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TANAH, PERTANIAN & PANGAN MASA DEPAN diabstraksikan: smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub.2012/13 Mk. Pengelolaan SDALH
SUMBERDAYA ALAM DAN KEMANUSIAAN Sumber: Diunduh dari: http://www.alc.gov.bc.ca/alr/what_is_ag_land.htm……………….. 21/12/2012 LAHAN PERTANIAN Agriculture can be defined as the systematic and controlled use of living organisms and the environment to improve the human condition. 'Agricultural land' is the land base upon which agriculture is practiced. Typically occurring on farms, agricultural activities are undertaken upon agricultural land to produce agricultural products. Although agricultural land is primarily required for the production of food for human and animal consumption, agricultural activities also include the growing of plants for fibre and fuels (including wood), and for other organically derived products (pharmaceuticals, etc).
UPAYA MENUJU KE BERLANJUTAN o o EROSI: DICEGAH PEMUPUKAN PENGOLAHAN TANAH: MINIMUM/TANPA SISTEM POLA TANAM: DIVERSIFIKASI, SISA PANEN KEMBALI PEMBAKARAN SISA: DILARANG ORGANIK SINTETIK BERIMBANG
SUMBERDAYA ALAM 1.Agriculture – Food products, Coca, Drugs 2.Minerals – Diamonds, oil, Copper, Sand/Gravels etc. 3.Forests – Timber, Herbs, Animals, Parks etc 4.Water resources – Hydropower, Drinking and irrigation water, Lakes etc. 5.Nature Tourism
1.Over the Land 2.Agricultural – main products, cash products, Livestock, Herbs, Timber 3.Under the Land 4.Minerals, oil, Underground water, Stone 5.On the surface 6.Irrigation, Hydropower, River, Sand, river gravel, Snow mountain, National parks and animals Sumber: Natural Resources and Human Security. Er. Sunil Kumar Pokhrel Kennesaw State University USA SUMBERDAYA ALAM Sumber: diunduh dari: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irrigation ……………… 23/12/2012 Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in crop production, which include protecting plants against frost, suppressing weed growing in grain fields and helping in preventing soil consolidation. In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dryland farming. Irrigation systems are also used for dust suppression, disposal of sewage, and in mining. Irrigation is often studied together with drainage, which is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area.
1.Policy shift 2.1994-UNDP definition of Human Security 3.Economic security-Assured basic income 4.Food Security-Physical and economic access to food as well as adequate purchasing power 5.Health Security-Minimum protection from diseases and unhealthy lifestyles. Sumber: diunduh dari: http://www.africanwater.org/ecosan_food.htm.....23/12/2012http://www.africanwater.org/ecosan_food.htm HUMAN SECURITY Sumber: Natural Resources and Human Security. Er. Sunil Kumar Pokhrel Kennesaw State University USA Food security is commonly defined as sustained access for all individuals to an adequate and safe supply of food for an active, healthy and productive life.
1.Environmental security-Clean water, Air pollution, Global warming, Greenhouse gases, etc. 2.Personal security-Protect from physical violence, Domestic abuse, Crime. 3.Community security-Protect from loss of traditional relationships, ethnic and cultural value. 4.Political security-Human rights, Freedom of speech, etc Sumber: diunduh dari: http://ag.arizona.edu/~lmilich/envsec.html..... 23/12/2012http://ag.arizona.edu/~lmilich/envsec.html HUMAN SECURITY Sumber: Natural Resources and Human Security. Er. Sunil Kumar Pokhrel Kennesaw State University USA Environmental Security There are three hierarchical levels at which the food insecurity paradigm can be considered to be acting so as to generate environmental insecurity, which then generates additional food insecurity. At the top is the state; the midlevel is the village or community; and at the bottom are households, the level at which the actors usually have greatest influence on the environment.
Who own the natural resources How to distribute and redistribute the fruit of natural resources Who is responsible for security of Natural resource centers, Transmission lines and Transportation Need for new security force other than national army to protect? Sumber: diunduh dari: http://www.ifad.org/newsletter/pf/3.htm..... 23/12/2012http://www.ifad.org/newsletter/pf/3.htm MINAT ttg KETAHANAN Sumber: Natural Resources and Human Security. Er. Sunil Kumar Pokhrel Kennesaw State University USA Special feature on land tenure: securing land for the future Land is vital for farmers and the communities in which they live. Not only does it provide them with economic means to create their livelihood, but it is their most important social and cultural asset. A farmer without land has nothing. A farmer with land has a respected place in the community and society at large. However, owning land or having secure access to it are not always readily achieved. This is particularly true in many poor countries, where legal and cultural restrictions on land rights present a strong obstacle for rural people, particularly the poorest and most vulnerable among them. In many cases, women are not even entitled to land.
