminary QUANT analysis to ensure all issues and underlying patterns are identified  In Case 3, QUAL data is treated qualitatively to find keywords which then inform a QUAL thematic analysis  Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)

149  In QUAL studies with large amounts of data, restricting analysis to either QUANT or QUAL cannot provide a full picture of the data  QUAL provides detailed description of the data  QUANT provides generalisations of patterns to the whole data set  In Case 4, QUAL and QUANT analyses are used together to produce a fuller description of the data  Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)

150 Penggunaan  Illustration for insight  Summarise for overview  Inform analysis  Provide full picture Pola-pola  QUANT → QUAL  QUAL → QUANT  QUANT → QUAL  Mix of QUANT and QUAL Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)

151 Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

152  Sulit mendefiniskannya  Contoh-contoh definisi  The use of qualitative and quantitative techniques in both the collection and analysis of data  Mixed Methods research is given a priority in the research and the integration of both the quantitative and qualitative results occurs at some point in the research process  Research that includes both quantitative and qualitative data in a single research study, and either the QUAN or QUAL data provides data that would not otherwise be obtainable when using only the primary method Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

153  Answers questions that other modalities cannot  Provides a deeper understanding of the examined behavior or a better idea of the meaning behind what is occurring  The inferences made with mixed methods research can be stronger  Mixed methods research allows for more divergent findings  MM research can include culture in the design by giving a voice to everyone involved in the behavior being examined Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

154  Berupaya melibatkan stakeholders dalam disain dan proses penelitian  Can be very beneficial when many of the stakeholders are more likely to be critics  Includes less powerful groups and helps to ensure that they have an equitable impact on the research  Collaboration has the ability to stimulate ways of thinking that might not occur when working individually on a project Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

155  The key to any study is the research question(s) because this dictates the selection of the research methods  In designing a study the underlying purpose is the reason for doing it, and is a necessary component  Why are we doing the study?  The quality of the study and the meaningfulness of the results are enhanced if we are clear about the purpose Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

156  Disain Eksplanatori Sekuensial  Disain Exploratory Sekuensial  Disain Transformatif Sekuensial  Disain Triangulasi Konkuren  Concurrent Nested Design  Disain Transformatif Konkuren Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

157  Collection and analysis of QUAN data followed by the collection and analysis of QUAL data  Priority is usually given to QUAN data  Integration of QUAN and QUAL data usually occurs in the interpretation phase of the study  The purpose is usually to use the QUAL results to help explain the QUAN results Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

158  Conducted in two phases  Priority is given to the first phase of QUAL data collection  The second phase involves QUAN data collection  Overall priority is given to QUAL data collection and analysis  The findings are integrated in the interpretation phase  Most basic purpose is to use QUAN data to help interpret the results of the QUAL phase Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

159  Mempunyai dua fase pengumpulan data yangt berbeda  Perspektif teoritis dipakai untuk mengarahkan studi  Purpose is to use methods that will best serve the theoretical perspective of the researcher Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

160  This is probably the most familiar MM design  The QUAL and QUAN data collection are concurrent, and happen during one data collection phase  Priority could be given to either QUAL or QUAN methods, but ideally the priority between the two methods would be equal  Two methods are integrated in the interpretation phase  The integration focuses on how the results from both methods are similar or different, with the primary purpose being to support each other Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

161  Gathers both QUAL and QUAN data during the same phase  Either QUAL or QUAN dominates the design  The analysis phase mixes both the QUAL and QUAN data  The QUAL data is used to help explain or better understand the QUAN data Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

162  Guided by a specific theoretical perspective  The QUAN and QUAL data are collected during the same phase  The integration of data occurs during the analysis phase  The integration of data could occur in the interpretation phase  Again, the purpose is to use methods that will best serve the theoretical perspective of the researcher Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

163  The process of integrating QUAL and QUAN research needs to be well thought out prior to the study  QUAL portion needs to be constructed in a way so that more novel information can be discovered  Need to decide if QUAL portion is exploratory or confirmatory  If exploratory, the purpose is to identify other dimensions that the QUAN portion is missing  If confirmatory, the purpose is to support the QUAN relationship  QUAL results can also be used to explain why there wasn’t a statistically significantly difference Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

