12 Perkembangan selama 20 tahun terakhir Peningkatan minat dan advokasi tentang MMRBerkembangnya pemahaman tentang apa itu MMRBerkembangnya disain dan teknik-teknik inovatif“The emergence of mixed methods as a third methodological movement in the social and behavioral sciences began during the 1980’s.” (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003: 697)Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912
13 Perkembangan MMA“Kombinasi metode kualitatif dan kuantitatif telah semakin berkembang dalam riset kesehatan masyarakat.” (1999)Mentioned severalapproaches for combiningqualitative andquantitative researchAdvanced considerations for decidingwhat model to use (literatureavailable, prior studies,realistic design, expertise)Suggested to describe eachmethod thoroughlyDiunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912
14 BUKU-BUKU TENTANG MMRDiunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912
15 A New Journal Editors: John W. Creswell and Abbas Tashakkori JournalsDevoted to Mixed Methods:Fieldwork Quality and Quantity Mixed Method ApproachesEditors: John W. Creswelland Abbas TashakkoriManaging Editor: Vicki L.Plano ClarkDiunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912
16 International Conferences Mixed Methods Conference, Cambridge, England, July 21-24, 2008Proposed mixed methods conference, Sydney, Australia, 2009Discipline conferences with mixed methods papersDiunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912
17 Kritik Pakar (Creswell, 2007) Is there a post-positivist leaning to mixed methods?Howe, K. R. (2004). A critique of experimentalism. Qualitative Inquiry, 10,Giddings, L. S. (2006). Mixed-methods research: Positivism dressed in drag? Journal of Research in Nursing, 11(3),Holmes, C. A. (2007). Mixed(up) methods, methodology and interpretive frameworks. Contributed paper for the Mixed Methods Conference, Cambridge, University, July 10-12, 2006.What are the limits for mixed methods research?Sale, J. E. M., Lohfeld, L. H., Brazil, K. (2002). Revisiting the quantitative-qualitative debate: Implications for mixed-methods research. Quality and Quantity, 36,Leahey, E. (2007). Convergence and confidentiality? Limits to the implementation of mixed methodology. Social Science Research, 36,Is there a dominant discourse in mixed methods research?Freshwater, D. (2007). Reading mixed methods research: Contexts for criticism. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(2),Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912
18 MMR TIDAK BERBEDA DENGAN METODE LAINNYA Identifikasi Masalah RisetKajian literaturIdentifying a purpose and stating questionsViews of knowledgeAssumptionsCollecting dataAnalyzing and interpreting dataReporting and evaluating the studyDiunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912
19 Mixed Methods di dalam Designs EthnographyCase Study ResearchNarrative researchExperimentalresearchQual QuanQual----- QuanQual-----QuanQual---- QuanDiunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912
20 Istilah-istilah yang Populer Multi-methodTriangulationIntegratedCombinedQuantitative and qualitative methodsMulti-methodologyMixed methodologyMixed-methodMixed researchMixed methodsDiunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912
21 BAGAIMANA MENCAMPUR-NYA Data Konvergen:QualResultsQuanConnect data:QualQuanResultsEmbed the data:Quan dataQual dataDiunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912
22 MENGAPA MENCAMPUR ? Validitas – untuk “menguatkan” data quan dan qual. Offset – offset weaknesses of quan and qual and draw on strengthsCompleteness – more comprehensive account that qual or quan aloneProses – quan menyediakan outcomes; qual menjelaskan prosesEksplanasi – qual dapat menjelaskan hasil-hasil quan atau sebaliknyaHasil yang tidak diharapkan – hasil-hasil yang mengherankan dari satu sudut pandang, sudut pandang yang lain menjelaskanPengembangan Instrument– qual menggunakan instrumenyang dirancangKredibilitas – kedua pendekatan memperbaiki integritas temuanKonteks – qual menyediak konteks; quan menyediakan “general”.Utilitas – lebih bermanfaat bagi praktisi.Diunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912
23 “Single” Paradigm Ke -3 Pragmatisme (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003) Fokus pada pertanyaan penelitianApa “kerja,” konsekwensiMetode-metode Multiple.Transformatif (Mertens, 2003)Transform lives of under represented, marginalized groupsIncorporate this focus into all phases of researchDiunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912
24 Perkembangan Designs dan Teknik-teknik Inovatif Perkembangan PentingNotationTypologiesDiagrams of proceduresComplex evaluation modelsReconceptualizing designsEmergence of innovations in proceduresUnusual blendsMethodological issuesData analysis techniquesPresentation techniquesDiunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912
25 Preliminary Design Considerations (Morse, 1991) PendekatanTipeTujuanKeterbatas-anResolusiQUAL + quanSimultanEnrich description of sampleQualitative sampleUtilize normative data for comparison of resultsQUALSekuensialTest emerging H, determine distribution of phenomenon in populationDraw adequate random sample from same populationQUAN + qualTo describe part of phenomena that cannot be quantifiedQuantitative sampleSelect appropriate theoretical sample from random sampleQUANTo examine unexpected resultsquanqualDiunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912
26 Concurrent Mixed Methods Designs Parsimonious Designs (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007)Concurrent Mixed Methods DesignsDisain TriangulasiQUAN Data & ResultsInterpretasiQUAL Data & ResultsDisain EmbeddedQUAN Pre-test Data & ResultsQUAN Post-test Data & ResultsInterventionqual ProcessInterpre-tasiDiunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912
27 Sequential Designs - Mixed Methods Designs Desain EksplanatoriQUAN Data & ResultsInterpretationqual Data & ResultsFollowing upDisain EksploratoriQUAL Data & Resultsquan Data & ResultsInterpretationBuilding toDisain Embedded SekuensialBefore-intervention qualQUAN InterventionTrialAfter-intervention qualInterpretationDiunduh dari: faculty.unlv.edu/kfernandez/.../mixmethod.pp... 22/9/2912
28 Pemikiran pentingnya ... MM.. Kombinasi metode-metode yang dapat dipilihThe epistemological and ontological implications of what is chosenThe practicalities of carrying out the researchHow the data are going to be brought together (lack of theory?)Ketegangan di antara pendekatan dan metode-metode
29 Apakah kita memahami? Multiple Method Research Designs (MMRD) Multi-method designs -1+ method within paradigmsMixed methods designs -1+ method mixed paradigmsCombining methods – 1+ method, one subsumed to other?Integrating methods – 1+ method of equal weight?Triangulasi – outcome dari MMRD?*Transformasi DataMengkuantitatifkan dataMengkualitatifkan data
30 Mengapa kita lakukan?Emic and etic understandings?Multiple research-questions?Multiple facets or contextsMultiple of singular-reality?Mixed phenomena?
31 Bagaimana kita melakukannya? Sequential atau parallel?Linked atau independent?Respondent enrolmentDevelopment of research instrumentsTime requiredCosts – value for money?Necessary expertise?Organisasi Tim dan Komunikasi.
32 Penanganan Data Where’s your theory? How does that help? Assumptions and presumptions – negotiating a path through/round themIntegration; triangulation; combination?When are you going to integrate? Have you missed the moment?Will your audience understand?
33 Possible tensions? Metodologis Politis Praktikal Differing findings Unit analisisPolitisPreferensi / persyaratan audienPraktikalWaktuBiayaUmur data.
34 Arguing for....... MMR Is it the ideal approach?
35 Memperkuat pemahaman tentang: Multi-faceted nature of all phenomenaKontextualitasDimensi/hubunga n Micro-meso- macroAgensi dan struktur.Multidata-monoanalysis—this is the analysis of both data types (qualitative AND quantitative) using only one analysis type.This results in:Only quantitative analysis of your qualitative data , atauOnly qualitative analysis of your quantitative data.We recommend that you avoid this approach because it is not wise to only analyze your qualitative data quantitatively or only analyze your quantitative data qualitatively.Diunduh dari: …… 26/10/2012
36 Topik “Kerentanan” = VULNERABILITY Essentialist approachesConstructionist approachesFixed state/statusContextual and fluidAn inherent weakness or something managed and negotiated?Children and vulnerability
37 Pendekatan Metoda Tunggal? Pendekatan yang mana dan mengapa yang itu?Tidak cukup untuk beberapa tujuan tertentuMis. Pengembangan kebijakanCannot elaborate micro-meso-macro interfaces and relationshipsStruktur dan agensiSome presumptions are problematic
38 MM: Multiple / Mixed Methods Fenomena Multi-dimensionalAccess via different methods derived from an interpretivist stanceDapat mengkaji kontingensi dan aspek-aspek dinamikDraw on emic and etic conceptualisations to plan a strong design for mixed methodsDapat mengkaji huungan struktural dan agensi/structure interfaces
39 Etika Data Sekunder dan Pertanyaan Riset Data sensusData nasionalNational statistical returns (eg Crime statistics for HO)Hasil-hasil penelitian yang dipublikasikanSurvei lokal (data primer)Local statistics (secondary/primary data)Data yang terbatas tentang anak-anak.Pertanyaan PenelitianSpesifik (hypotheses)Determined at start by outside ‘experts’/prior researchDibatasi oleh apa yang tersedia , mis. area; unit analisis.
