Presentation on theme: "BAHAN INDUSTRI HASIL PERTANIAN PROF. SIMON BW Ph.D. GELATINE."— Presentation transcript:
BAHAN INDUSTRI HASIL PERTANIAN PROF. SIMON BW Ph.D. GELATINE
is defined as a"product obtained from partial hydrolysis of collagen derived from natural sources such as skin, connective tissue, and bones of animals." The raw materials used in the production of gelatin are from healthy animals and include cattle bone, cattle hides and fresh, frozen pigskins.
GELATINE PRODUCTS Gelatin kuning & putih dari PIG SKIN Gelatin in spoon from PIG SKIN GELATINE HALAL FROM COW SKIN/BONE.
GELATINE HISTORY The earliest commercial production of gelatin appears to have been in Holland around 1685, followed shortly thereafter in England about 1700. The first commercial production of gelatin in the United States was in Massachusetts in 1808. Gelatin does not occur free in nature, and cannot be recovered from horns, hoofs and other non-collagen containing parts of vertebrate animals.
Today gelatin is usually available in granular powder form, although in Europe, sheet gelatin is still available. Gelatin Type A, with isoionic point of 7 to 9 and Type B, with isoionic point of 4.8 to 5.2 The Isoionic point is the pH value at which a zwitterion molecule has an equal number of positive and negative chargespH zwitterionmolecule positive and negative charges
Gelatin is THERMOREVERSIBLE GELS forms thermally reversible gels with water, and the gel melting temperature (<35°C) is below body temperature. The disadvantage of gelatin is that it is derived from animal hide and bone (not from trotters as is a common perception), hence there are problems with regard to kosher and Halal status and vegetarians also have objections to its use.
There are no plant sources of gelatin, and there is no chemical relationship between gelatin and other materials referred to as vegetable gelatin, such as seaweed extracts. Gelatin derived from an acid-treated precursor is known as Type A, and gelatin derived from an alkali- treated precursor is known as Type B. Gelatin is a protein and in aqueous solutions is a hydrophilic colloid or gummy materials
Nutritionally Gelatin is not a complete protein food because the essential amino acid tryptophan is missing and methionine is only present at a low level. The amino acid analysis of gelatin is variable, particularly for the minor constituents, depending on raw material and process used, but proximate values by weight are: glycine 21 %, proline 12 %, hydroxyproline 12 %, glutamic acid 10 %, alanine 9 %, arginine 8%, aspartic acid 6 %, lysine 4 %, serine 4 %, leucine 3 %, valine 2 %, phenylalanine 2 %, threonine 2 %, isoleucine 1 %,hydroxylysine 1 %, methionine and histidine <1% with tyrosine < 0.5 %
GELATINE WORLD PRODUCTIONS 40% mainly from hog skin, others from animal bone/ bone chips. In meat processing bone is a by-product. Bone is reduced to pieces of between 5—10 mm. These are then degreased with hot water, dried and separated into various particle sizes. Potential bone adherent tissues are removed in the degreasing process. The bone chip material is then stored in silos until required for production purposes.
Gelatine structure Gelatin is a heterogeneous mixture of single or multi- stranded polypeptides, each with extended left-handed proline helix conformations and containing between 300 - 4000 amino acids
GELATINE TYPE A TYPE ACIDS: Pigs, in contrast to cattle, are slaughtered at a relatively young age. Since the skin of such young animals is not as highly cross-linked, a more gentle process than the tedious alkaline process can be used; in this case, acid is used. Ossein (demineralized bone chips) can also be processed to gelatine using this method with appropriate acid concentrations and treatment times.
Gelatine of type B (basic) is produced from ossein pretreated with alkali or from washed and cut hide splits. In this process, the raw materials are treated for a period of up to three months with calcium hydroxide, which is renewed several times during the period. In this process, the collagen bonds are partially separated and any noncollagenous proteins and related substances removed. As an alternative process, the raw material can be treated over a period of one to two weeks with dilute sodium hydroxide solution instead of calcium hydroxide. Subsequent to this process, the treated raw material is washed, neutralized by adding acid, and washed again to remove any residual salts.
GELATIN PROPERTIES AND USES. Solubility in water : Gelatin is only partially soluble in cold water, however dry gelatin swells or hydrates when stirred into water. Such mixtures should generally not exceed 34 % gelatin. On warming to about 40°C gelatin that has been allowed to hydrate for about 30 minutes melts to give a uniform solution. Alternatively, dry gelatin can be dissolved by stirring into hot water, but stirring must be continued until solution is complete. This method is normally only used for dilute solutions of gelatin.
Gelling properties 1.gelatin is for its thermally reversible gelling properties with water. 2.In confectionery, gelatin is used as the gelling binder in gummy products, wine gums. Gel Strength : The most important attribute of gelatin is its gel strength and when determined by the standard method (22), is called the Bloom Strength. This is the force in grams required to press a 12.5 mm diameter plunger 4 mm into 112 g of a standard 6 2 / 3 % w/v gelatin gel at 10°C.
Probably best known as a gelling agent in cooking, different types and grades of gelatin are used in a wide range of food and non-food products:gelling agent Common examples of foods that contain gelatin are gelatin desserts, trifles, aspic, marshmallows, and confectioneries such as Peeps and gummy bears. Gelatin may be used as a stabilizer, thickener, or texturizer in foods such as ice cream, jams, yogurt, cream cheese, and margarine; it is used, as well, in fat-reduced foods to simulate the mouthfeel of fat and to create volume without adding calories.gelatin dessertstriflesaspicmarshmallowsPeepsgummy bears stabilizerice cream jamsyogurtcream cheesemargarinemouthfeel
Several penetrometer type instruments have been adapted to determine Bloom Strength. A frequent question is how to substitute gelatin of one Bloom Strength for a gelatin of another. As a guide one can say: C x B ½ = k (24) or C 1 (B 1 ) ½ ÷(B 2 ) ½ = C 2 ; Where C = concentration, B = Bloom strength and k = constant.
GELATIN USES Dairy – ice cream, sour cream, yogurt, cottage cheese, cream pies Meat – ham, aspics, canned hams, meat loaves, pates Desserts – jellied desserts, puddings, frostings Confectionery – gum drops, lozenges, wafers, candy cigarettes, marshmallows, fruit snacks, gummi snacks Other – consommé soups, sauces An alternative source of gelatin substitutes could be natural gel sources such as agar-agar (a seaweed), carrageenan, pectin, or konnyaku.agar-agar carrageenanpectinkonnyaku
Standard Quality of Gelatin Gelatin is tested and "Graded" according to its strength. The Grade is based on the "Bloom" test and the higher the Bloom number the higher the Grade. Gelatin is usually priced according to the Grade; the higher the Grade the higher the price. Example: halalbloom 150, halalbloom 200 and halalbloom 250 :
Microbiological properties Gelatin is an excellent nutrient for most bacteria, hence the manufacturing processes have to carefully avoid contamination. Most countries have microbiological specifications for gelatin, but generally they are not very onerous. Total mesophyllic plate counts of 1000 are generally accepted with various countries limiting the presence of Coliforms, E. Coli, Salmonella, Clostridial spores, Staphylococci, and sometimes even Pseudomonades.
Gelatin fulfils numerous other functions, such as: · coating · texture improvement · protecting · preventing syneresis · glueing