164 1. Selection of research methods need to be made after the research questions are asked 2. Some methods work well in some domains and not in others 3. There is no model of integration that is better than another 4. When there are results that support each other, it is possible that both the QUAN and QUAL results are biased and both are not valid 5. The main function of integration is to provide additional information where information obtained from one method only was is insufficient 6. If the results lead to divergent results, then more than one explanation is possible Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

165  One process of incorporating QUAL data with QUAN data is known as quantitizing, or quantifying the open-ended responses  Dummy Coding (i.e. binarizing) – refers to giving a code of 1 when a concept is present and a code of 0 if it is not present Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

166  As with any research findings, if they cannot be communicated to the people who can use the information than the findings are worthless  Presenting MM research can be more challenging because we are trying to communicate two types of information to readers  For instance, writing-up QUAN research is very well defined, and QUAL research is more often about discovery Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

167  Melibatkan semua stakeholders dalam merencanakan penelitian  Using MM research design may help a wider range of audiences connect to the material  Make sure to define the language used in the report  It is important to decide how the MM research findings are going to be written: combined or separately Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

168  The form was not developed by IR  Evaluated paid tutors on five job qualification areas  Job skills  Job knowledge  Work habits  Communication skills  Attitude  Three point rubric was used to evaluate paid tutors 1. Did not meet the requirement 2. Met the requirement 3. Exceeded requirements  Evaluators were also asked to provide comments Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

169  How did I combine the qualification ratings (QUAN) with the evaluator comments (QUAL)?  Found an example of how to do this from Sandelowski (2003)  Sandelowski provided an example where the QUAN responses were categorized and themes for each category were generated from the open-ended comments Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

170  First step is to create the categories from the QUAN data  This step involves being very familiar with your data, and also some creativity  With the paid tutor evaluation it was fairly easy to develop the categories  Paid tutors who received a perfect rating in every category (n = 13)  Paid tutors who had an average ranking equal to or above the mean (n = 5)  Paid tutors who had an average below the mean (n = 11) Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

171  Mencampur data QUAL dan QUAN dalam fase analisis data  After I created the three categories I printed out the comments associated with the paid tutors for each category and identified a theme for each one Sumber: Keith Wurtz, Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.

172 CONTOH-CONTOH PUBLIKASI

173 The Journal of Mixed Methods Research (JMMR) is an innovative, quarterly, interdisciplinary, international publication that focuses on empirical, methodological, and theoretical articles about mixed methods research across the social, behavioral, health, and human sciences. The journal's scope includes delineating where mixed methods research may be used most effectively, illuminating design and procedure issues, and determining the logistics of conducting mixed methods research. Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

174 Mixed methods research (also called mixed research) is becoming increasingly articulated, attached to research practice, and recognized as the third major research approach or research paradigm, along with qualitative research and quantitative research. Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

175 A History of Mixed Methods Research We would position mixed research between the extremes Plato (quantitative research) and the Sophists (qualitative research), with mixed research attempting to respect fully the wisdom of both of these viewpoints while also seeking a workable middle solution for many (research) problems of interest. Today, the primary philosophy of mixed research is that of pragmatism. Mixed methods research is, generally speaking, an approach to knowledge (theory and practice) that attempts to consider multiple viewpoints, perspectives, positions, and standpoints (always including the standpoints of qualitative and quantitative research). Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

176 Mixed research, in its recent history in the social and behavioral or human sciences, started with researchers and methodologists who believed qualitative and quantitative viewpoints and methods were useful as they addressed their research questions. For the 20th century, “mixed research” (in the sense of including what we, today, would call qualitative and quantitative data) can be seen in the work of cultural anthropologists and, especially, the fieldwork sociologists. Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

177 Denzin (1978) defined triangulation as “the combination of methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon”. The four types of triangulation: 1.Data triangulation (i.e., use of a variety of sources in a study), 2.Investigator triangulation (i.e., use of several different researchers), 3.Theory triangulation (i.e., use of multiple perspectives and theories to interpret the results of a study), and 4.Methodological triangulation (i.e., use of multiple methods to study a research problem). Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