40 PERKEMBANGAN LANJUT Using a mixed methods approach Interface between micro and macro dimensions of physical safety, distributions of risk, violenceWould need primary data to capture distributions of management strategies
41 Proses Integrasi:Mengkombinasikan metode/data/analysis sedemikian rupa sehingga:Mereka membentuk satu kesatuanMenjaga sifat0sifat paradigmatiknya masing-masing (tidak mencampur-adukkan satu-sama lain)Menghasilkan kontribusi yang sama nilainya
42 The logic of this approach is to: Alternatif IntegrasiIntegrasi sejak awal risetSelama pengumpulan dataMelalui Analisis DataMelalui InterpretasiSebagai hasil PresentasiMonodata-multianalysis—this is the analysis of one type of data using both qualitative and quantitative anslysis.The logic of this approach is to:Analyze your data with the standard approach (e.g., qualitative analysis for your qualitative data or quantitative analysis for your quantitative data).Either qualitative or quantitize one set of data for additional analysis.Qualitize—transforming quantitative data into qualitative data (e.g., provide names or labels to quantitative characteristics).Quantitize—transforming qualitative data into quantitative data (e.g., do numerical counts of qualitative categories and themes).Diunduh dari: …… 26/10/2012
43 MMR: MIXED METHODS RESEARCH Riset yang menggunakan prosedur –prosedur pelaksanaan yang lazim digunakan dalam riset kuantitatif dan riset kualitatif.Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
44 . MULTIMETHOD RESEARCH. Tujuan The purpose of these studies is usually to inform sponsors about a program they are funding.The sponsors may want a descriptive study of the program in which the operations and processes are explained and clarified.They may also be interested in an effectiveness study in which the operations are assessed in relation to organizational goals and targets.Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
45 . M.M.R.METODE-METODEMasalah-penelitian akan menentukan pilihan desain, tetapi beberapa metode berikut ini dapat digunakan:SurveiKunjungan lokasi.WawancaraObservasiQuestionnairesData Quantitatif.Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
46 Tiga karaktersitik yang membedakan tipe-tipe MMR: . MULTIMETHOD RESEARCH.Tiga Tipe DesainTiga karaktersitik yang membedakan tipe-tipe MMR:Priooritas diberikan pada pengumpulan data kuantitatif atau kualitatif.Sekuens pengumpulan data kuantitatif atau kualitatifTeknik-teknik analisis data yang dipakai adalah kombinasi analisis data atau analisis data sendiri-sendiri.Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
47 Tiga tipe Desain yang lazim: . MULTIMETHOD RESEARCH.Tiga tipe Desain yang lazim:Model QUAL-QuanThe exploratory mixed methods designQualitative data are collected first and are more heavily weighted2. Model QUAN-QualThe explanatory mixed methods designQuantitative data are collected first and are more heavily weighted3. Model QUAN-QUALThe triangulation mixed methods designQuantitative and qualitative data are collectedc oncurrently and both are weighted equallyDiunduh dari: 21/9/2012
48 10 Karakteristik Desain MM RISET MULTI-METODE10 Karakteristik Desain MMThe title of the research includes terms that suggest more than one method is being usedMixed methodsIntegrated Triangular2. Quantitative – qualitativeBoth quantitative and qualitative methods are used in the studyDiunduh dari: 21/9/2012
49 Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs . MULTIMETHOD RESEARCH.Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs3. The researcher describes the kinds of mixed methods being used4. The data collection section indicates narrative, numerical, or both types of data are being collected5. The purpose statement or the research questions indicate the types of methods being used6. Questions are stated and described for both quantitative and qualitative approaches7. The researcher indicates these quencing of collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data (i.e., QUAN-Qual, QUAL-Quan, or QUAN-QUAL)8. The researcher describes both quantitative and qualitative data analysis strategies9. The writing is balanced in terms of quantitative and qualitative approachesDiunduh dari: 21/9/2012
50 Evaluating a Mixed Methods Design . MULTIMETHOD RESEARCH.Evaluating a Mixed Methods DesignDoes the study use at least one quantitative and one qualitative research strategy?What were the research questions addressed?Who are the sponsors of the study and what are their expectations?Does the study include a rationale for using a mixed methods design?Does the study include a classification of the type of mixed methods design?Does the study describe the priority given to quantitative and qualitative data collection and the sequence of their use?Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
51 Evaluasi Disain Mixed-Method . MULTIMETHOD RESEARCH.Evaluasi Disain Mixed-MethodWas the study feasible given the amount of data to be collected and concomitant issues of resources, time, and expertise?Who were the participants in the study? What did the samples consist of?Does the study clearly identify qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques?Apa tujuan dan pentingnya riset ini?Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
52 . Mixed Method Research – Quant & Qual in a Single Study . A mixed method approach allows researchers to simultaneously benefit from both quantitative and qualitative research methods in the context of one study addressing a single set of business objectives.Flow Monitor designs market research studies that take full advantage of the inherent benefits of both quantitative (e.g., surveys) and qualitative (e.g., focus groups, ethnographic techniques, etc.) research.The business objectives will greatly determine the appropriate sequence of methods. The diagrams below illustrate this.Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012
54 Apakah MMR (Mixed Methods Research)? Mixed methods research is not new but only recently been systematically described; ‘new era’ of mixed methods research (Tashakkori and Teddlie, 1998)Different definitions of mixed methods research used by different researchersNot simply the ad hoc combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, it is the planned mixing of methods at a pre- determined stage of the research (Halcomb et al., 2009)“mixed methods [is] research which collects both qualitative and quantitative data in one study and integrates these data at some stage of the research process” (Halcomb et al., 2009)Distinction between mixed methods (quant and qual) and multi method research (uses more than one method from same tradition) (Bazeley, 2007)Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012
55 Mengapa sains kesehatan berkembang ke arah MMR? Increased reflexivity about researcher-researched relationshipsIncreased political awareness about what and who research is forGrowing formalisation of research governance and ethics proceduresThe availability and ease of new technologies to analyse mixed methods research (e.g. Nvivo, MaxQDA, Atlas.ti)International Research Collaboration(Halcomb and Andrew, 2009)Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012
56 RATIONAL PENGGUNAAN MMR Triangulation - one of the first rationales for using mixed methods research (Denzin, 1970). Used to test the consistency of findings through different approaches.Complementarity - clarifies and illustrates results from one method with the use of another method.Development - the results of analysis using one method shapes subsequent methods or steps in the research process.Initiation-stimulates new research questions or challenges results obtained through one method.Expansion- provides richness and detail buy building on the findings of either qualitative or quantitative methods(Greene et al., 1989)Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012
57 TIPOLOGI MMRFour central questions that inform the design of a mixed methods study:In what sequence will the qualitative and quantitative data collection be implemented?What relative priority will be given to the qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis?At what stage of the project will the qualitative and quantitative data be integrated?Will an overall theoretical perspective be used to guide the study?(Creswell, 2003)Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012
59 Pengumpulan Data dalam MMR Interviews/ Focus Groups/ Questionnaires/ Surveys/ Validated Tests and Scales/ ObservationPertimbangannya:Keseimbangan antara kelebihan dan kelemahan masiong-masing metodeWaktu pengumpulan dataDiunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012
60 Analisis dalam MMR: Separate Analyses Qualitative and quantitative data sets analysed separately and conclusions drawn that incorporate both data sets.Can be used for the following purposes:TriangulationExpansion or ComplementarityDevelopmentSeparate analyses may give rise to contradictory or discrepant results which need to be explained(Halcomb and Andrew, 2009)Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012
61 Analisis dalam MMR: Combining Data Types for Synthesis Combining of data types for analysis requires transformation of data in some form in order to ‘marry’ diverse sources.Can be done through:Meta matrices, databases, spread sheets e.g. systematic reviewsQualitising numerical data e.g. using scores to provide a descriptive classificationCountingQuantitising qualitative data e.g. 0/1 transformation for absence/presence of code, numerical weighting of codes (MaxQDA)(Halcomb and Andrew, 2009)Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012
62 Analysis of Mixed Methods Research: Combining Data Types for Synthesis Combined analysis can be used to:Merge and compare (e.g. themes can be quantified, independent t tests and bivariate linear regression analyses in SPSS)Explore, predict and explain (e.g. case by case variable matrix, cluster analysis)Blend to created new variable to use in further studies(Halcomb and Andrew, 2009)Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012
63 Isu-isu tentang MMR‘paradigm wars’, reconciling philosophical assumptions of each methodological perspective.Selecting and managing research team with diverse specialities.Practicalities of data collection and analysis, may make concurrent analysis difficultStatistical analysis often relies on large sample sizes which are not common in qualitative researchTransforming qualitative data into numerical form may lose some of the richness and nuances in the textA lack of templates for the writing up and publishing mixed methods research, sometimes qualitative and quantitative results published separatelyNot all journals publish mixed methods research which may limit publication opportunitiesDiunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012
64 Manfaat MMR (Mixed Methods Research) Gives researchers an opportunity to creatively rethink research design and the various different ways they can be linked to research questionsPotential to generate new insights and levels of analysisChallenges taken for granted assumptions across a wide range of research methods topicsBrings together researchers from different backgrounds and different specialisms and allows them to think together on a given research problem(Bergman, 2008)Diunduh dari: www2.warwick.ac.uk/.../what_is_mixed_meth... …… 21/9/2012
66 Research Design Mixed Methods Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009
67 SEJARAH SINGKAT - MMR1959: Concept of mixing different methods by Campbell & Fiske. (Psychologists)1973: Combined the Qualitative & Quantitative data by S.D. Sieber.1979: Converging or triangulating different Qualitative & Quantitative data sources by Jick.: Expanded procedures for Mixed methods By Tashakkori & Teddli and then Creswell.Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009
68 Mengapa memakai MMR?Quantitative data can reveal generalizable information for a large group of peopleThese data often fail to provide specific answers, reasons, explanations or examplesQualitative research provides data about meaning and context regarding the people and environments of studyFindings are often not generalizable because of the small numbers & narrow range of participantsBoth methods have strengths and weaknessesWhen used together, these methods can be complimentarySumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009
69 Tipe-tipe desain penelitian Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed MethodsMixed Methods Research MethodsQualitative research MethodsQuantitative research MethodsSequentialConcurrentTransformativeNarrativesPhenomenologiesEthnographiesGrounded theoryCase StudiesExperimental designsNon- Experimental designs, such as surveyStrategies Associated with the quantitative approach:Experiments: include true experiments, with the random assignment of subjects to treatment conditions.Surveys: include cross- sectional and longitudinal studies using questionnaires or structured interviews for data collection, with the intent of generalizing from a sample to a population.Strategies Associated with the qualitative approach:Narrative research: a form of inquiry in with the researcher studies the lives of individuals and asks one or more individuals to provide stories about their lives. This information is then retold or restoried by the researcher into narrative chronology. In the end, the narrative combines views from the participant’s life with those of the researcher’s life in a collaborative narrative.Phenomenological research: in which the researcher identifies the “essence” of human experiences concerning a phenomenon, as described by participants in a study. Understanding the “lived experiences” marks phenomenology as a philosophy as well as a method, and the procedure involves studying a small number of subjects through extensive and prolonged engagement to develop patterns and relationships of meaning. In this process, the researcher “brackets” his or her own experiences in order to understand those of the participants in the study.Ethnographies: in which the researcher studies an intact cultural group in a natural setting over a prolonged period of time by collecting, primarily, observational data. The research process is flexible and typically evolves contextually in response to the lived realities encountered in the field setting.Grounded theory: in which the researcher attempts to derive a general, abstract theory of a process, action, or interaction grounded in the views of participants in a study. This process involves using multiple stages of data collection and the refinement and interrelationship of categories of information. Two primary characteristics of this design are the constant comparison of data with emerging categories and theoretical sampling of different groups to maximize the similarities and the differences of information.Case studies: in which the researcher explores in depth a program, an event, an activity, a process, or one or more individuals. The case(s) are bounded by time and activity, and researchers collect detailed information using a variety of data collection procedures over a sustained period of time.Strategies Associated with the mixed methods approach:Sequential procedures: in which the researcher seeks to elaborate on or expand the findings of one method with another method. This may involve beginning with a qualitative method for exploratory purposes and following up with a quantitative method with a large sample so that the researcher can generalize results to a population. Alternatively, the study may begin with a quantitative method in which theories or concepts are tested, to be followed by a qualitative method involving detailed exploration with a few cases or individuals.Concurrent procedures: in which the researcher converges quantitative and qualitative data in order to provide a comprehensive analysis of the research problem. In this design, the investigator collects both forms of data at the same time during the study and then integrates the information in the interpretation of the overall results. Also, in this design, the researcher nests one form of data within another, larger data collection procedure in order to analyze different questions or levels of units in an organization.Transformative procedures: in which the researcher uses a theoretical lens as in overarching perspective within a design that contains both quantitative and qualitative data. This lens provides a framework for topics of interest, methods for collecting data, and outcomes or changes anticipated by the study. Within this lens could be data collection method that involves a sequential or a concurrent approach.Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009
