Presentation on theme: "INDIKATOR PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN Sustainable Agriculture Indicators FFP M&E Workshop Aug 20-23/Aug 27-30, 2007 Philip Steffen EGAT/AG Woody Navin EGAT/AG."— Presentation transcript:
INDIKATOR PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN Sustainable Agriculture Indicators FFP M&E Workshop Aug 20-23/Aug 27-30, 2007 Philip Steffen EGAT/AG Woody Navin EGAT/AG Adam Reinhart EGAT/AG USAID
Indicators Activities should be planned and implemented with indicator measurement in mind The best indicators are those that are: Direct Objective Adequate Quantitative, where possible Disaggregated, where appropriate Practical Reliable (Source: TIPS)
Indicators The best indicators are those that are: 1.Direct (measuring as closely as possible the result it is intended to measure) 2.Objective (with no ambiguity about what is measured) 3.Adequate (taken as a group, a performance indicator and its companion indicators should adequately measure the result in question – with neither too many nor too few indicators) 4.Quantitative, where possible (numerical indicators are more easily understood and can be more easily analyzed; qualitative indicators can supplement quantitative indicators with richness of information) 5.Disaggregated, where appropriate (to track the impact on specific groups) 6.Practical (indicator data that can obtained in a timely way and at reasonable cost; easily replicable) 7.Reliable (indicator data are sufficiently reliable for confident decision- making)
POKOK BAHASAN 1.Conceptual Basis for Sustainable Agriculture 2.Define terms in the FFP sustainable agriculture indicators 3.Review the sustainable agriculture questions in the SAPQ 4.Examples of successful sustainable agriculture interventions 5.Accessing Technical Assistance 6.Case Study Agriculture Program in Drylandique MYAP 7.Break-out Group Exercise
5 1. Sustainable Agriculture What is it? We can discuss the properties of Agro-ecosystems Conway’s three properties are: –Productivity –Stability –Resiliency Source: Conway, G.R. and Barbier, E.B. 1990. After the Green Revolution. Sustainable Agriculture for Development. Earthscan, London. 205 p.
6 1. Productivity Net increment of valued product per unit of resource (kg/ha for example)
7 1. Stability Degree to which productivity remains constant over time when not faced with a shock (1/CV productivity)
8 1. Resiliency The ability of a system to maintain or recover productivity when subject to stress or shock.
9 2. Define terms in FFP sustainable agriculture indicators – Performance Indicator Reference Sheet (PIRS) Producers Producers harvest food, feed and fiber “Food” includes grain, fruits and vegetables, livestock, aquaculture, as well as natural products Producers may also engage in processing and marketing of food, feed and fiber Producers may reside in settled communities, refugee/IDP camps or be pastoralists
10 2. Define terms in FFP sustainable agriculture indicators Project-defined minimum Projects will define a set of technologies appropriate for the production systems in the program area Projects will determine the minimum number of those technologies targeted for adoption by program beneficiaries
11 2. Define terms in FFP sustainable agriculture indicators Agricultural Technologies Agriculture technologies refer to The practices of combining of land, labor, capital, and knowledge to Produce, market, distribute, utilize, and trade food, feed, and fiber Some examples: planting in rows, rotation, integrated farming systems, water conservation/harvesting, cover cropping, etc.
12 2. Define terms in FFP sustainable agriculture indicators A sustainable agriculture system Nurtures natural resources and maintains ecological balance Is driven by market demand and economically viable Ensures local replicability, gender equity, and social acceptability Generates predictable income Considers availability of household labor and seasonality of labor demand
2. Elements of Sustainability: A Partial Checklist (a) Consider agricultural activities best adapted to the soils, slope and agro-ecological conditions Consider sources of technical assistance, technology, input supply and extension support – and farmer previous experience with the technology Assess the level and source of market demand for the product
2. Elements of Sustainability: A Partial Checklist (b) Ensure community involvement in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation for ownership and understanding Determine optimum scale of the activity Evaluate policy, legal, customary and cultural context to see that the activity “fits” Keep it simple. Focus on priorities. Don’t be overly ambitious and consign those taking over to failure
2. Elements of Sustainability: A Partial Checklist (c) 1.Is the activity sustainable without continuous external support? 2.An activity cannot be sustainable if it comes at a cost. For example, it should not –Harm the environment –Destroy socio-economic relations –increase tensions and the potential for conflict 3. The activity should “do no harm”
2. Sustainable Livelihoods A single agricultural activity is usually one of many activities comprising a household’s livelihood. We can think holistically, in terms of sustainable livelihoods, a term that applies to all livelihoods, not limited to those in agriculture. The British aid agency, DFID, has developed a “sustainable livelihoods framework” that shows how we can work within a system to achieve beneficial impacts on people’s livelihoods in a sustainable way. The sustainable livelihoods framework presents the main factors that affect people’s livelihoods, and typical relationships between them.
2. Sustainable Livelihoods This framework has several desirable features: It shows the whole picture; It allows indirect as well as direct paths to influencing an outcome, such as improved food security (or any of its elements). It forces USAID – and USAID’s partners – to think about what we need to do outside food security to have an impact inside food security. For example, we could choose to improve food security by advocating market facilitating policies, institutional training, health and hygiene education, access to safe water, and so on. This gives USAID many possible entry points, from improving the vulnerability context, to strengthening livelihood assets/capital (see definitions below) to influencing policies, institutions and processes. Moreover, this framework appears robust to handle most anything USAID would want to do. The framework allows ample room for every cooperating sponsor, donor and NGO, but coordination is required from the host national and local governments.