MINAT ttg KETAHANAN Natural resource potential can be utilized? Need Security (protection) Need Investment Need Market Need technology Need Manpower – Upward Migration Upward Migration creates a new sets of conflict Sumber: diunduh dari: http://www.fftc.agnet.org/library.php?func=view&style=&type_id=4&id=20110808172707&print=1 …..23/12/2012 http://www.fftc.agnet.org/library.php?func=view&style=&type_id=4&id=20110808172707&print=1 Sumber: Natural Resources and Human Security. Er. Sunil Kumar Pokhrel Kennesaw State University USA The Relationships among Sustainable Development, Sustainable Land Management, Sustainable Agriculture, and Sustainable Soil Management. (Redrawn from Dumanski 1997)
PERTANIAN SAAT INI We have converted 38% of Earth’s surface for agriculture, the practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock for human use and consumption. Croplands (for growing plant crops) and rangelands (for grazing animal livestock) depend on healthy soil. Diunduh dari: www.instruction.greenriver.edu/.../BW_EssentialCh06Lecture.ppt …… 20/12/2012 Agricultural Capability Classes Class 1 Class 1 land is capable of producing the very widest range of crops. Soil and climate conditions are optimum, resulting in easy management. Class 2 Class 2 land is capable of producing a wide range of crops. Minor restrictions of soil or climate may reduce capability but pose no major difficulties in management. Class 3 Class 3 land is capable of producing a fairly wide range of crops under good management practices. Soil and/or climate limitations are somewhat restrictive. Class 4 Class 4 land is capable of a restricted range of crops. Soil and climate conditions require special management considerations. Class 5 Class 5 land is capable of production of cultivated perennial forage crops and specially adapted crops. Soil and/or climate conditions severely limit capability. Class 6 Class 6 land is important in its natural state as grazing land. These lands cannot be cultivated due to soil and/or climate limitations. Class 7 Class 7 land has no capability for soil bound agriculture.
Croplands Help maintain water flow and soil infiltration Provide partial erosion protection Can build soil organic matter Store atmospheric carbon Provide wildlife habitat for some species Ecological ServicesEconomic Services Food crops Fiber crops Crop genetic resources Jobs Natural Capital Croplands Ecological Services Economic Services Help maintain water flow and soil infiltration Provide partial erosion protection Can build soil organic matter Store atmospheric carbon Provide wildlife habitat for some species Food crops Fiber crops Crop genetic resources Jobs Diunduh dari: www.instruction.greenriver.edu/.../BW_EssentialCh06Lecture.ppt …… 20/12/2012
TANAH: SUATU SISTEM Parent material, such as bedrock, is weathered to begin process of soil formation. Parent material = material geologis dasar di suatu lokasi Bedrock = masa batuan padat yang kontinyu penyusun kerak bumi Weathering = proses yang menghancurkan batuan Diunduh dari: http://www.eoearth.org/article/Soil…… 21/12/2012 Diunduh dari: www.instruction.greenriver.edu/.../BW_EssentialCh06Lecture.ppt …… 20/12/2012 Typical layers found in a soil profile. (Source: Physical Geography.net) Most soils have a distinct profile or sequence of horizontal layers. Generally, these horizons result from the processes of chemical weathering, eluviation, illuviation, and organic decomposition. Up to five layers can be present in a typical soil: O, A, B, C, and R horizons weathering
"Karakterisik lahan" merupakan atribut lahan yang dapat diukur atau diestimasi. Misalnya: Kemiringan, Curah hujan, Tekstur tanah, Kapasitas air tersedia, Biomasa vegetasi, dll.