70 Kriteria Untuk Memilih Strategi Four decisions go into selecting a mixed methods strategyTheoretical PerspectiveIntegrationPriorityImplementationExplicitAt data collectionEqualNo Sequence ConcurrentAt data analysisQualitativeSequential- Qualitative firstAt data interpretationImplicitQuantitativeWith some combination-Implementation means either that the researchers collect both the quantitative and qualitative data in phases (sequentially) or that they gather it at the same time (concurrently). When the data are collected in phases, either the quantitative or quantitative data can come first.A second factor that goes into the choice of a strategy is whether greater priority or weight is given to the quantitative data and analysis. The priority might be equal, or it might be skewed toward either qualitative or quantitative data. A priority for one type of data or the other depends on the interests of the researcher, the audience for the study, and what the investigator seeks to emphasize in the study. In practical terms, priority occurs in a mixed methods study through such strategies as whether quantitative or qualitative information is emphasized first in the study, the extent of treatment of one type of data or the other, and use of a theory as an inductive or deductive framework for the study.Integration of the two types of data might occur at several stages in the process of research: the data collection, the data analysis, interpretation, or some combination of places. Integration means that the researcher “mixes” the data.A final factor to consider is whether a larger, theoretical perspective guides the entire design. This perspective may be one from the social sciences or from an advocacy/ participatory lens (e.g., gender, race, class). Although all designs have implicit theories, mixed methods researchers can make the theory explicit as a guiding framework for the study. This framework would operate regardless of the implementation, priority, and integrative features of the strategy of inquiry.Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009
71 Kriteria Untuk Memilih Strategi What is implementation sequence of the quantitative and qualitative data collection in the proposed study?What priority will be given to the quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis?At what stage in the research project will the quantitative and qualitative data and finding be integrated?Will an overall theoretical perspective (e.g., gender, race/ ethnicity, lifestyle, class) be used in the study?Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009
72 Alternatif Strategi dan Model Visual Sequential Explanatory DesignQUAN Data CollectionQUAN Data AnalysisQual Data CollectionQual Data AnalysisInterpretation of Entre analysisQUANqualSumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009
73 Alternatif Strategi dan Model Visual Sequential Exploratory DesignQUAL Data CollectionQUAL Data AnalysisQuan Data CollectionQuan Data AnalysisInterpretation of Entre AnalysisQUALquanSumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009
74 Alternative Strategies and Visual Models Sequential Transformative DesignQUAL quanVision, Advocacy, Ideology, FrameworkQUAN qualVision, Advocacy, Ideology, FramworkSumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009
75 Alternative Strategies and Visual Models Concurrent Triangulation StrategyQUAL Data Collection QUAN Data CollectionQUANQUALQual Data AnalysidQuan Data AnalysisData Results ComparedSumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009
76 Alternatif Strategi dan Model Visual Concurrent Nested StrategyAnalysis of FindingsAnalysis of FindingsSumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009
77 Alternatif Strategi dan Model Visual Concurrent Transformative StrategySumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009
78 Prosedur Pengumpulan Data Identify and be specific about the type of data. Some forms of data such as interviews and observations can be either quantitative or qualitative. Although reduction information to numbers is the approach used in quantitative research, it is also used in qual. Research.Recognize that quantitative data often involve random sampling, so that each individual has no equal probability of being selected and the sample can be generalized to the larger population. In qualitative data collection, purposeful sampling is used to that individuals are selected because they have experienced the central phenomenon.Although the visual model provide a picture of procedures, it is helpful in a proposal to discuss the specific types of data to be collected. It is also important to identify the sampling strategies and the approaches used to establish validity of the data.Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009
79 Prosedur Pengumpulan Data Relate the procedures specifically to the visual model. For e.g, in a sequential explanatory model, the general procedures can be detailed even further. A discussion of this approach might include describing the use of survey data collection followed by both descriptive and infertial data analysis in the first phase. Then qualitative observations and coding and thematic analysis within an ethnographic design might be mentioned for the second phase.Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009
80 Analisis Data & Validasinya It’s related to the type of research strategy chosen for the procedures. Some of the more popular approaches: Data transformation: In the concurrent strategies involve creating codes and themes qualitatively, then counting the number of times they occur in the text data. This quantification of qualitative data enables a researcher to compare quantitative results with the qualitative data. For instance, in a factor analysis of data from a scale on an instrument, the researcher may create factors or themes that then can be compared with themes from the qualitative database.Data analysis in mixed methods research relates to the type of research strategy chosen for the procedures. Thus, in a proposal, the procedures need to be identified within the design. However, analysis occurs both within the quantitative (descriptive and inferential numeric analysis) approach and the qualitative (description and thematic text or image analysis) approach, and often between the two approaches.Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009
81 Analisis Data & Validasinya Explore outliers: In a sequential model, an analysis of quantitative data in the first phase can yield extreme or outlier cases. Follow-up qualitative interviews with these outlier cases can provide insight about why they diverged from the quantitative sample.Instrument development: In a sequential approach, obtain themes and specific statements from participants in an initial qualitative data collection. In the next phase, use these statements as specific items and the themes for scales to create a survey instrument that is grounded in the views of the participants. A third, final phase might be to validate the instrument with large sample representative of a population.Examine multiple levels: in a concurrent nested model, conduct a survey at one level (e.g. with families) to gather quantitative results about a sample. At the same time, collect qualitative interviews (e.g., with individuals) to explore the phenomenon with specific individuals in families.Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009
82 Analisis Data & Validasinya Validasi diperlukan, baik pada fase kualitatif maupun fase kuantitatif. Masing-masing metode mempunyai cara khusus; untuk data kualitatif, strateginya adalah menguji akurasi temuan-temuan riset.Sumber: Elham Ahmadnezhad, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Nov. 2009
83 Mixed Methods Research: State of the Art (What Has Developed In Mixed Methods) by John W. Creswell, Ph.D.Department of Educational Psychology,University of Nebraska-LincolnCo-editor, Journal of Mixed Methods Research, andCo-Director, Office of Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research
84 Sifat MMR Deskripsikan pendekatan ini dalam proposal-penelitian Pelacakan sejarahnyaDefinisi yang jelasMixed methods research is an approach to inquiry that combines or associates both qualitative and quantitative forms. It involves philosophical assumptions, the use of qualitative and quantitative approaches, and the mixing of both approaches in a study. Thus, it is more than simply collecting and analyzing both kinds of data; it also involves the use of both approaches in tandem so that the overall strength of a study is greater than either qualitative or quantitative research (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007).Membahas tantangan yang dihadapi pendekatan ini.Sumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
85 Sequential - Qualitative first Sequential - Quantitative first Perencanaan MMRTimingWeightingMixingTheorizingNo SequenceConcurrentEqualIntegratingExplicitSequential - Qualitative firstQualitativeConnectingImplicitSequential - Quantitative firstQuantitativeEmbeddingSumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
86 Perencanaan MMR Timing Weighting Mixing Theorizing No Sequence ConcurrentEqualIntegratingExplicitSequential - Qualitative firstQualitativeConnectingImplicitSequential - Quantitative firstQuantitativeEmbeddingSumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
87 Disain Sequential dan Model Visual Disain Eksplanatori SekuensialDisain Eksploratori SekuensialDian Transformatis SekuensialQUANqualQUALquanQUAL quan Social science theory, qualitative theory, advocacy worldviewQUAN qual Social science theory, qualitative theory, advocacy worldviewSumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
88 Disain Konkuren dan Model Visual Disain Triangulasi Konkuren (bersamaan)+Disain Embedded KonkurenDisain Transformatif KonkurenQUANQUALQUANQUALqualquanQUAN + QUAL Social science theory, qualitative theory, advocacy worldviewQUAL Social science theory, qualitative theory, advocacy worldviewquanSumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
89 Pengumpulan DataIdentifikasi tipe-tipe data quantitative dan qualitatifMenyusun prosedur sampling yang dapat mencakup aspek-aspek random-sampling dan purposeful-samplingMembuat bagan / diagram alir yang detail tentang penelitianSumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
90 Analisis Data dan Validasinya Match data analysis to the mixed methods strategy of inquiryProsedur-prosedur yang populer meliputi :Transformasi DataExplore outliersInstrument developmentExamine multiple levelsMembuat Matriks.Prosedur Validasi:Quantitative procedures (e.g., validity and reliability of scores)Qualitative procedures (e.g., check accuracy of findings)Mixed methods procedures (e.g., legitimation of the mixed methods study)Sumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
91 Struktur Laporan Hasil Penelitian Report structure follows from the mixed methods strategy of inquiryStudi Sequential :Organize the report into sections ordered to match the phases of the studyStudi Konkuren :Organize the data collection into separate sectionsThe analysis and interpretation may be combinedStudi Transformatif:Use either a sequential or concurrent report structureAdvance the advocacy issue at the beginning and an agenda for change at the endSumber: by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. Department of Educational Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
92 BAGAIMANA MERANCANG MMR ? by John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-LincolnAndrews University, July, 2004
93 Bagaimana menggabungkan dua data? Data Teks KualitatifThis is a sample of a text file of words that might be collected on transcripts through interviews, fieldnotes from observations, or from optically-scanned documents.Data numerik kuantitatifSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
94 Data Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif Close-ended scalesAttitudinal/behavioral scalesBehavioral checklistsCensus, attendance recordsData KualitatifOpen-ended responsesSemi-structured interviewsSemi-structured observationsRecords/documentsVideotapesSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
95 Mengapa kita mengumpulkan dua macam data ? Together quantitative and qualitative data provide both precise measurement and generalizability of quantitative research and the in-depth, complex picture of qualitative researchTo validate quantitative results with qualitative dataWe do not have an adequate instrument. Thus, we need to explore views and develop an instrumentOur quantitative data provide a general explanation and we need to follow-up with participants and have them explain the quantitative resultsIn our experiment, outcomes to be measured are not enough; they need to be complemented by understanding the process of participantsSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