178 Jick (1979) noted the following advantages of triangulation: 1.It allows researchers to be more confident of their results; 2.It stimulates the development of creative ways of collecting data; 3.It can lead to thicker, richer data; 4.It can lead to the synthesis or integration of theories; 5.It can uncover contradictions, and 6.By virtue of its comprehensiveness, it may serve as the litmus test for competing theories. Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

179 Greene, Caracelli, and Graham (1989) identified the five purposes or rationales of mixed methodological studies: 1.Triangulation (i.e., seeking convergence and corroboration of results from different methods studying the same phenomenon), 2.Complementarity (i.e., seeking elaboration, enhancement, illustration, clarification of the results from one method with results from the other method), 3.Development (i.e., using the results from one method to other method), 4.Initiation (i.e., discovering paradoxes and contradictions that lead to a reframing of the research question), and 5.Expansion (i.e., seeking to expand the breadth and range of inquiry by using different methods for different inquiry components). Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

180 Collins, Onwuegbuzie, and Sutton (2006) identified four rationales for conducting mixed research: 1.Participant enrichment (e.g., mixing quantitative and qualitative research to optimize the sample using techniques that include recruiting participants), 2.Instrument fidelity (e.g., assessing the appropriateness and/or utility of existing instruments, creating new instruments, monitoring performance of human instruments), 3.Treatment integrity (i.e., assessing fidelity of intervention), 4.Significance enhancement (e.g., facilitating thickness and richness of data, augmenting interpretation and usefulness of findings). Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

181 Definitions of Mixed Methods Research Huey Chen: Mixed methods research is a systematic integration of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study for purposes of obtaining a fuller picture and deeper understanding of a phenomenon. Mixed methods can be integrated in such a way that qualitative and quantitative methods retain their original structures and procedures (pure form mixed methods). Alternatively, these two methods can be adapted, altered, or synthesized to fit the research and cost situations of the study (modified form mixed methods). Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

182 John Creswell: Mixed methods research is a research design (or methodology) in which the researcher collects, analyzes, and mixes (integrates or connects) both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study or a multiphase program of inquiry. Steve Currall: Mixed methods research involves the sequential or simultaneous use of both qualitative and quantitative data collection and/or data analysis techniques. Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

183 Isadore Newman: Mixed methods research is a set of procedures that should be used when integrating qualitative and quantitative procedures reflects the research question(s) better than each can independently. The combining of quantitative and qualitative methods should better inform the researcher and the effectiveness of mixed methods should be evaluated based upon how the approach enables the investigator to answer the research question(s) embedded in the purpose(s) (why the study is being conducted or is needed; the justification) of the study. (Newman, Ridenour, Newman & DeMarco, 2003.) Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

184 Mixed methods research is the type of research in which a researcher or team of researchers combines elements of qualitative and quantitative research approaches (e.g., use of qualitative and quantitative viewpoints, data collection, analysis, inference techniques) for the broad purposes of breadth and depth of understanding and corroboration. This definition refers to mixed methods research as a type of research: A mixed methods study would involve mixing within a single study; a mixed method program would involve mixing within a program of research and the mixing might occur across a closely related set of studies. Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

185 Graphic of the Three Major Research Paradigms, Including Subtypes of Mixed Methods Research Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

186 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research What are effective strategies for integration at different stages of the research process? Bazeley (2006) has carefully examined how to integrate qualitative and quantitative data using data analysis software. Tashakkori and Teddlie (2006) discussed the process of making metainferences (that are based on the integration of qualitative and quantitative strands in research studies). The key idea that mixed methods research requires some form of integration is clear; still, however, additional research is needed to further explicate this process. Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

187 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research Does mixed methods need a particular, detailed set of philosophical and methodological positions? Variation in particular philosophical commitments should be welcome in mixed methods research, and we should embrace these differences as an important part of the mixed methods research paradigm. It is important that arguments and discussion about “appropriate” philosophical commitments continue, so that the field is self- reflexive and continues to grow (philosophically). Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

