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**ECONOMIC OPTIMIZATION PROCESS**

Optimal decision Choice alternative that produces a result most consistent with managerial objectives

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**Maximizing the Value of the Firm**

Maximizing Equation is a complex task that involves consideration of future revenues, costs, and discount rates.

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**Total revenues are directly determined by the quantity sold and the prices received.**

Factors that affect prices and the quantity sold include the choice of products made available for sale, marketing strategies, pricing and distribution policies, competition, and the general state of the economy. Cost analysis includes a detailed examination of the prices and availability of various input factors, alternative production schedules, production methods, and so on.

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**Present discounted value (PDV), or present value (PV)**

The present discounting value of R dollars to be paid t years in the future is the amount you need to pay today, at current interest rates, to ensure that you end up with R dollars t years from now. It is the current market value of receiving R dollars in t years.

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PRESENT VALUE TABLE 11A.2 Calculation of Total Present Value of a Hypothetical Investment Project (Assuming r = 10 Percent) END OF… $(r) DIVIDED BY (1 + r)t = PRESENT VALUE ($) Year 1 100 (1.1) 90.91 Year 2 (1.1)2 82.65 Year 3 400 (1.1)3 300.53 Year 4 500 (1.1)4 341.51 Year 5 (1.1)5 310.46 Total Present Value 1,126.06 If the present value of the income stream associated with an investment is less than the full cost of the investment project, the investment should not be undertaken.

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**LOWER INTEREST RATES, HIGHER PRESENT VALUES**

TABLE 11A.3 Calculation of Total Present Value of a Hypothetical Investment Project (Assuming r = 5 Percent) END OF… $ DIVIDED BY (1 + r)t = PRESENT VALUE ($) Year 1 100 (1.05) 95.24 Year 2 (1.05)2 90.70 Year 3 400 (1.05)3 345.54 Year 4 500 (1.05)4 411.35 Year 5 (1.05)5 391.76 Total Present Value 1,334.59

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**Investment Project: Go or No? A Thinking Map**

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**Total Revenue “Total revenue is a function of output.”**

The value of the dependent variable (total revenue) is determined by the independent variable (output). The variable to the left of the equal sign is called the dependent variable. Its value depends on the size of the variable or variables to the right of the equal sign. Variables on the right-hand side of the equal sign are called independent variables. Their values are determined independently of the functional relation expressed by the equation.

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**If price is constant at $1**

If price is constant at $1.50 regardless of the quantity sold, the relation between quantity sold and total revenue is TR = $1.50 Q

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**Total, Average, and Marginal Relations**

Change in the dependent variable caused by a one-unit change in an independent variable Marginal revenue Change in total revenue associated with a one unit change in output Marginal cost Change in total cost following a one-unit change in output

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**Total, Average, and Marginal Relations**

Change in the dependent variable caused by a one-unit change in an independent variable Marginal revenue Change in total revenue associated with a one unit change in output Marginal cost Change in total cost following a one-unit change in output

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**Total, Average, and Marginal Relations**

Marginal profit Change in total profit due to a one-unit change in output

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**MARGINAL ANALYSIS IN DECISION MAKING**

Alokasi biaya untuk iklan $5,000 per minggu Biaya iklan sebesar $1,000 per tayang Gross profit 8% dari sales

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**Pada “Bay area market” sampai advertising ke 4 menghasilkan marginal revenue $20,000**

Pada “Sacramento market” sampai advertising ke 1 menghasilkan marginal revenue $20,000 Setelah itu maka akan terjadi penurunan marginal revenue Biaya advertising sebesar $5,000 ($4,000 dan $1,000) Total Revenue sebesar $225,000 ($200,000 dan $25,000) Apabila gross profit 8% sebelum advertising, maka gross profit sebesar $18,000 (0.8 dari $225,000) Net profit sebesar $13,000 ($18,000 - $5,000) Apakah penambahan iklan akan lebih baik atau tidak?

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**Gross profit 8%, secara keseluruhan advertising menambah lebih dari $12,5000 dalam pendapatan**

Apabila ditambah iklan di Sancramento, maka akan menghasilkan marginal revenue $15,000, gross profit sebesar $1,200 (0.8 * $15,000) Net profit sebesar $200 ($1,200 - $1,000) per tambahan iklan Biaya iklan keseluruhan menjadi $6,000 ($4,000 dan $2,000) Total Revenue $240,000, Gross profit naik menjadi $19,200 (0.8 * $240,000) Net profit menjadi $13,200 ($19,200 - $6,000) Tambahan iklan masih meningkatkan profit, tetapi sampai tambahan iklan ke berapa?

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**Marginal Revenue, Marginal Cost, and Profit Maximization**

Comparing R(q) and C(q) Output levels: 0- q0: C(q)> R(q) Negative profit FC + VC > R(q) MR > MC Indicates higher profit at higher output Cost, Revenue, Profit ($s per year) C(q) A B R(q) q0 q* Output (units per year) 16

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**Marginal Revenue, Marginal Cost, and Profit Maximization**

Comparing R(q) and C(q) Question: Why is profit negative when output is zero? Cost, Revenue, Profit $ (per year) Output (units per year) C(q) A B q0 q* R(q) 17

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**Marginal Revenue, Marginal Cost, and Profit Maximization**

Comparing R(q) and C(q) Output levels: q0 - q* R(q)> C(q) MR > MC Indicates higher profit at higher output Profit is increasing Cost, Revenue, Profit $ (per year) Output (units per year) C(q) A B q0 q* R(q) 18

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**Marginal Revenue, Marginal Cost, and Profit Maximization**

Comparing R(q) and C(q) Output level: q* R(q)= C(q) MR = MC Profit is maximized Cost, Revenue, Profit $ (per year) Output (units per year) C(q) A B q0 q* R(q) 19

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**Marginal Revenue, Marginal Cost, and Profit Maximization**

Comparing R(q) and C(q) Output levels beyond q*: R(q)> C(q) MC > MR Profit is decreasing Cost, Revenue, Profit $ (per year) Output (units per year) C(q) A B q0 q* R(q) 21

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**Marginal Revenue, Marginal Cost, and Profit Maximization**

Therefore, it can be said: Profits are maximized when MC = MR. Cost, Revenue, Profit $ (per year) Output (units per year) C(q) A B q0 q* R(q) 22

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**Marginal Revenue, Marginal Cost, and Profit Maximization**

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**Marginal Revenue, Marginal Cost, and Profit Maximization**

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MR = MC $7,500 – $7.5Q = $1,500 + $2.5Q $10Q = $6,000 Q = 600 units

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**Price, Total Revenue and Profit**

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**Revenue Maximization Revenue maximization**

Activity level that generates the highest revenue, MR = 0

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**Average Cost Minimization**

Activity level that generates the lowest average cost, MC = AC

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The price/output combination at which total profit is maximized is P = $35 and Q = 5,000 units. At that point, MR = MC and total profit is maximized at $37,500. The price/output combination at which total revenue is maximized is P = $30 and Q = 6,000 units. At that point, MR = 0 and total revenue is maximized at $180,000.

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A. A table or spreadsheet for Pharmed Caplets output (Q), price (P), total revenue (TR), marginal revenue (MR), total cost (TC), marginal cost (MC), average cost (AC), total profit (π), and marginal profit (Mπ) appears as follows:

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The price/output combination at which total profit is maximized is P = $830 and Q= 700 units. At that point, MR = MC and total profit is maximized at $209,000. The price/output combination at which average cost is minimized is P = $870 and Q= 300 units. At that point, MC = AC = $440.

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