96 Apakah kita mempunyai cukup kemampuan, waktu dan sumberdaya ? We need minimum skills in both qualitative and quantitative data collection. What do we need?We need time and resources for extensive data collection and analysis. How much time and resources do we need?Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
97 Apakah analisis data dilakukan secara terpisah, sendiri-sendiri? Data KuantitatifData KualitatifMixing: converging the data or connecting the dataSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
98 Bagaimana kita menggabungkan dua macam data? Mencampur/ Memadukan data :QualResultsQuanMenghubungkan data:QualQuanResultsSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
99 Kutipan :“Combining qualitative and quantitative methods has gained broad appeal in public health research.The key question has become not whether it is acceptable or legitimate to combine methods, but rather how they will be combined to be mutually supportive and how findings achieved through different methods will be integrated.”(NIH, Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research, 1999).Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
100 Kita harus mendefinisikan MMR dengan jelas Mixed methods research is a design for collecting, analyzing, and mixing both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study or series of studies to understand a research problem.The purpose of this form of research is that both qualitative and quantitative methods, in combination, provide a better understanding of a research problem or issue than either method alone.Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
101 Kita dapat menggabungkan di dalam “Single study” atau “Multiple Studies” QuanQualResultsMultiple Studies (called multimethod research):Quan Qual Qual QuanStudy Study Study Study 4Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
102 Bagaimana kita merancang MMR? Model nya bagaimana? Worldviews, theoretical frameworks, problem and researchquestion, skills, resourcesType of mixed methods designProcedures for:designing the titlewriting the introduction to a studywriting the purpose statement and researchquestions/hypothesesdata collectiondata analysiswriting the mixed methods reportevaluating the mixed methods researchSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
103 Memilih MMR yang akan digunakan Disain apa yang mungkin sesuai?Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
104 + Tipe-tipe disain MMR I. Triangulation Mixed Methods Design QUANData and ResultsQUALData and ResultsInterpretationII. Nested Mixed Methods DesignQUANPre-testData and ResultsQUANPost-testData and ResultsQual ProcessSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
105 Tipe-tipe disain MMR III. MMR Eksplanatori Follow-up qualData and ResultsQUANData and ResultsFollow-upIV. MMR EksploratoriQUALData and ResultsquanData and ResultsBuildingSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
106 Disain Triangulasi : Karakteristik Collecting both quantitative and qualitative dataCollecting these data at the same time in the research procedureAnalyzing the quantitative and qualitative data separatelyComparing or combining the results of the quantitative and qualitative analysisExample: collect survey data (quantitative) and collect individual interviews (qualitative) and then compare the resultsSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
107 Kapan Disain Triangulasi digunakan? When you want to combine the advantages of quantitative (trends, large numbers, generalization) with qualitative (detail, small numbers, in-depth)When you want to validate your quantitative findings with qualitative dataWhen you want to expand your quantitative findings with some open-ended qualitative data (e.g., survey with closed- and open-ended data)Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
108 Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S. University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
109 Nested Design: Karakteristik Collecting both quantitative and qualitative dataCollecting both types of data at the same timeHaving ONE form of data play a smaller role in the study than the other form of dataAlso,Using one form of data to answer one question; the other form another questionCollecting one form of data at one level of analysis and another at another level of analysisExample: You conduct an experiment and during the experiment you gather qualitative interview data. The outcomes of the experiment assessed quantitatively address different questions than the process of the experiment explored qualitatively.Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
110 Nested Design: Kapan digunakan? When you do not have time or resources to commit to extensive quantitative and qualitative data collectionWhen you want to study the process of an experiment as well as the outcomesWhen you want to examine different levels in an organizationSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
111 Nested Research Design EksperimenQuanData collectionPre-testInterventionQuanData collectionPost-testProcess – collectionand analysis of qualitativedataSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
112 Explanatory Sequential Design: Karakteristik Viewing the study as a two-phase projectCollecting quantitative data first followed by collecting qualitative data secondTypically, a greater emphasis is placed on the quantitative data in the studyExample: You first conduct a survey and then follow up with a few individuals who answered positively to the questions through interviewsSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
113 Explanatory Sequential Design: Kapan digunakan? When you want to explain the quantitative results in more depth with qualitative data (e.g., statistical differences among groups, individuals who scored at extreme levels)When you want to identify appropriate participants to study in more depth qualitativelySumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
114 Contoh Disain Eksplanatori QuantitativeQuantitativeCase SelectionQualitativeInterpretation –based on quanand QUAL resultsData Collection(quan)Data Analysis(quan)Data Analysis(QUAL)+QualitativeData CollectionQuantitative Data*Quantitative AnalysisCase SelectionQualitative AnalysisInterpretationSelected 5 casesmaximally varyingIdentified criticalmonths in whichsmoking variedNumber of cigarettesGraphic plot of CES-Description of eachWhy did changes inCES-D6D6 scores over timecasesmoking occur?for each participantIdentification of lifeQualitative Data*Graphic plot ofevents occurringSemi-structuredcigarettes/day valuesduring criticalover time for eachmonths whereinterviews, audiorecorded andparticipantsmoking increased ordecreasedtranscribedThematic analysis oflife events for each* Data collected 10 timescaseover the course of acalendar year for 40Cross-case thematicparticipantsanalysisCreswell et al. (in progress)Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
115 Exploratory Sequential Design: Karakteristik Viewing the study as a two-phase projectQualitative data collection precedes quantitative data collectionTypically, greater emphasis is placed on the qualitative data in the studyExample: You collect qualitative diary entries, analyze the data for themes, and then develop an instrument based on the themes to measure attitudes on a quantitative survey administered to a large sample.Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
116 Exploratory Sequential Design: Kapan digunakan? To develop an instrument when one is not available (first explore, then develop instrument)To develop a classification or typology for testingTo identify the most important variables to study quantitatively when these variable are not knownSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
117 Sequential Exploratory Mixed Methods Design Phase I Qualitative Research - Year 1Unstructured Interviews -50 participants8 observations at the site16 documentsQualitative Data CollectionQualitative Data AnalysisText Analysis: Using QSR N6Development of codes and themesfor each siteQualitative FindingsPhase II Quantitative Research - Year 2Create approximately a 80-iteminstrument plus demographicsQuantitative Instrument DevelopmentAdminister survey to 500 individualsDetermine factor structure of items andconduct reliability analysis for scalesQuantitative Test of the InstrumentQuantitative ResultsDetermine how groups differusing ANOVA testSequential Exploratory Mixed Methods DesignSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
118 Quantitative analysis Qualitative analysis Bagaimana kita menganalisis data quantitatif dan kualitatif (dalam berbagai tipe desain)?Types of analysis:Quantitative analysisNumeric dataDescriptive trend analysisHypothesis testing, effect size, interval estimatesQualitative analysisText/image dataCodingThemesDescriptionInterrelated themesSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
119 Analisis Data Triangulasi QUANdata collectionQUALdata collectionSeparate QUANand QUAL dataanalysisQUANdata analysisQUALdata analysisTwo optionsData transformation (changeQUAL to QUAN or QUAN to QUAL)Comparison (keep separate andcompare/contrast)ResultsSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
120 Contoh transformasi data dari “satuan teks” menjadi “satuan numerik” CountAdj.Count**Row PctColumn PctPatientsN=2PhysiciansN=4Medical AssistantsThemesFamiliarityWith the Form136.541.95.8174.2527.43.0194.7530.75.34915.5100.0Reactions to the Form2311.522.210.210025.048.317.46115.329.516.918451.75Use for Managing Depression6733.538.629.817744.2551.0369.010.410.028086.75Changes to the Form11557.537.551.119649.032.034.018746.830.551.7498153.3Situational Use of the Form220.127.116.1121.554.414.95814.536.716.115139.5225112.5576144.036190.3Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
121 Analisis Data Tersarang (Nested) Quantitative ExperimentInterventionQuanData collectionPre-testQuanData collectionPost-testQualitative ProcessDataAnalysisPre-testscoresThemes/Codes/Interrelated ThemesPost-test scoresor gain scoresCompare/Describe ResultsSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
122 Analisis Data Sequensial Eksplanatori Qualdata collection(purposeful sampling)Select cases based on s.d. variablesSelect cases to represent outliersSelect cases to represent extreme casesSelect cases to make group comparisonsQUANdata analysisStatistical resultsOutlier casesExtreme casesQualanalysiscodesthemescasesSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
123 Analisis data sequensial Exploratori Quan data analysisinstrument developmentItems on a surveyVariables on a surveyScales on a surveyQUAL data analysisQuotesCodesThemesSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
124 Menggambar bagan disain penelitian Let’s draw a picture of our designIdentify the type of designAdd in data collectionAdd in data analysisShow the flow of activitiesAdd in “products” for our audiencesSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
125 Kiat-kiat menggambar bagan MMR : Give a title to the visual model.Choose either horizontal or vertical layout for the model.Draw boxes for quantitative and qualitative stages of data collection, data analysis and interpretation of the study results.Use capitalized (QUAN) or small letters (quan) to designate priority of quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis.Use single-headed arrows to show the flow of procedures in the design.Specify procedures for each quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis stage.Specify expected products or outcomes of each quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis procedure.Make your model simple.Size your model to one page.Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
126 Sample Script for a Concurrent Design (Triangulation or Nested) “The purpose of this concurrent mixed methods study is to better understand a research problem by converging both quantitative (numeric) and qualitative (text or image) data. In this approach, ___________ (quantitative instruments) will be used to measure the relationship between the ________ (independent variables) and __________ (dependent variables).At the same time in the study, the __________ (central phenomenon) will be explored using _____________ (qualitative interviews, documents, observations, visual materials) with _________ (participants) at ____________ (the research site).”Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
127 Sample Script for a Sequential Exploratory Design “The purpose of this two-phase, exploratory mixed methods study will be to explore participant views with the intent of using this information to develop and test an instrument with a sample from a population. The first phase will be a qualitative exploration of a _______(central phenomenon) by collecting ___________(data) from ____________ (participants) at _______ (research site). Themes from this qualitative data will then be developed into an instrument (or survey) so that the __________ (theory and research questions/hypotheses) can be tested that ________ (relate, compare) ____________ (independent variable) with __________ (dependent variable) for _________(sample of a population) at _________ (research site).”Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
128 Sample Script for a Sequential Explanatory Design “The purpose of this two-phase, explanatory mixed methods study will be to obtain statistical, quantitative results from a sample and then follow-up with a few individuals to probe or explore those results in more depth. In the first phase, quantitative research questions or hypotheses will address the relationship or comparison of __________ (independent) and ________ (dependent) variables with ___________ (participants) at ___________(the research site). In the second phase, qualitative interviews or observations will be used to problem significant _______(quantitative results) by exploring aspects of the ________ (central phenomenon) with_______ (a few participants) at ____________ (research site).”Sumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
129 Kriteria Evaluasi Rencana Riset: Include a visual/procedural diagram of methods with timelineUse rigorous procedures for the quantitative data collection and analysisUse appropriate terminology for title and designProvide a rationale for mixing and include it early in the study (“when you use…”)Create a mixed methods purpose statementIdentify types of qual and quan data to be collected and qual and quan data analysis stepsSumber: John W. Creswell, Ph.D. and Vicki L. Plano Clark, M.S.University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Andrews University, July, 2004
131 MIXED-METHODS DATA ANALYSIS Graduate Seminar in English Language Studies Suranaree, March 2011 Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
132 Overview Riset Kuantitatif murni Riset Kualitatif Murni MMR = Mixed-methods researchCollecting both QUANT and QUAL data using different instrumentsMMDA = Mixed-methods data analysisUsually only QUAL data collectedData is treated both quantitatively and qualitativelySumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
