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Prinsip Penilaian Kompetensi Berbahasa

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1 Prinsip Penilaian Kompetensi Berbahasa

2 Kompetensi yang dituju Kompetensi Berkomunikasi (Communicative Competence) dalam Listening Speaking Reading Writing

3 Discourse Competence concerns with the selection, sequencing, and arrangement of words, structures, sentences and utterance to achieve a unified spoken or written text.

4 What Meanings? Sikap (interpersonal) Berita (ideational) Tekanan (textual) Keterkaitan (logical)

5 Kemampuan yang diuji Kemampuan memahami dan mengungkap berbagai makna dalam komunikasi atau dalam teks yang meliputi: sikap, berita, penekanan, hubungan antar gagasan (cohesion), hubungan antara gagasan dan konteks (coherence)

6 References Teknik pembuatan soal tetap mengacu kepada prinsip-prinsip language testing yang terdapat di referensi internasional. Lihat Brown, H. D LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT.New York: Longman.

7 Listening Microskills Discriminate among the distinctive sounds of English. Retain chunks of language of different lengths in short term memory. Recognise English stress patterns, words in stressed and unstressed positions, rhythmic structures, intonation contourse, and their roles in signaling information. Recognise reduced forms of words. Distinguish word boundaries, recognise a core of words, and interpret word order patterns and their significance. Process speech at different rate of delivery. Process speech containing pauses, errors, corrections, and other performance variables. Recognise grammatical word classes (nouns, verb etc.) systems (e.g. tense, agreement, pluralisation), patterns, rules, and elliptiacl forms. Detect sentence constituents and distinguish between major and minor constituents. Recognise that a particular meaning may be expressed in different grammatical forms. Recognise cohesive devices in spoken discourse.

8 Listening Macroskills Recognise the communicative functions of utterance according to situations, participants, goals. Infer situations, participants, goals using real-word knowledge. From events, ideas, and so on, describes, predict outcomes, infer links and connections between events, deduce causes and effects, and detect such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given information, generalisation, and exemplification. Distinguish between literal and implied meanings. Use facial, kenesic, body language, and other nonverbal clues to decipher meanings. Develop and use a battery of listening strategies, such as detecting key words, guessing the meaning of words from context, appealing for help, and signalling comprehension or lack thereof

9 Speaking Microskills Produce differences among English phonemes and allophonic variants. Produce chunks of language of different lengths. Produce English stress patterns, words in stressed and unstressed positions, rhythmic structure, and intonation contours. Produce reduced forms of words and phrases. Use an adequate number of lexical units (words) to accomplish pragmatic purposes. Produce fluent speech at different rates of delivery. Monitor one’s own oral production and use various strategic devices – pauses, fillers, self corrections, backtracking – to enhance the clarity of the message. Use grammatical word classes (nouns, verbs etc.) systems (tense, agreement, pluralisation), word order, patterns, rules, and elliptical forms. Produce speech in natural constituents: in appropriate phrases, pause groups, breath groups, and sentence constituents. Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms. Use cohesive devices in spoken discourse

10 Speaking Macroskills Appropriately accomplish communicative functions according to situations, participants, and goals. Use appropriate styles, registers, implicature, redundancies, pragmatic conventions, conversation rules, floor keeping and yielding, interrupting, and other sociolinguistic features in face-to-face conversations. Convey links and connections between events and communicate such relations as focal and peripheral ideas, events and feeling, new information and given information, generalisation and exemplification. Convey facial features, kinesics, body language, and other nonverbal cues along with verbal language. Develop and use a battery of speaking strategies, such as emphasising key words, rephrasing, providing a context for interpreting the meaning of words, appealing for help, and accurately assessing how well your interlocutor is understanding you.

11 Reading Mengapa genre perlu diperhatikan? Each type or genre of written text has its own set of governing rules and conventions. A reader must be able to anticipate those conventions in order to process meaning efficiently. With an extraordinary number of genres present in any literate culture, the reader’s ability to process texts must be very sophisticated. (Brown 2004:186)

12 Reading Microskills Discriminate among distinctive graphemes and orthographic patterns of English. Retain chuncks of language of different lengths in short term memory. Process writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose. Recognise a core of words, and interpret word order patterns and their significance. Recognise grammatical word classes (nouns, verb etc.) systems (e.g. tense, agreement, pluralisation), patterns, rules, and elliptiacl forms. Recognise that a particular meaning may be expressed in different grammatical forms. Recognise cohesive devices in written discourse and their role in signaling the relationship between and among clauses Recognise grammatical word classes (nouns, verb etc.) systems (e.g. tense, agreement, pluralisation), patterns, rules, and elliptiacl forms

13 Reading Macroskills Recognise the rhetorical forms of written discourse and their significance for interpretation. Recognise the communicative functions of written texts, according to form and purpose. Infer context that is not explicit by using background knowledge. From described events, ideas, etc. Infer links and connections between events, deduce causes and effects, and detect such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given information, generalisation, and exemplification. Distinguish between literal and implied meanings. Detect culturally specific references and interpret them in a context of the appropriate cultural schemata. Develop and use a battery of reading strategies such as scanning and skimming, detecting discourse markers, guessing the meaning of words from context, and activating schemata for the inperpretation of texts.

14 Writing The same classification scheme is reformulated here to include the most common genres that a second language writer might produce, within and beyond the requirements of a curriculum.... you should be aware of the surprising multiciplity of options of written genres that second language learners need to acquire. (Brown 2004:219)

15 Writing Microskills Produce graphemes and ortographic patterns of English. Produce writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose. Produce an acceptable core of words and use appropriate word order patterns. Use acceptable grammatical systems (e.g. tense, agreement, pluralisastion), patterns and rules. Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms. Use cohesive devices in written discourse

16 Writing Macroskills Use the rhetorical forms and conventions of written discourse. Appropriately accomplish the communicative functions of written texts according to form and purpose. Convey links and connections between events, and communicate such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given information, generalisation, and exemplification. Distinguish between literal and implied meanings when writing. Correctly convey culturally specific references in the context of the written text. Develop and use a battery of writing strategies, such as accurately assessing the audience’s interpretation, using pre- writing devices, writing with fluency in the first draft, using paraphrases and synonyms, soliciting peer and instructor feedback, and using feedback for revising and editing

17 Jenis-jenis teks


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