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**Geometrical properties of cross-sections**

Strength of Materials

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Introduction The strength of a component of a structure is dependent on the geometrical properties of its cross section in addition to its material and other properties. For example, a beam with a large cross section will, in general, be able to resist a bending moment more readily than a beam with a smaller cross-section.

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Example Shapes

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Centroid The position of the centroid of a cross- section is the centre of the moment of area of the cross section. If the cross-section is constructed from a homogeneous material, its centroid will lie at the same position as its centre of gravity.

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First moment of Area Consider an area A located in the x-y plane. Denoting by x and y the coordinates of an element of area d.A, we define the first moment of the area A with respect to the x axis as the integral Similarly, the first moment of the area A with respect to the y axis is defined as the integral

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First moment of Area It can be conclude that if x and y passes through the centroid of the area of A, then the first moment of the area of Sx and Sy will be zero.

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Second moment of Area The second moments of area of the lamina about the x - x and y - y axes, respectively, are given by

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**Second moment of Area From the theorem of Phytagoras :**

known as the perpendicular axes theorem which states that the sum of the second moments of area of two mutually perpendicular axes of a lamina is equal to the polar second moment of area about a point where these two axes cross.

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Parallel axes theorem known as the parallel axes theorem, which states that the second moment of area about the X-X axis is equal to the second moment of area about the x-x axis + h2 x A, where x-x and X-X are parallel.

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Example 01 Determine the second moment of area of the rectangular section about its centroid (x-x) axis and its base (X-X ) axis. Hence or otherwise, verify the parallel axes theorem.

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Answer

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Example 02 Determine the second moment of area about x- x, of the circular cross-section. Using the perpendicular axes theorem, determine the polar second moment of area, namely ‘J’

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Answer

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