133 Kuantitatif atau Kualitatif? QUANT – QUAL distinction in applied linguistics researchQUANT: data is numbers; uses statisticsExperimental research; surveysQUAL: data is words; uses thematic or narrative interpretationConversation analysis; ethnographySumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
134 MMR = Mixed-methods research “MMR melibatkan pengumpulan atau analisis data kuantitatif dan kualitatif dalam suatu studi dengan upaya mengintegrasikan kedua pendekatan pada satu fase atau lebih dalam proses penelitiannya” (Dörnyei, 2007)Tujuan:Mencapai pemahaman yang tuntasTriangulasi temuan-temuan.Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
135 Contoh-contoh MMR Contoh yang jelek Contoh yang agak lebih baik Research into attitudes: survey a large number and interview a predetermined small number of subjectsPurpose: unclearContoh yang agak lebih baikResearch into attitudes: survey a large number of subjects, then, selecting based on questionnaire responses, interview a small numberPurpose: follow-up on interesting resultsSumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
136 Contoh-contoh MMR An example of the opposite Another similar example Interview a small number to gain insights to design a questionnaire, then survey a large numberPurpose: informing instrument designAnother similar exampleResearch into beliefs: interview 4 teachers but survey 80 studentsPurpose: accounting for practicality in using instrumentsSumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
137 Contoh-contoh MMR Contoh yang fokus pada triangulasi Research into strategies: comparing results from different instrumentsMuch strategy research involves the use of SILLSILL asks respondents to identify how often they use a particular strategyStrategy use is context-dependentResearch question: Will recent context of learning change responses to SILL?Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
138 Contoh-contoh MMR Metode Subyek tunggal Time 1: read academic articles Time 2: read short stories for pleasureResponded to SILL twiceInterviewed 4 times (background interview, after SILL responses, summary interview)Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
139 Contoh-contoh MMR SILL responses Interview responses Showed major differences between 2 times e.g. “If I guess the meaning of a word, later I will check whether my guess is correct by using a dictionary.” rated Always at Time 1; Never at Time 2Interview responsesShowed that recent learning contexts influenced different ratingsTriangulation to confirm results or triangulation to provide different perspectivesSumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
140 MMDA = Mixed-methods data analysis “The most common perception of mixed methods research is that it is a modular process in which qualitative and quantitative components are carried out either concurrently or sequentially.Although this perception is by and large true, it also suggests that the analysis of the data should proceed independently for the QUANT and QUAL phases and mixing should occur only at the final interpretation stage.This conclusion is only partially true … we can also start integrating the data at the analysis stage, resulting in what can be called mixed methods data analysis”Dörnyei (2007)Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
141 MMDA = Mixed-methods data analysis MMDA berarti:Quantitising qualitative dataQualitising quantitative dataMonodata-multianalysis—this is the analysis of one type of data using both qualitative and quantitative anslysis.The logic of this approach is to:First, analyze your data with the standard approach (e.g., qualitative analysis for your qualitative data or quantitative analysis for your quantitative data).Second, either qualitative or quantitize one set of data for additional analysis.Qualitize—transforming quantitative data into qualitative data (e.g., provide names or labels to quantitative characteristics).Quantitize—transforming qualitative data into quantitative data (e.g., do numerical counts of qualitative categories and themes).Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
142 Mengkuantitatifkan Data Kualitatif Kuantifikasi seringkali dilakukan secara tidak sadarMelakukan analisis “keyword”Menggunakan skor IELTS dalam risetQuantitising helps a qualitative analysis by allowing a reliability checkQuantitising can be used to count and compare frequency of themesQuantitising allows further statistical analysis of data, but information is always lost when converting QUAL to QUANTSumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
143 Mengkualitatifkan Data Kuantitatif Tidak lazim, jarang dilakukanPenyusunan profil naratifUsing quantitatively obtained questionnaire data in a qualitative description of a subjectWebsites for Qualitative Data Analysis ProgramsProgram name and Website addressAnSWR (freeware)ATLASEthnographHyperResearchNvivoNUD*IST (Note: NUD*IST is being replaced by NVivo).Sumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
144 MMDA yang lebih Kompleks Sifat Data of QUANTRingkasMemnungkinkan analisis lanjut (Statistika inferensial)Menyediakan informasi ringkas (ikhtisar)Sifat Data QUALDetail dan informatifMemungkinkan pemahaman kasus-kasusMenyediakan informasi yang mendalamSumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
145 MMDA yang lebih Kompleks What purposes can mixing QUANT and QUAL data analysis serve?Illustration for insightConcise summary to give overviewPreliminary overview to inform analysisProviding a more well-rounded and more persuasive analysisSumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
146 MMDA: Ilustrasi untuk Pemahaman In many QUANT studies, it is easy to get lost in the numbers and forget what they meanIf the numbers are derived from QUAL data, it is useful to give a QUAL example to concretise the QUANT findingsIn Case 1, the original data is QUAL; this is quantitised for analysis; a QUAL example is given to concretise the data and to show how the quantitative analyses was appliedSumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
147 MMDA: IkhtisarIn some QUAL research (primarily involving categorisation or thematisation), the lengthy, detailed data make it difficult to see the overall patternIt can be useful to provide a QUANT summary as an overviewIn Case 2, the data is QUAL and analysed in a QUAL way, but the overall pattern of results is presented as QUANTSumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
148 MMDA: Telaah awal untuk Analisis In QUAL studies with large amounts of data, it is difficult for the researcher to ensure that all relevant issues have been identifiedIt is also difficult to see underlying patterns that can be drowned in the sheer quantity of dataIt is useful to conduct a preliminary QUANT analysis to ensure all issues and underlying patterns are identifiedIn Case 3, QUAL data is treated qualitatively to find keywords which then inform a QUAL thematic analysisSumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
149 MMDA: Analisis yang lebih persuasif In QUAL studies with large amounts of data, restricting analysis to either QUANT or QUAL cannot provide a full picture of the dataQUAL provides detailed description of the dataQUANT provides generalisations of patterns to the whole data setIn Case 4, QUAL and QUANT analyses are used together to produce a fuller description of the dataSumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
150 Penggunaan MMDA Penggunaan Illustration for insight Pola-polaQUANT → QUALQUAL → QUANTMix of QUANT and QUALPenggunaanIllustration for insightSummarise for overviewInform analysisProvide full pictureSumber: Richard Watson Todd (http://arts.kmutt.ac.th/crs/research/mmda.ppt)
151 Using MIXED METHODS RESEARCH to Analyze Surveys Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
152 MMR itu apa? Sulit mendefiniskannya Contoh-contoh definisi The use of qualitative and quantitative techniques in both the collection and analysis of dataMixed Methods research is given a priority in the research and the integration of both the quantitative and qualitative results occurs at some point in the research processResearch that includes both quantitative and qualitative data in a single research study, and either the QUAN or QUAL data provides data that would not otherwise be obtainable when using only the primary methodMM Research is difficult to define because it is an emerging fieldHere I provide some examples of the different definitions. There are more. I like the third one here the best because it implies a practical reason for using the MM approach.Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
153 Mengapa MMR penting? Answers questions that other modalities cannot Provides a deeper understanding of the examined behavior or a better idea of the meaning behind what is occurringThe inferences made with mixed methods research can be strongerMixed methods research allows for more divergent findingsMM research can include culture in the design by giving a voice to everyone involved in the behavior being examinedAn example of how MM research allows for more divergent findings is that it can simultaneously answer exploratory and confirmatory theoretical questions or it can answer the following questions: What is happening and Why is it happening?The examples shown here will show how all the voices were “heard” because even though most people were satisfied with the programs being evaluated there were still some identifiable issues when the MM piece was included in the analysis.Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
154 MMR – KolaboratifBerupaya melibatkan stakeholders dalam disain dan proses penelitianCan be very beneficial when many of the stakeholders are more likely to be criticsIncludes less powerful groups and helps to ensure that they have an equitable impact on the researchCollaboration has the ability to stimulate ways of thinking that might not occur when working individually on a projectThis is something that can work for any research design. The difference with MM Research is that includes the MM component as well.Collaboratively developed research projects may be very common for many us. For me, I have often collaborate with many stakeholders and gather than input when conducting a study. They are more likely to be better consumers of the information when they are included in the process.Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
155 Merancang MMRThe key to any study is the research question(s) because this dictates the selection of the research methodsIn designing a study the underlying purpose is the reason for doing it, and is a necessary componentWhy are we doing the study?The quality of the study and the meaningfulness of the results are enhanced if we are clear about the purposeOften, the underlying purpose for us is student success.The reason “why?” needs to connect the research question.The purpose is the reasons why the research is undertaking the study.Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
156 Enam Kategori MMR Disain Eksplanatori Sekuensial Disain Exploratory SekuensialDisain Transformatif SekuensialDisain Triangulasi KonkurenConcurrent Nested DesignDisain Transformatif KonkurenI put these slides in here because I’m a researcher and I often like to categorize things. However, there aren’t any hard and fast rules in terms of the designs. Hopefully, these may help you to begin to think about how a MM Research Design might apply to some of your work.Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
157 Desain Eksplanatori Sekuensial Collection and analysis of QUAN data followed by the collection and analysis of QUAL dataPriority is usually given to QUAN dataIntegration of QUAN and QUAL data usually occurs in the interpretation phase of the studyThe purpose is usually to use the QUAL results to help explain the QUAN resultsWITH the sequential designs, you may conduct a study which raises some additional questions, and conduct a second study to help answer those questions.One drawback here is that there are two separate phases.With the sequential explanatory design, the results from the first phase inform the development of the second phase.Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
158 Desain Eksploratori Sekuensial Conducted in two phasesPriority is given to the first phase of QUAL data collectionThe second phase involves QUAN data collectionOverall priority is given to QUAL data collection and analysisThe findings are integrated in the interpretation phaseMost basic purpose is to use QUAN data to help interpret the results of the QUAL phaseWith the sequential exploratory design, the results from the first phase inform the development of the second phase.This type of design can help to identify or narrow the focus of possible variables with the QUAL phase, and inform the development of the QUAN phase.Can also help in the development of a new instrument.Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
159 Desain Transformatif Sekuensial Mempunyai dua fase pengumpulan data yangt berbedaPerspektif teoritis dipakai untuk mengarahkan studiPurpose is to use methods that will best serve the theoretical perspective of the researcherWith the sequential transformative design, the results from the first phase inform the development of the second phase.Little research has been published using this type of design.Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
160 Disain Triangulasi Konkuren This is probably the most familiar MM designThe QUAL and QUAN data collection are concurrent, and happen during one data collection phasePriority could be given to either QUAL or QUAN methods, but ideally the priority between the two methods would be equalTwo methods are integrated in the interpretation phaseThe integration focuses on how the results from both methods are similar or different, with the primary purpose being to support each otherSumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
161 Disain Nested Konkuren Gathers both QUAL and QUAN data during the same phaseEither QUAL or QUAN dominates the designThe analysis phase mixes both the QUAL and QUAN dataThe QUAL data is used to help explain or better understand the QUAN dataThis is the design demonstrated here and the one that I have found most useful.Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
162 Disain Transformatif Konkuren Guided by a specific theoretical perspectiveThe QUAN and QUAL data are collected during the same phaseThe integration of data occurs during the analysis phaseThe integration of data could occur in the interpretation phaseAgain, the purpose is to use methods that will best serve the theoretical perspective of the researcherSumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