2. Sustainable Livelihoods Note that the framework is centered on people and the assets or capabilities that these livelihood groups possess or can draw upon (DFID). These assets and capabilities are defined in terms of different kinds of “capital.” 1.Natural capital: the natural resources that can be used; 2.Social capital: access to social relationships, networks and contacts; 3.Human capital: personal skills, knowledge, health and ability to work; 4.Physical capital: the availability of basic infrastructure; and 5.Financial capital: savings, credit, remittances and other sources of finance.
2. Sustainable Livelihoods Additionally, the way this capital interacts with the many policies, institutions and processes : 1.influences their livelihood strategies and 2.determines the viability of their livelihood outcomes. The arrows do not suggest causality but they do acknowledge some influence. In this manner, the sustainable livelihoods framework is holistic and dynamic. It helps the government and its partners move beyond a collection of disjointed projects to a more comprehensive and systematic approach to supporting livelihoods.
2. Elements of a Sustainable Livelihood Livelihoods are sustainable when they: Are resilient in the face of external shocks and stresses Are not dependent upon external support Maintain the long-term productivity of natural resources Do not undermine the livelihoods of others or compromise the livelihood options open to others (Source: DFID)
2. Elements of a Sustainable Livelihood A single agricultural activity is usually one of many activities comprising a household’s livelihood. We can think holistically, in terms of sustainable livelihoods, a term that applies to all livelihoods, not limited to those in agriculture. The British aid agency, DFID, has developed a “sustainable livelihoods framework” that shows how we can work within a system to achieve beneficial impacts on people’s livelihoods in a sustainable way. Livelihoods are sustainable when they: 1.Are resilient in the face of external shocks and stresses (recall the resilience graph in slide 8) 2.Are not dependent upon external support (this requires planning an exit strategy before entry) 3.Maintain the long-term productivity of natural resources (allowing regeneration and renewal) 4.Do not undermine the livelihoods of others, or compromise the livelihood options open to others (sustainable livelihoods) Reinforce the “DO NO HARM” principles.
23 3. Sustainable Agriculture Questions in the Standardized Annual Performance Questionnaire (SAPQ) Number of farmers (individuals) that received extension/outreach services during the FY Number of sustainable agricultural technologies being transferred A list of those technologies The minimum number of technologies that farmers are expected to use The percentage of beneficiaries (individual farmers) who use that minimum number of technologies
24 3. Sustainable Agriculture in the SAPQ (Part II) Number of farmers (individuals) that received extension/outreach services during the FY –Relatively straight forward –Disaggregate by gender (M/F) Number of sustainable agricultural technologies being transferred –Less straight forward, what is an agricultural technology? Germplasm, fertilizer type or timing, row spacing? –Is a package one or more technologies? –Use your judgment, but make it logical and defendable, as guidance from FFP is limited
25 A list of those technologies –Very straightforward The minimum number of technologies that farmers are expected to use –How many of those technologies are required to meet criteria for success? The percentage of beneficiaries (individual farmers) who use the minimum number of technologies –An indication of the success of your outreach program 3. Sustainable Agriculture in the SAPQ (Part III)
4. Examples of Successful ‘Sustainable’ Agriculture Interventions: Tales from the Front Aménagement en Courbes de Niveau (ACN) Germplasm Collection, Evaluation and Improvement of African Leafy Vegetables Shea Butter: Producers in search of a Marketing Plan
28 4.1 ACN’s Benefits Ridge Tillage in the Sahel of West Africa Increased capture of rainfall Reduced drought risk to crops –Increase productivity, stability and resiliency Increased biodiversity –Spontaneous regeneration of three ecologically and economically valuable tree species (Faidherbia albida (Acacia albida)), Adansonia digitata (baobab) and Vitellaria paradoxa (shea tree) Increased drinking water supplies –Reduction in runoff due to ACN results in more recharge of groundwater –Dry season vegetable gardens irrigated with groundwater are now the norm (80%) in certain villages where 12 years ago there were none
4.2 Germplasm Collection, Evaluation and Improvement of African Leafy Vegetables Aneka tanaman sayuran di lahan pekarangan
31 4.2 African Leafy Vegetables Established a germplasm collection in Africa for leafy vegetables species - Brassica carinata (Ethiopian mustard), Cleome gynandtopsis (spider plant) and Solanum scabrum and S. villosum (nightshades) Evaluating agronomic and nutritional traits of hundreds of accessions and surveyed the indigenous knowledge of the targeted species Introduced best performing (most productive and nutritious) accessions’ seeds into existing seed marketing channels
4.3 Shea Butter: Producers in search of a Marketing Plan Shea nuts from the shea tree have many multiple uses as an edible fruit, edible oil, body lotion, soap and traditional medicine USAID-funded NGOs are working with women’s groups in Southern Sudan to process shea nuts into shea butter (the basic raw material) as an income-generating activity Petani produsen merencanakan pemasaran hasil panen
4.3 Shea Butter: Producers in search of a Marketing Plan These women's’ groups have mastered all the steps to produce high-quality shea butter But, production is seasonal (4 months) and sales revenues are a fraction of NGO support In short, these groups need help marketing USAID/Sudan will ask the Agricultural Marketing Enterprise Project to develop a market-oriented business plan for the shea butter groups Sustainability requires expanding the scope of the original activity to make it commercially viable Petani produsen merencanakan pemasaran hasil panen