188 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research Are equal status designs (equal use of quantitative and qualitative epistemologies) possible? To address specifically the issue of mixing ideas associated with research paradigms, we have introduced a concept called commensurability validity or legitimation, which is “the extent to which the meta-inferences made [in a mixed methods study] reflect a mixed worldview based on the cognitive process of Gestalt switching and integration”. The strong (or fully) mixed methods position, we argue, is developed only after explicit and systematic consideration of qualitative and quantitative perspectives. Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

189 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research Should and how might qualitative dominant, equal status, and quantitative dominant mixed methods research be more fully developed and differentiated? Will the qualitative and quantitative dominant mixed research be explicitly incorporated into the qualitative and quantitative research paradigms or will they develop as distinct types? This should be an exciting area for future research as researchers and methodologists coming from different epistemological perspectives construct and systematize these subtypes. Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

190 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research What are the details of a full contingency theory for the conduct of human research? That is, exactly 1.When and under what conditions should qualitative research be considered the appropriate approach, 2.When and under what conditions should quantitative research be considered the appropriate approach, and 3.When and under what conditions should mixed research be considered the appropriate approach? Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

191 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research What are the details of a full contingency theory for the conduct of human research? A strength of a contingency theory of research is that the strengths and weaknesses of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed research are recognized, and all three approaches are considered to be important and needed, albeit in different circumstances. A contingency theory also needs to be carefully developed to help the mixed methods researcher make wise decisions about how to mix methods and approaches in relation to situational contingencies (e.g., given limited resources, what is the best combination to maximize usefulness of information and evidence?). Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

192 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research A fuller definition of mixed methods research might include reference to the logic of mixed research. We believe that additional work is needed to explicate this logic or set of logics. When designing a mixed study, according to this “logic,” the research should strategically combine qualitative and quantitative methods, approaches, and concepts in a way that produces complementary strengths and nonoverlapping weaknesses. Consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches is required in relation to situational contingencies. Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

193 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research Tenth, will the field be able to develop a typology of mixed methods designs that can be broadly agreed upon? Currently, several typologies are available including, for example, Creswell and Plano Clark (2007), Morgan (1998), and Teddlie and Tashakkori (2006). Do the qualitative dominant, quantitative dominant, and pure mixed methods research need separate sets of designs? We tentatively suggest that the answer is yes. Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

194 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research Eleventh, and last, if one were to view mixed methods research, metaphorically, as the trunk of a tree, then what are its branches? For example, should the major branches be labeled QUAL+quan, QUAN+qual, and QUAN+QUAL? What other branches or specialized types might develop over time (e.g., transformative mixed methods, collaborative mixed methods, reflective mixed methods)? We expect many more specific types of mixed methods research and designs to crystallize in the future as researchers relate mixed methods research concepts and thinking to new and reoccurring research problems and situations. Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012

195 A Multimethod Approach to the Study of Sensitive Organizational Issues Karen A. Jehn and Karsten Jonsen Journal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 no Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012 Sensitive organizational issues such as conflict, lying and deceit, and personal health issues are difficult to investigate because of their complex, elusive, and sometimes threatening nature as well as their potential consequences. In this article, an approach is presented that uses triangulation of multiple quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate sensitive organizational issues. This study of organizational conflict illustrates special data elicitation techniques (e.g., tree graphs, third-person questioning) designed to decrease the reluctance of employees to respond to various forms of inquiry. The qualitative approach complements the survey methods by identifying, categorizing, and verifying the existence of constructs. The benefits of the elicitation techniques, computerized text analysis, and multimethod comparison processes as remedies for research problems accentuated in studies of sensitive organizational issues are discussed.

196 Language Learning Motivation in Early Adolescents: Using Mixed Methods Research to Explore Contradiction Pamela M. Wesely Journal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 no Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012 This mixed methods study with an Explanatory Design is an exploration of students’ language learning motivation as it relates to their attrition from a language immersion program. A total of 131 students who had graduated from five public elementary immersion schools responded to surveys, and 33 of those students were interviewed. Data analysis procedures included a theme analysis of the interview data, a statistical analysis of the survey data, and an integrated consideration of the qualitative and quantitative findings. It was found that mixed methods research can be uniquely revealing about social psychological constructs such as motivation, it can offer new perspectives where previous studies were contradictory, and it can accommodate multiple theoretical frameworks.