163 Proses Integrasi Data QUAL dan QUAN The process of integrating QUAL and QUAN research needs to be well thought out prior to the studyQUAL portion needs to be constructed in a way so that more novel information can be discoveredNeed to decide if QUAL portion is exploratory or confirmatoryIf exploratory, the purpose is to identify other dimensions that the QUAN portion is missingIf confirmatory, the purpose is to support the QUAN relationshipQUAL results can also be used to explain why there wasn’t a statistically significantly differenceIn examples shown here the purpose of QUAL was both exploratory and confirmatory. For instance, do the open-ended responses support the QUAN results and, if not, why not?May not know whether QUAL findings are confirmatory or exploratory until after the study is conducted.Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
164 Arahan untuk Integrasi Hasil-hasil QUAL dan QUAN Selection of research methods need to be made after the research questions are askedSome methods work well in some domains and not in othersThere is no model of integration that is better than anotherWhen there are results that support each other, it is possible that both the QUAN and QUAL results are biased and both are not validThe main function of integration is to provide additional information where information obtained from one method only was is insufficientIf the results lead to divergent results, then more than one explanation is possibleNeed to first ask the research questions to know what best methods are. The research questions dictate the selection of research methods.XXXThe best model needs to be decided each time that a research project is conducted.Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
165 Mengintegrasikan Data QUAL dan QUAN One process of incorporating QUAL data with QUAN data is known as quantitizing, or quantifying the open-ended responsesDummy Coding (i.e. binarizing) – refers to giving a code of 1 when a concept is present and a code of 0 if it is not presentA helpful tool for dummy coding open-ended responses is SPSS Text Analysis, now known as PASW Text Analysis for Surveys 3.0 run’s for $1,300.Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
166 Menyajikan Temuan-temuan MMR As with any research findings, if they cannot be communicated to the people who can use the information than the findings are worthlessPresenting MM research can be more challenging because we are trying to communicate two types of information to readersFor instance, writing-up QUAN research is very well defined, and QUAL research is more often about discoverySumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
167 Menjamin relevansi temuan-temuan MMR Melibatkan semua stakeholders dalam merencanakan penelitianUsing MM research design may help a wider range of audiences connect to the materialMake sure to define the language used in the reportIt is important to decide how the MM research findings are going to be written: combined or separatelyDefining the language used in the report is important because MMs is a new field and there isn’t a lot of agreement on many of the definitions. For instance, triangulation may refer to methodology or different points of view.Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
168 Contoh MMR The form was not developed by IR Evaluated paid tutors on five job qualification areasJob skillsJob knowledgeWork habitsCommunication skillsAttitudeThree point rubric was used to evaluate paid tutorsDid not meet the requirementMet the requirementExceeded requirementsEvaluators were also asked to provide commentsMost closely matches a Concurrent Nested DesignGathers both QUAL and QUAN data during the same phaseEither QUAL or QUAN dominates the designThe analysis phase mixes both the QUAL and QUAN dataThe QUAL data is used to help explain or better understand the QUAN dataSumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
169 Contoh MMRHow did I combine the qualification ratings (QUAN) with the evaluator comments (QUAL)?Found an example of how to do this from Sandelowski (2003)Sandelowski provided an example where the QUAN responses were categorized and themes for each category were generated from the open-ended commentsSumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
170 Contoh MMR First step is to create the categories from the QUAN data This step involves being very familiar with your data, and also some creativityWith the paid tutor evaluation it was fairly easy to develop the categoriesPaid tutors who received a perfect rating in every category (n = 13)Paid tutors who had an average ranking equal to or above the mean (n = 5)Paid tutors who had an average below the mean (n = 11)Developing the categories for the paid tutor study was relatively easy. The two examples that I will go over later required a little more work.Overall average was computed by summing all of the job qualification category ratings and dividing by the number of job qualification categories (M = 2.51).Sumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
171 Contoh MMR Mencampur data QUAL dan QUAN dalam fase analisis data After I created the three categories I printed out the comments associated with the paid tutors for each category and identified a theme for each oneSumber: Keith Wurtz , Senior Research Analyst, Chaffey College.
173 . Journal of Mixed Methods Research . The Journal of Mixed Methods Research (JMMR) is an innovative, quarterly, interdisciplinary, international publication that focuses on empirical, methodological, and theoretical articles about mixed methods research across the social, behavioral, health, and human sciences.The journal's scope includes delineating where mixed methods research may be used most effectively, illuminating design and procedure issues, and determining the logistics of conducting mixed methods research.Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
174 DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.Mixed methods research (also called mixed research) is becoming increasingly articulated, attached to research practice, and recognized as the third major research approach or research paradigm, along with qualitative research and quantitative research.Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
175 A History of Mixed Methods Research DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.A History of Mixed Methods ResearchWe would position mixed research between the extremes Plato (quantitative research) and the Sophists (qualitative research), with mixed research attempting to respect fully the wisdom of both of these viewpoints while also seeking a workable middle solution for many (research) problems of interest.Today, the primary philosophy of mixed research is that of pragmatism.Mixed methods research is, generally speaking, an approach to knowledge (theory and practice) that attempts to consider multiple viewpoints, perspectives, positions, and standpoints (always including the standpoints of qualitative and quantitative research).Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
176 DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.Mixed research, in its recent history in the social and behavioral or human sciences, started with researchers and methodologists who believed qualitative and quantitative viewpoints and methods were useful as they addressed their research questions.For the 20th century, “mixed research” (in the sense of including what we, today, would call qualitative and quantitative data) can be seen in the work of cultural anthropologists and, especially, the fieldwork sociologists.Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
177 The four types of triangulation: DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.Denzin (1978) defined triangulation as “the combination of methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon” .The four types of triangulation:Data triangulation (i.e., use of a variety of sources in a study),Investigator triangulation (i.e., use of several different researchers),Theory triangulation (i.e., use of multiple perspectives and theories to interpret the results of a study), andMethodological triangulation (i.e., use of multiple methods to study a research problem).Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
178 Jick (1979) noted the following advantages of triangulation: DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.Jick (1979) noted the following advantages of triangulation:It allows researchers to be more confident of their results;It stimulates the development of creative ways of collecting data;It can lead to thicker, richer data;It can lead to the synthesis or integration of theories;It can uncover contradictions, andBy virtue of its comprehensiveness, it may serve as the litmus test for competing theories.Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
179 Development (i.e., using the results from one method to other method), DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.Greene, Caracelli, and Graham (1989) identified the five purposes or rationales of mixed methodological studies:Triangulation (i.e., seeking convergence and corroboration of results from different methods studying the same phenomenon),Complementarity (i.e., seeking elaboration, enhancement, illustration, clarification of the results from one method with results from the other method),Development (i.e., using the results from one method to other method),Initiation (i.e., discovering paradoxes and contradictions that lead to a reframing of the research question), andExpansion (i.e., seeking to expand the breadth and range of inquiry by using different methods for different inquiry components).Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
180 DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.Collins, Onwuegbuzie, and Sutton (2006) identified four rationales for conducting mixed research:Participant enrichment (e.g., mixing quantitative and qualitative research to optimize the sample using techniques that include recruiting participants),Instrument fidelity (e.g., assessing the appropriateness and/or utility of existing instruments, creating new instruments, monitoring performance of human instruments),Treatment integrity (i.e., assessing fidelity of intervention),Significance enhancement (e.g., facilitating thickness and richness of data, augmenting interpretation and usefulness of findings).Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
181 Definitions of Mixed Methods Research DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.Definitions of Mixed Methods ResearchHuey Chen:Mixed methods research is a systematic integration of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study for purposes of obtaining a fuller picture and deeper understanding of a phenomenon.Mixed methods can be integrated in such a way that qualitative and quantitative methods retain their original structures and procedures (pure form mixed methods). Alternatively, these two methods can be adapted, altered, or synthesized to fit the research and cost situations of the study (modified form mixed methods).Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
182 collection and/or data analysis techniques. DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.John Creswell:Mixed methods research is a research design (or methodology) in which the researcher collects, analyzes, andmixes (integrates or connects) both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study or a multiphase programof inquiry.Steve Currall:Mixed methods research involves the sequential or simultaneous use of both qualitative and quantitative datacollection and/or data analysis techniques.Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
183 (Newman, Ridenour, Newman & DeMarco, 2003.) DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.Isadore Newman:Mixed methods research is a set of procedures that should be used when integrating qualitative and quantitative procedures reflects the research question(s) better than each can independently.The combining of quantitative and qualitative methods should better inform the researcher and the effectiveness of mixed methods should be evaluated based upon how the approach enables the investigator to answer the research question(s) embedded in the purpose(s) (why the study is being conducted or is needed; the justification) of the study.(Newman, Ridenour, Newman & DeMarco, 2003.)Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
184 DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.Mixed methods research is the type of research in which a researcher or team of researchers combines elements of qualitative and quantitative research approaches (e.g., use of qualitative and quantitative viewpoints, data collection, analysis, inference techniques) for the broad purposes of breadth and depth of understanding and corroboration.This definition refers to mixed methods research as a type of research:A mixed methods study would involve mixing within a single study; a mixed method program would involve mixing within a program of research and the mixing might occur across a closely related set of studies.Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
185 Graphic of the Three Major Research Paradigms, Including Subtypes DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.Graphic of the Three Major Research Paradigms, Including Subtypesof Mixed Methods ResearchDiunduh dari: 21/9/2012
186 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.Current Issues for Mixed Methods ResearchWhat are effective strategies for integration at different stages of the research process?Bazeley (2006) has carefully examined how to integrate qualitative and quantitative data using data analysis software.Tashakkori and Teddlie (2006) discussed the process of making metainferences (that are based on the integration of qualitative and quantitative strands in research studies).The key idea that mixed methods research requires some form of integration is clear; still, however, additional research is needed to further explicate this process.Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
187 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.Current Issues for Mixed Methods ResearchDoes mixed methods need a particular, detailed set of philosophical and methodological positions?Variation in particular philosophical commitments should be welcome in mixed methods research, and we should embrace these differences as an important part of the mixed methods research paradigm.It is important that arguments and discussion about “appropriate” philosophical commitments continue, so that the field is self-reflexive and continues to grow (philosophically).Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
