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Prepared by Management Department | | P LANNING : T HE F OUNDATION OF S UCCESSFUL M ANAGEMENT Week 5.

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Presentation on theme: "Prepared by Management Department | | P LANNING : T HE F OUNDATION OF S UCCESSFUL M ANAGEMENT Week 5."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prepared by Management Department | | P LANNING : T HE F OUNDATION OF S UCCESSFUL M ANAGEMENT Week 5

2 Planning  Setting goals and deciding how to achieve them  Cope with uncertainty to formulating future courses of action to achieve specified results. “ When you make a plan, you make a blueprint for action that describes what you need to do to realize your goals “.

3 Planning and strategic management

4 Why not plan ? 1. P LANNING REQUIRES YOU TO SET ASIDE THE TIME TO DO IT. 2. Y OU MAY HAVE TO MAKE SOME DECISIONS WITHOUT A LOT OF TIME TO PLAN

5 How planning helps you: 4 benefits 1. Planning helps you check on your progress 2. Planning helps you coordinate activities 3. Planning helps you think ahead 4. Above all, planning helps you cope with uncertainty

6 CEO A VON (A NDREA W ONG ) AT A VON F OUNDATION M EETING

7 3 types of uncertainty S TATE UNCERTAINTY “ WHEN THE ENVIRONMENT IS CONSIDERED UNPREDICTABLE ” E FFECT UNCERTAINTY “W HEN THE EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES ARE UNPREDICTABLE ” R ESPONSE UNCERTAINTY “W HEN THE CONSEQUENCES OF DECISION ARE UNCERTAINTY ”

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10 M ARKET S HARE OF S MART P HONE, BY 2008

11 4 basic strategy types R EACTORS A NALYZERS Let’s wait until there’s a crisis, then we’ll react Let other take the risk of innovating, and we’ll imitate what works best D EFENDERS Let’s create our own opportunities, not wait for them to happen Let’s stick with what we do best, avoid other involvements P ROSPECTORS

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13 H OW DID NOKIA JUMP AHEAD ON CELL PHONES ?

14 E NTREPRE - NEURIAL E NGINEER - ING A DMINIS - TRATIVE The adaptive cycle

15 Making plans

16 Three levels of management, three types of planning Strategic planning : 1-5 years Tactical planning : 6-24 months Operational planning : 1-52 weeks

17 The problem is … Source: Robbinss, Management.

18 Bagaimana kampret terbang ke awang-awang  Karyawan : “Kampret! Siapa pemabok yang membuat rencana ini? Ini tidak mungkin berhasil!”  Supervisor : “Mereka mengatakan strategi tersebut ibarat sejenis binatang yang bisa terbang dan yang membuatnya adalah orang yang telah minum- minum. Ada kemungkinan, walau kecil, rencana ini akan berhasil”  Manajer : “Mereka melihat strategi ini bagaikan sesuatu yang bisa terbang. Pembuatnya pasti minum-minum untuk merayakannya. Ada kemungkinan rencana ini bisa terbang”

19  Kepala departemen : “Mereka melihat strategi ini bakal terbang. Strategi tersebut harus dirayakan dengan minum-minum”.  Kepala divisi : “Mereka melihat strategi ini akan membuat perusahaan kita terbang ke awang-awang. Mereka percaya strategi ini pasti akan berhasil. Mereka akan minum-minum untuk merayakan”.

20 Source: Robbinss, Management.

21 Types of plan P LAN D ESCRIPTION S TANDING PLAN For activities that occur repeatedly over a period of time P OLICY Outlines general response to a designated problem or situation P ROCEDURE Outlines response to particular problems or circumstances R ULE Designates specific required action S INGLE - USE PLAN For activities not likely to be repeated in the future P ROGRAM Encompasses a range of projects or activities P ROJECT Has less scope and complexity than a program

22 Types of plan Source: Robbinss, Management.

23 Directional plans VS specific plan Source: Robbinss, Management.

24 SMART goals Specific Measurable Attainable Relevant Time-bound T R A M S

25 Relationship between goal difficulty and performance High Low Moderate Impossible Challenging P ERFORMANCE G OAL D IFFICULTY B A C Performance : A :Committed individuals with adequate ability B :Committed individuals who are working at capacity C :Individuals who lack commitment to high goals

26 The planning / control cycle

27 The 4-step process for motivating employees in MBO J OINTLY S ET O BJECTIVES D EVELOP A CTION P LAN P ERIODICALLY R EVIEW P ERFORMANCE G IVE P ERFORMANCE A PPRAISAL & R EWARDS, IF ANY

28 Management by Objectives “ the purpose of MBO is to motivate rather than control subordinates “ O BJECTIVES P URPOSE E XAMPLE I MPROVEMENT Express performance to be accomplished in a specific way for a specific area “Increase sport-utility sales by 10%” “Reduce food spoilage by 15%” P ERSONAL DEVELOPMENT Express personal goals to be realized “Attend five days of leadership training” “Learn basics of Microsoft Office software by June 1” M AINTENANCE Express the intention to maintain performance at preciously established levels “Continue to meet the increased sales goals specified last quarter” “Produce another 60,000 cases of wine this month”

29 The Project Life Cycle T HE PREDICTABLE EVOLUTION OF A PROJECT

30 Criticisms of Planning  Planning may create rigidity.  Plans can’t be developed for dynamic environments.  Formal plans can’t replace intuition and creativity.  Planning focuses managers’ attention on today’s competition, not tomorrow’s survival.  Formal planning reinforces today’s success, which may lead to tomorrow’s failure.

31 Effective Planning in Dynamic Environment 1. Develop plans that are specific but flexible. 2. Understand that planning is an ongoing process. 3. Change plans when conditions warrant. 4. Persistence in planning eventually pay off. 5. Flatten the organizational hierarchy to foster the development of planning skills at all organizational levels.

32 H OLLOW -S QUARE G AMES

33 Rule of the game A team consist of :  1 person as a planner / CEO  1 person as an observer  1 person as leader / manager  3 or 4 persons as members Then……

34 HOLLOW-SQUARE GAMES B D A C C D A A D C A B B B C D

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