197 The Use and Added Value of Mixed Methods in Management Research José F. Molina-Azorίn. Journal of Mixed Methods Research January 2011 vol. 5 no Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012 The prevalence, characteristics, and added value of mixed methods articles published in two management fields are examined through a sequential mixed methods design with four phases. The results show that mixed methods articles are published in management journals with different prevalence rates and characteristics. Moreover, an analysis of the impact and added value of mixed methods to the field of management is carried out. Implications for scholars, academic institutions, and journals with regard to the application and publication of mixed methods research are examined.

198 Refining a Location Analysis Model Using a Mixed Methods Approach: Community Readiness as a Key Factor in Siting Rural Palliative Care Services Valorie A. Crooks, Nadine Schuurman, Jonathan Cinnamon, Heather Castleden, Rory Johnston. Journal of Mixed Methods Research January 2011 vol. 5 no Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012 Drawing on recent debates pointing to the value of mixed methods research in human geography, the authors revisit a quantitative location analysis model previously created to site palliative care services in rural British Columbia, Canada. The original quantitative model posited that population (i.e., number of residents in the community), isolation (i.e., travel time to existing specialized palliative care), and vulnerability (i.e., number of residents older than 65 years in the community) are three factors that must be accounted for when siting palliative care services in rural areas. Using qualitative interview data, the authors refine this model to include a newly identified factor: community readiness. They conclude with a discussion of the benefits of adopting a mixed methods approach to location analysis model development.

199 A Methodology for Conducting Integrative Mixed Methods Research and Data Analyses Felipe González Castro, Joshua G. Kellison, Stephen J. Boyd, Albert Kopak Journal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 no Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012 Mixed methods research has gained visibility within the last few years, although limitations persist regarding the scientific caliber of certain mixed methods research designs and methods. The need exists for rigorous mixed methods designs that integrate various data analytic procedures for a seamless transfer of evidence across qualitative and quantitative modalities. Such designs can offer the strength of confirmatory results drawn from quantitative multivariate analyses, along with “deep structure” explanatory descriptions as drawn from qualitative analyses. This article presents evidence generated from over a decade of pilot research in developing an integrative mixed methods methodology. It presents a conceptual framework and methodological and data analytic procedures for conducting mixed methods research studies, and it also presents illustrative examples from the authors’ ongoing integrative mixed methods research studies.

200 Multiple Research Approaches. Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012 IJMRA = International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches is an international peer-reviewed journal for timely publication of global research, scholarship, educational, researcher and practitioner perspectives on multiple, hybrid (outcome of unusual blending), synergistic (combined effect), integrated and cultural research approaches (be these Indigenous, institutional, or community based) including the Asian, Arctic, Pacific, Latin American and African regions, as well as European and North American. The journal's primary focus is effectively to combine various theoretical frameworks, methodologies and methods to address current research questions appropriately.

201 Beyond the ceiling effect: Using a mixed methods approach to measure patient satisfaction Sharon Andrew, Yenna Salamonson, Bronwyn Everett, Elizabeth J Halcomb, Patricia M Davidson. IJMRA (1): Diunduh dari: effect …… 22/9/2012 This study reports patient satisfaction with the nursing care on a neurosurgical critical care unit. A modified version of the Ludwig-Beymer Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ-7) was used, and included structured items and semi- structured interview questions. Data were collected from 149 patients. Participants rated their satisfaction as high (Mean = 25.14; SD = 2.96). The distribution of scores was skewed and every item demonstrated a ceiling effect. Principal component analysis yielded a one-component solution which explained 48% of the variance. NVivo ® was used to match PSQ-7 scores with qualitative data. Participants' comments were categorised as positive, negative or 'yes, but'. Just over half the patients made positive comments and 29% of patients in the low group made negative comments. Three categories: 'communication', 'nursing care delivery' and 'the hospital environment' emerged from the qualitative data. A mixed method approach enables researchers to move beyond the ceiling effect of quantitative measures of patient satisfaction and to gain a more meaningful explanation of patient satisfaction.