188 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.Current Issues for Mixed Methods ResearchAre equal status designs (equal use of quantitative and qualitative epistemologies) possible?To address specifically the issue of mixing ideas associated with research paradigms, we have introduced a concept called commensurability validity or legitimation, which is “the extent to which the meta-inferences made [in a mixed methods study] reflect a mixed worldview based on the cognitive process of Gestalt switching and integration” .The strong (or fully) mixed methods position, we argue, is developed only after explicit and systematic consideration of qualitative and quantitative perspectives.Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
189 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.Current Issues for Mixed Methods ResearchShould and how might qualitative dominant, equal status, and quantitative dominant mixed methods research be more fully developed and differentiated?Will the qualitative and quantitative dominant mixed research be explicitly incorporated into the qualitative and quantitative research paradigms or will they develop as distinct types?This should be an exciting area for future research as researchers and methodologists coming from different epistemological perspectives construct and systematize these subtypes.Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
190 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.Current Issues for Mixed Methods ResearchWhat are the details of a full contingency theory for the conduct of human research?That is, exactlyWhen and under what conditions should qualitative research be considered the appropriate approach,When and under what conditions should quantitative research be considered the appropriate approach, andWhen and under what conditions should mixed research be considered the appropriate approach?Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
191 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.Current Issues for Mixed Methods ResearchWhat are the details of a full contingency theory for the conduct of human research?A strength of a contingency theory of research is that the strengths and weaknesses of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed research are recognized, and all three approaches are considered to be important and needed, albeit in different circumstances.A contingency theory also needs to be carefully developed to help the mixed methods researcher make wise decisions about how to mix methods and approaches in relation to situational contingencies (e.g., given limited resources, what is the best combination to maximize usefulness of information and evidence?).Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
192 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.Current Issues for Mixed Methods ResearchA fuller definition of mixed methods research might include reference to the logic of mixed research.We believe that additional work is needed to explicate this logic or set of logics.When designing a mixed study, according to this “logic,” the research should strategically combine qualitative and quantitative methods, approaches, and concepts in a way that produces complementary strengths and nonoverlapping weaknesses.Consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches is required in relation to situational contingencies.Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
193 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.Current Issues for Mixed Methods ResearchTenth, will the field be able to develop a typology of mixed methods designs that can be broadly agreed upon?Currently, several typologies are available including, for example, Creswell and Plano Clark (2007), Morgan (1998), and Teddlie and Tashakkori (2006).Do the qualitative dominant, quantitative dominant, and pure mixed methods research need separate sets of designs? We tentatively suggest that the answer is yes.Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
194 Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research DOI: / ; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods Research R. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.Current Issues for Mixed Methods ResearchEleventh, and last, if one were to view mixed methods research, metaphorically, as the trunk of a tree, then what are its branches?For example, should the major branches be labeled QUAL+quan, QUAN+qual, and QUAN+QUAL? What other branches or specialized types might develop over time (e.g., transformative mixed methods, collaborative mixed methods, reflective mixed methods)?We expect many more specific types of mixed methods research and designs to crystallize in the future as researchers relate mixed methods research concepts and thinking to new and reoccurring research problems and situations.Diunduh dari: 21/9/2012
195 A Multimethod Approach to the Study of Sensitive Organizational Issues Karen A. Jehn and Karsten JonsenJournal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 noSensitive organizational issues such as conflict, lying and deceit, and personal health issues are difficult to investigate because of their complex, elusive, and sometimes threatening nature as well as their potential consequences.In this article, an approach is presented that uses triangulation of multiple quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate sensitive organizational issues.This study of organizational conflict illustrates special data elicitation techniques (e.g., tree graphs, third-person questioning) designed to decrease the reluctance of employees to respond to various forms of inquiry.The qualitative approach complements the survey methods by identifying, categorizing, and verifying the existence of constructs.The benefits of the elicitation techniques, computerized text analysis, and multimethod comparison processes as remedies for research problems accentuated in studies of sensitive organizational issues are discussed.Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012
196 Journal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 no. 4 295-312. Language Learning Motivation in Early Adolescents: Using Mixed Methods Research to Explore ContradictionPamela M. WeselyJournal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 noThis mixed methods study with an Explanatory Design is an exploration of students’ language learning motivation as it relates to their attrition from a language immersion program.A total of 131 students who had graduated from five public elementary immersion schools responded to surveys, and 33 of those students were interviewed.Data analysis procedures included a theme analysis of the interview data, a statistical analysis of the survey data, and an integrated consideration of the qualitative and quantitative findings.It was found that mixed methods research can be uniquely revealing about social psychological constructs such as motivation, it can offer new perspectives where previous studies were contradictory, and it can accommodate multiple theoretical frameworks.Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012
197 The Use and Added Value of Mixed Methods in Management Research José F. Molina-Azorίn. Journal of Mixed Methods Research January 2011 vol. 5 noThe prevalence, characteristics, and added value of mixed methods articles published in two management fields are examined through a sequential mixed methods design with four phases.The results show that mixed methods articles are published in management journals with different prevalence rates and characteristics. Moreover, an analysis of the impact and added value of mixed methods to the field of management is carried out.Implications for scholars, academic institutions, and journals with regard to the application and publication of mixed methods research are examined.Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012
198 Journal of Mixed Methods Research January 2011 vol. 5 no. 1 77-95. Refining a Location Analysis Model Using a Mixed Methods Approach: Community Readiness as a Key Factor in Siting Rural Palliative Care ServicesValorie A. Crooks, Nadine Schuurman, Jonathan Cinnamon, Heather Castleden, Rory Johnston.Journal of Mixed Methods Research January 2011 vol. 5 noDrawing on recent debates pointing to the value of mixed methods research in human geography, the authors revisit a quantitative location analysis model previously created to site palliative care services in rural British Columbia, Canada.The original quantitative model posited that population (i.e., number of residents in the community), isolation (i.e., travel time to existing specialized palliative care), and vulnerability (i.e., number of residents older than 65 years in the community) are three factors that must be accounted for when siting palliative care services in rural areas.Using qualitative interview data, the authors refine this model to include a newly identified factor: community readiness.They conclude with a discussion of the benefits of adopting a mixed methods approach to location analysis model development.Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012
199 Journal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 no. 4 342-360 A Methodology for Conducting Integrative Mixed Methods Research and Data AnalysesFelipe González Castro, Joshua G. Kellison, Stephen J. Boyd, Albert KopakJournal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 noMixed methods research has gained visibility within the last few years, although limitations persist regarding the scientific caliber of certain mixed methods research designs and methods.The need exists for rigorous mixed methods designs that integrate various data analytic procedures for a seamless transfer of evidence across qualitative and quantitative modalities.Such designs can offer the strength of confirmatory results drawn from quantitative multivariate analyses, along with “deep structure” explanatory descriptions as drawn from qualitative analyses.This article presents evidence generated from over a decade of pilot research in developing an integrative mixed methods methodology. It presents a conceptual framework and methodological and data analytic procedures for conducting mixed methods research studies, and it also presents illustrative examples from the authors’ ongoing integrative mixed methods research studies.Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012
200 Diunduh dari: http://mra.e-contentmanagement.com/ …… 21/9/2012 Multiple Research Approaches.IJMRA = International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches is an international peer-reviewed journal for timely publication of global research, scholarship, educational, researcher and practitioner perspectives on multiple, hybrid (outcome of unusual blending), synergistic (combined effect), integrated and cultural research approaches (be these Indigenous, institutional, or community based) including the Asian, Arctic, Pacific, Latin American and African regions, as well as European and North American.The journal's primary focus is effectively to combine various theoretical frameworks, methodologies and methods to address current research questions appropriately.Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012
201 Beyond the ceiling effect: Using a mixed methods approach to measure patient satisfaction Sharon Andrew, Yenna Salamonson, Bronwyn Everett, Elizabeth J Halcomb, Patricia M Davidson. IJMRA (1):This study reports patient satisfaction with the nursing care on a neurosurgical critical care unit. A modified version of the Ludwig-Beymer Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ-7) was used, and included structured items and semi-structured interview questions. Data were collected from 149 patients. Participants rated their satisfaction as high (Mean = 25.14; SD = 2.96). The distribution of scores was skewed and every item demonstrated a ceiling effect. Principal component analysis yielded a one-component solution which explained 48% of the variance.NVivo® was used to match PSQ-7 scores with qualitative data. Participants' comments were categorised as positive, negative or 'yes, but'. Just over half the patients made positive comments and 29% of patients in the low group made negative comments. Three categories: 'communication', 'nursing care delivery' and 'the hospital environment' emerged from the qualitative data.A mixed method approach enables researchers to move beyond the ceiling effect of quantitative measures of patient satisfaction and to gain a more meaningful explanation of patient satisfaction.Diunduh dari: …… 22/9/2012
202 William Paul Fisher AND A Jackson Stenner Integrating qualitative and quantitative research approaches via the phenomenological methodWilliam Paul Fisher AND A Jackson StennerIJMRA (1):Separated and mixed applications of qualitative and quantitative methods are typically encumbered by markedly different philosophical orientations. Multiple inefficiencies arise when mixed methods work at cross purposes with each other.The phenomenological method, however, has the potential to integrate qualitative and quantitative concerns in ways that orient research towards uniform criteria of substantive meaningfulness and mathematical rigour. Three characteristics of a qualitative-quantitative methodological pluralism are described: structural invariance, substantive interpretability and the display of anomaly.When combined with networked information technologies, new opportunities emerge for a qualitatively meaningful and quantitatively precise measurement framework in the research and practice of the health sciences.Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012
203 Sarah Bankins IJMRA 2011 5(3): 351 - 366 Tracking employees' twists and turns: Describing a mixed methods approach to assessing change in the psychological contractSarah Bankins IJMRA (3):The psychological contract is a key analytical device utilised by both academics and practitioners to conceptualise and explore the operation of the employment relationship. However, despite the recognised importance of the construct, some authors suggest that its empirical investigation has fallen into a 'methodological rut' [Conway & Briner, 2005, p. 89] and neglects to assess key tenets of the concept, such as its temporal and dynamic nature.This paper outlines the research design of a longitudinal, mixed methods study which draws upon the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative modes of inquiry in order to explore the development of, and changes in, the psychological contract.Supported by a critical realist philosophy, the paper offers a research design suitable for exploring the processes of change not only within the psychological contract, but also similar constructs in the human resource management and broader organisational behaviour fields.Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012