202 Integrating qualitative and quantitative research approaches via the phenomenological method William Paul Fisher AND A Jackson Stenner IJMRA (1): Diunduh dari: qualitative-and-quantitative-research …… 23/9/2012 Separated and mixed applications of qualitative and quantitative methods are typically encumbered by markedly different philosophical orientations. Multiple inefficiencies arise when mixed methods work at cross purposes with each other. The phenomenological method, however, has the potential to integrate qualitative and quantitative concerns in ways that orient research towards uniform criteria of substantive meaningfulness and mathematical rigour. Three characteristics of a qualitative-quantitative methodological pluralism are described: structural invariance, substantive interpretability and the display of anomaly. When combined with networked information technologies, new opportunities emerge for a qualitatively meaningful and quantitatively precise measurement framework in the research and practice of the health sciences.

203 Tracking employees' twists and turns: Describing a mixed methods approach to assessing change in the psychological contract Sarah Bankins IJMRA (3): Diunduh dari: employees-twists-and-turns …… 21/9/2012 The psychological contract is a key analytical device utilised by both academics and practitioners to conceptualise and explore the operation of the employment relationship. However, despite the recognised importance of the construct, some authors suggest that its empirical investigation has fallen into a 'methodological rut' [Conway & Briner, 2005, p. 89] and neglects to assess key tenets of the concept, such as its temporal and dynamic nature. This paper outlines the research design of a longitudinal, mixed methods study which draws upon the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative modes of inquiry in order to explore the development of, and changes in, the psychological contract. Supported by a critical realist philosophy, the paper offers a research design suitable for exploring the processes of change not only within the psychological contract, but also similar constructs in the human resource management and broader organisational behaviour fields.

204 . Mixed method research designs: A case study of their adoption in a doctor of business administration program Peter John Miller, Roslyn Cameron IJMRA (3) : Diunduh dari: research-designs …… 23/9/2012 The paper presents empirical data concerning the utilisation of mixed method research in Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) research projects (theses). The Southern Cross University, Australia, DBA program was established in 1996 as a research degree and has successfully graduated over 250 graduates from a diverse range of countries across the globe. It is the largest DBA program in the Australasia. The research will present prevalence rates of mixed methods research utilised by doctoral candidates, data will be presented on the most frequently used data collection methods and research approaches within the field of business and management, with empirical data from a number of countries including Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia. Emergent issues with regard to the use of mixed methods research in business and management research and the teaching of mixed methods are discussed.

205 . Combined methods in poverty analysis: Experiences from Namibia Sebastian Levine, Benjamin Roberts IJMRA (2): Diunduh dari: methods-in-poverty-analysis …… 23/9/2012 We explore differences in the findings on poverty in Namibia from a series participatory poverty assessments and a household survey on household income and expenditure. We find that the main conclusions from these research processes appear plausible even if they point to diverging paths of poverty. These results are attributed to methodological challenges and especially to different perceptions about the determinants of poverty that each approach conveys. Using a Q-Squared approach we illustrate that when definitions of poverty based on the perceptions raised in the qualitative assessments are used on the quantitative data then the results tend to converge. One particularly interesting finding is that those identified as poor using the official poverty measure, established explicitly to capture deprivation in consumption expenditure, have higher average levels of consumption expenditure than a combined Q-Squared measure based exclusively on non-monetary criteria. We generally find that while there might have been a real improvement in consumption-based measures of poverty over time, given the emphasis on issues related to assets, access to and quality of delivery of basic services, and issues related to vulnerabilities (especially food insecurity and the AIDS epidemic) in the participatory poverty assessments, it is not surprising that the qualitative data point to deteriorating living conditions.

206 QUALITY & QUANTITY: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF METHODOLOGY. Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 Quality and Quantity constitutes a point of reference for European and non-European scholars to discuss instruments of methodology for more rigorous scientific results in the social sciences. The journal publishes papers on models of classification, methods for constructing typologies, models of simulation, neural networks and fuzzy sets for social research, mathematical models applied to social mobility, mathematical models of voting behavior, qualitative methodology and feminist methodology, discussions on the general logic of empirical research, analysis of the validity and verification of social laws, and similar topics. Quality and Quantity is an interdisciplinary journal which systematically correlates disciplines such as mathematics and statistics with the social sciences, particularly sociology, economics, and social psychology.

207 Passenger satisfaction: a multi-group analysis Laura Antonucci, Corrado Crocetta, Francesco D. d’Ovidio and Ernesto Toma Quality & Quantity. 2012, DOI: /s Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 To analyse the level of passenger satisfaction of a public local transport service, after an explorative factorial analysis, a Structural Equation Model was adopted. The main goal of this paper is to verify how much some service characteristics could influence the perceived quality of the service. The passengers are found very sensitive to the level of the service organization and to the way the service is delivered (punctuality and regularity, and short waiting time). The safety and reliability of buses, the level of comfort and cleanness and the professionalism and courtesy of staff had, also, a big weight to determinate of the customer satisfaction. Applying a further analysis on different sub-samples, based on individual characteristics, we found that the model above identified is full invariant for different residence area and frequency of use of the service, and partially invariant for age groups, employment status, time slot of use and reason of use. The test of invariance the structural coefficients failed considering gender or education level of the passengers.

208 . Measuring the quality of work: the case of the Italian social cooperative Maurizio Carpita and Silvia Golia Quality & Quantity (6): Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 Quality of work has within a short time become a major subject of study and discussion in labour economy. Its quantification is a challenging task because it implies the translation of various subjective perceptions into a single objective measure (composite indicator). In this paper, the method used to construct measures is the Rating Scale Model and the available data come from the Survey on Italian Social Cooperatives carried out in The validity of the obtained Rasch measures is tested with respect to some overall variables of the quality of work. Moreover, using inferential confidence intervals, these measures are utilized to evaluate the differences in the perception of the quality of work due to worker (gender, age and education) and cooperative (type, dimension and geographic area) characteristics, work characteristics (service area, membership, time and type of contract) and work incentives (economic, professional and learning).

209 Combining research techniques to improve quality service in hospitality Mar Vila, Xari Rovira, Gerard Costa and Ricard Santoma. Quality & Quantity. Volume 46. Number 3 / April P Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 Hospitality research includes many studies that combine and revisit the quantitative– qualitative debate, and review the arguments for and against using mixed-methods. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of qualitative methodologies based on the combination of techniques which also include quantitative elements in addition to those pertaining to qualitative techniques. The research aims to specifically identify the most important managerial factors which, from the point of view of hotel chain executives, serve to improve the quality of the service they provide. The techniques used are concept mapping and qualitative optimization, both of which are qualitative methodologies though they include quantitative elements to overcome the subjectivity deficits typically found in qualitative methodologies. In addition, the combination of both techniques leads to greater precision of the results obtained. Our methodological proposal combines concept mapping with qualitative optimisation, thereby improving the prioritisation and hierarchical ordering of the ideas obtained and structured. Instead of working with each cluster’s average score in terms of importance (as defined within the concept mapping model), our contribution is based on prioritising these based on their distance to the optimal reference. This allows for experts’ evaluations of each idea in terms of its importance to not be strictly quantitative, that is, the experts are not obligated to assign numbers to their evaluations; rather, they can assess ideas based on qualitative labels.

210 . A Multimethod Approach to Identifying Norms and Normative Expectations Within a Corporate Hierarchy: Evidence from the Financial Services Industry Stephen V. Burks and Erin L. Krupka Management Science January 2012 vol. 58 no Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 We use an incentive-compatible economic experiment and surveys in the field at a large financial services firm to identify the norms for on-the-job behavior among financial advisers and their leaders, and the normative expectations each group has of the other. We examine whistle-blowing on a peer, an incentive clash between serving the client and earning commissions, and a dilemma about fiduciary responsibility to a client. We find patterns of agreement among advisers, among leaders, and between the two groups, that are consistent with company guidelines identified ex ante. However, we also find measurable differences between what leaders expect and the actual norms of advisers. When there is such a mismatch we are able to distinguish miscommunication from ethical disagreement between leaders and advisers. Finally, we show that when advisers' personal ethical opinions do not match group norms, this mismatch is correlated with job dissatisfaction and lying for money in a second experiment.