204 Peter John Miller, Roslyn Cameron IJMRA 2011 5(3) : 387 - 402 . Mixed method research designs: A case study of their adoption in a doctor of business administration programPeter John Miller, Roslyn Cameron IJMRA (3) :The paper presents empirical data concerning the utilisation of mixed method research in Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) research projects (theses). The Southern Cross University, Australia, DBA program was established in 1996 as a research degree and has successfully graduated over 250 graduates from a diverse range of countries across the globe. It is the largest DBA program in the Australasia.The research will present prevalence rates of mixed methods research utilised by doctoral candidates, data will be presented on the most frequently used data collection methods and research approaches within the field of business and management, with empirical data from a number of countries including Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia. Emergent issues with regard to the use of mixed methods research in business and management research and the teaching of mixed methods are discussed.Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012
205 . Combined methods in poverty analysis: Experiences from Namibia Sebastian Levine, Benjamin Roberts IJMRA (2):We explore differences in the findings on poverty in Namibia from a series participatory poverty assessments and a household survey on household income and expenditure. We find that the main conclusions from these research processes appear plausible even if they point to diverging paths of poverty. These results are attributed to methodological challenges and especially to different perceptions about the determinants of poverty that each approach conveys.Using a Q-Squared approach we illustrate that when definitions of poverty based on the perceptions raised in the qualitative assessments are used on the quantitative data then the results tend to converge. One particularly interesting finding is that those identified as poor using the official poverty measure, established explicitly to capture deprivation in consumption expenditure, have higher average levels of consumption expenditure than a combined Q-Squared measure based exclusively on non-monetary criteria.We generally find that while there might have been a real improvement in consumption-based measures of poverty over time, given the emphasis on issues related to assets, access to and quality of delivery of basic services, and issues related to vulnerabilities (especially food insecurity and the AIDS epidemic) in the participatory poverty assessments, it is not surprising that the qualitative data point to deteriorating living conditions.Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012
206 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF METHODOLOGY. QUALITY & QUANTITY:INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF METHODOLOGY.Quality and Quantity constitutes a point of reference for European and non-European scholars to discuss instruments of methodology for more rigorous scientific results in the social sciences.The journal publishes papers on models of classification, methods for constructing typologies, models of simulation, neural networks and fuzzy sets for social research, mathematical models applied to social mobility, mathematical models of voting behavior, qualitative methodology and feminist methodology, discussions on the general logic of empirical research, analysis of the validity and verification of social laws, and similar topics.Quality and Quantity is an interdisciplinary journal which systematically correlates disciplines such as mathematics and statistics with the social sciences, particularly sociology, economics, and social psychology.Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012
207 Passenger satisfaction: a multi-group analysis Laura Antonucci, Corrado Crocetta, Francesco D. d’Ovidio and Ernesto TomaQuality & Quantity , DOI: /s..To analyse the level of passenger satisfaction of a public local transport service, after an explorative factorial analysis, a Structural Equation Model was adopted. The main goal of this paper is to verify how much some service characteristics could influence the perceived quality of the service.The passengers are found very sensitive to the level of the service organization and to the way the service is delivered (punctuality and regularity, and short waiting time). The safety and reliability of buses, the level of comfort and cleanness and the professionalism and courtesy of staff had, also, a big weight to determinate of the customer satisfaction. Applying a further analysis on different sub-samples, based on individual characteristics, we found that the model above identified is full invariant for different residence area and frequency of use of the service, and partially invariant for age groups, employment status, time slot of use and reason of use.The test of invariance the structural coefficients failed considering gender or education level of the passengers.Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012
208 . Measuring the quality of work: the case of the Italian social cooperative Maurizio Carpita and Silvia GoliaQuality & Quantity (6):Quality of work has within a short time become a major subject of study and discussion in labour economy.Its quantification is a challenging task because it implies the translation of various subjective perceptions into a single objective measure (composite indicator).In this paper, the method used to construct measures is the Rating Scale Model and the available data come from the Survey on Italian Social Cooperatives carried out in 2007.The validity of the obtained Rasch measures is tested with respect to some overall variables of the quality of work.Moreover, using inferential confidence intervals, these measures are utilized to evaluate the differences in the perception of the quality of work due to worker (gender, age and education) and cooperative (type, dimension and geographic area) characteristics, work characteristics (service area, membership, time and type of contract) and work incentives (economic, professional and learning).Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012
209 Combining research techniques to improve quality service in hospitality Mar Vila, Xari Rovira, Gerard Costa and Ricard Santoma.Quality & Quantity. Volume 46. Number 3 / April P.Hospitality research includes many studies that combine and revisit the quantitative–qualitative debate, and review the arguments for and against using mixed-methods. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of qualitative methodologies based on the combination of techniques which also include quantitative elements in addition to those pertaining to qualitative techniques.The research aims to specifically identify the most important managerial factors which, from the point of view of hotel chain executives, serve to improve the quality of the service they provide.The techniques used are concept mapping and qualitative optimization, both of which are qualitative methodologies though they include quantitative elements to overcome the subjectivity deficits typically found in qualitative methodologies. In addition, the combination of both techniques leads to greater precision of the results obtained. Our methodological proposal combines concept mapping with qualitative optimisation, thereby improving the prioritisation and hierarchical ordering of the ideas obtained and structured.Instead of working with each cluster’s average score in terms of importance (as defined within the concept mapping model), our contribution is based on prioritising these based on their distance to the optimal reference. This allows for experts’ evaluations of each idea in terms of its importance to not be strictly quantitative, that is, the experts are not obligated to assign numbers to their evaluations; rather, they can assess ideas based on qualitative labels.Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012
210 Stephen V. Burks and Erin L. Krupka . A Multimethod Approach to Identifying Norms and Normative Expectations Within a Corporate Hierarchy: Evidence from the Financial Services IndustryStephen V. Burks and Erin L. KrupkaManagement Science January 2012 vol. 58 noWe use an incentive-compatible economic experiment and surveys in the field at a large financial services firm to identify the norms for on-the-job behavior among financial advisers and their leaders, and the normative expectations each group has of the other.We examine whistle-blowing on a peer, an incentive clash between serving the client and earning commissions, and a dilemma about fiduciary responsibility to a client.We find patterns of agreement among advisers, among leaders, and between the two groups, that are consistent with company guidelines identified ex ante. However, we also find measurable differences between what leaders expect and the actual norms of advisers.When there is such a mismatch we are able to distinguish miscommunication from ethical disagreement between leaders and advisers.Finally, we show that when advisers' personal ethical opinions do not match group norms, this mismatch is correlated with job dissatisfaction and lying for money in a second experiment.Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012
211 The nature of mixed methods design of the research . MIXED METHODS RESEARCH DESIGN.The nature of mixed methods design of the researchBeing a pragmatist, the current research methodology is a mixed methods research design. Mixed methods design is a type of research which involves ‘the collection or analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study in which the data are collected concurrently or sequentially (Creswell, 2003; Creswell, 2008).Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012
212 The nature of mixed methods design of the research . MIXED METHODS RESEARCH DESIGN.The nature of mixed methods design of the researchAccording to Gray (2009), ‘mixed methods design is used in circumstances where relatively little or nothing is known about the research setting or research problems.In such situations, it would be unfeasible and impractical to design a questionnaire, since the constructs being measured are either unknown or not sufficiently understood.The qualitative study, then, explores, identifies and can provide clarity about the kinds of variables requiring further investigation.’Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012
213 Jens O. Meissner & Martin Sprenger . Mixing Methods in Innovation Research: Studying the Process-Culture-Link in Innovation ManagementJens O. Meissner & Martin SprengerForum Qualitative Social Research (FQS). Volume 11, No. 3, Art. 13 – September 2010.Two trends in innovation management have influenced the basic idea of this paper. The first trend shows increased attempts by managers to utilize linear innovation processes derived from literature and from practice. The second trend is an increasing acceptance of the dynamics created in an "innovation culture," as being one of the key drivers of innovation. Both approaches partially contrast each other.The missing link between innovation process design and innovation culture at the firm-level provides the theoretical framework of this paper. Behind the scenes of innovation management studies, we realized a methodological gap existed between the research of innovation cultures and their impact upon an organization's innovation processes.Thus, we applied a methodological mix of problem-centered interviews, structural analyses, and context analyses to study the phenomenon. We conducted an interview-based single case study in a Swiss telecommunications company. From these methodologies we created a themed landscape comprising relational topics of the innovation dynamics within an innovation project in the company (one year duration) and briefly described each topic.The main finding in our study is the dynamic role-model that innovation managers in large service firms have to apply to succeed in their innovation management work. Thus, our methodological mix proved to be helpful, although some weaknesses remain to be solved in the future.Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012
214 Jens O. Meissner & Martin Sprenger . Mixing Methods in Innovation Research: Studying the Process-Culture-Link in Innovation ManagementJens O. Meissner & Martin SprengerForum Qualitative Social Research (FQS). Volume 11, No. 3, Art. 13 – September 2010.Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012
215 Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka. . The other side of sustainable innovation: is there a demand for innovative services?Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka.. Journal of Cleaner Production. Available online 23 December 2011As one prominent form of sustainable innovation, eco-efficient services have been promoted as a promising way towards more sustainable societies. However, they have not turned into reality as expected. This paper argues that one of the primary reasons for the slow market penetration of eco-efficient services is the mismatch between customers’ needs and service providers’ offerings.In order to start to bridge the knowledge gap, we investigate such customer needs through the analysis of interview and survey data obtained from over 300 potential customer companies in Finland, most of which operate either in the EU or globally.The paper discusses what kinds of eco-efficient services customers need and under what conditions, and which barriers hinder the use of eco-efficient services by business customers. The customer companies desire material efficiency services for managing side streams and non-core processes.They primarily seek cost and broader business-efficiency improvements from these services, and find that service providers should be able to construct a clear business case when marketing services.Finally, although there are material efficiency services in the market, customer companies find they are not being marketed actively.Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012
216 Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka. . The other side of sustainable innovation: is there a demand for innovative services?Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka.. Journal of Cleaner Production. Available online 23 December 2011Framework for the study: Factors influencing the demand of innovative B2B eco-efficient services according to previous research.Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012
217 . The other side of sustainable innovation: is there a demand for innovative services? Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka.. Journal of Cleaner Production. Available online 23 December 2011Complemented framework: A comprehensive set of factors influencing the demand of innovative B2B eco-efficient services.Diunduh dari: 23/9/2012
218 EXPLORING MIXED METHODS RESEARCH (MMR) Diunduh dari: 26/9/2012
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