211 . MIXED METHODS RESEARCH DESIGN. Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 The nature of mixed methods design of the research Being a pragmatist, the current research methodology is a mixed methods research design. Mixed methods design is a type of research which involves ‘the collection or analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study in which the data are collected concurrently or sequentially (Creswell, 2003; Creswell, 2008).

212 . MIXED METHODS RESEARCH DESIGN. Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 The nature of mixed methods design of the research According to Gray (2009), ‘mixed methods design is used in circumstances where relatively little or nothing is known about the research setting or research problems. In such situations, it would be unfeasible and impractical to design a questionnaire, since the constructs being measured are either unknown or not sufficiently understood. The qualitative study, then, explores, identifies and can provide clarity about the kinds of variables requiring further investigation.’

213 . Mixing Methods in Innovation Research: Studying the Process-Culture- Link in Innovation Management Jens O. Meissner & Martin Sprenger Forum Qualitative Social Research (FQS). Volume 11, No. 3, Art. 13 – September Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 Two trends in innovation management have influenced the basic idea of this paper. The first trend shows increased attempts by managers to utilize linear innovation processes derived from literature and from practice. The second trend is an increasing acceptance of the dynamics created in an "innovation culture," as being one of the key drivers of innovation. Both approaches partially contrast each other. The missing link between innovation process design and innovation culture at the firm-level provides the theoretical framework of this paper. Behind the scenes of innovation management studies, we realized a methodological gap existed between the research of innovation cultures and their impact upon an organization's innovation processes. Thus, we applied a methodological mix of problem-centered interviews, structural analyses, and context analyses to study the phenomenon. We conducted an interview-based single case study in a Swiss telecommunications company. From these methodologies we created a themed landscape comprising relational topics of the innovation dynamics within an innovation project in the company (one year duration) and briefly described each topic. The main finding in our study is the dynamic role-model that innovation managers in large service firms have to apply to succeed in their innovation management work. Thus, our methodological mix proved to be helpful, although some weaknesses remain to be solved in the future.

214 . Mixing Methods in Innovation Research: Studying the Process-Culture- Link in Innovation Management Jens O. Meissner & Martin Sprenger Forum Qualitative Social Research (FQS). Volume 11, No. 3, Art. 13 – September Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012

215 . The other side of sustainable innovation: is there a demand for innovative services? Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka.. Journal of Cleaner Production. Available online 23 December 2011 Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 As one prominent form of sustainable innovation, eco-efficient services have been promoted as a promising way towards more sustainable societies. However, they have not turned into reality as expected. This paper argues that one of the primary reasons for the slow market penetration of eco-efficient services is the mismatch between customers’ needs and service providers’ offerings. In order to start to bridge the knowledge gap, we investigate such customer needs through the analysis of interview and survey data obtained from over 300 potential customer companies in Finland, most of which operate either in the EU or globally. The paper discusses what kinds of eco-efficient services customers need and under what conditions, and which barriers hinder the use of eco-efficient services by business customers. The customer companies desire material efficiency services for managing side streams and non-core processes. They primarily seek cost and broader business-efficiency improvements from these services, and find that service providers should be able to construct a clear business case when marketing services. Finally, although there are material efficiency services in the market, customer companies find they are not being marketed actively.

216 . The other side of sustainable innovation: is there a demand for innovative services? Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka.. Journal of Cleaner Production. Available online 23 December 2011 Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012 Framework for the study: Factors influencing the demand of innovative B2B eco-efficient services according to previous research.

217 Diunduh dari: 23/9/2012 Complemented framework: A comprehensive set of factors influencing the demand of innovative B2B eco-efficient services.. The other side of sustainable innovation: is there a demand for innovative services? Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka.. Journal of Cleaner Production. Available online 23 December 2011

218 Diunduh dari: figure2.jpg…… 26/9/2012 EXPLORING MIXED METHODS RESEARCH (MMR)

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