Struktur tanah Resembles cookie crumbs and is usually less than 0.5 cm in diameter. Commonly found in surface horizons where roots have been growing. http://soil.gsfc.nasa.gov/pvg/granular.gif http://soils.usda.gov/technical/manual/image s/fig3-30_large.jpg
STRUKTUR KUBUS: Blocky Structure Irregular blocks that are usually 1.5 - 5.0 cm in diameter. Can be subangular or angular blocky. http://soil.gsfc.nasa.gov/pvg/blocky.gif http://www.dpi.vic.gov.au/dpi/vro/glenimage s.nsf/Images/gl167_profile/$File/gl167_profi le.jpg
Struktur Prismatik Vertical columns of soil that might be a number of cm long. Usually found in lower horizons. http://soil.gsfc.nasa.gov/pvg/prismatic. gif http://soils.usda.gov/technical/manual/ images/fig3-27_large.jpg
Struktur Pipih Thin, flat plates of soil that lie horizontally. Usually found in compacted soil. http://soil.gsfc.nasa.gov/pvg/pl aty.gif http://soils.ag.uidaho.edu/soilorders/i/Arid _03.jpg
DEGRADASI TANAH DI DUNIA Europe’s land is most degraded because of its long history of intensive agriculture. But Asia’s and Africa’s soils are fast becoming degraded. Diunduh dari: www.instruction.greenriver.edu/.../BW_EssentialCh06Lecture.ppt …… 20/12/2012
Most soil degradation is caused by: livestock overgrazing deforestation cropland agriculture. Diunduh dari: www.instruction.greenriver.edu/.../BW_EssentialCh06Lecture.ppt …… 20/12/2012 SEBAB-SEBAB DEGRADASI TANAH
KOMPONEN TANAH Soil is a complex mixture of organic and inorganic components and living organisms. Diunduh dari: www.instruction.greenriver.edu/.../BW_EssentialCh06Lecture.ppt …… 20/12/2012
HUMUS Dark, crumbly mass of undifferentiated material made up of complex organic compounds Soils with high humus content hold moisture better and are more productive for plant life. Diunduh dari: http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/a0100e/a0100e04.htm …… 21/12/2012 Components of soil organic matter and their functions Soil organic matter consists of a variety of components. These include, in varying proportions and many intermediate stages, an active organic fraction including microorganisms (10-40 percent), and resistant or stable organic matter (40-60 percent), also referred to as humus. Diunduh dari: www.instruction.greenriver.edu/.../BW_EssentialCh06Lecture.ppt …… 20/12/2012
PROFIL TANAH Consists of layers called horizons. Simplest: A = topsoil B = subsoil C = parent material But most have O, A, E, B, C, and R Diunduh dari: www.instruction.greenriver.edu/.../BW_EssentialCh06Lecture.ppt …… 20/12/2012
SOIL PROFILE O Horizon: Organic or litter layer A Horizon: Topsoil. Mostly inorganic minerals with some organic material and humus mixed in. Crucial for plant growth E Horizon: Eluviation horizon; loss of minerals by leaching, a process whereby solid materials are dissolved and transported away B Horizon: Subsoil. Zone of accumulation or deposition of leached minerals and organic acids from above C Horizon: Slightly altered parent material R Horizon: Bedrock Diunduh dari: www.instruction.greenriver.edu/.../BW_ EssentialCh06Lecture.ppt …… 20/12/2012 Diunduh dari: http://ktcomilloniportfolio.wikispaces.com/file/view/AG 1060a.gif/127711929/AG1060a.gif …… 21/12/2012
DESKRIPSI TANAH Soil can be characterized by color and several other traits: Texture (percentage sand, silt, clay) Structure; Porosity Cation exchange capacity ; pH Parent Material Infiltration rate Nutrient concentrations Best for plant growth is loam, an even mix of sand, silt and clay. Diunduh dari: http://elkhorn.unl.edu/epublic/pages/publicationD.jsp?publicationId=111 …… 21/12/2012 Diunduh dari: www.instruction.greenrive r.edu/.../BW_EssentialCh0 6Lecture.ppt …… 20/12/2012
EROSION & DEPOSITION Erosion = removal of material from one place and its transport elsewhere by wind or water Deposition = arrival of eroded material at a new location These processes are natural, and can build up fertile soil. But where artificially sped up, they are a big problem for farming. Diunduh dari: www.instruction.greenriver.edu/.../BW_EssentialCh06Lecture.ppt …… 20/12/2012
Sand dunes around Moses Lake are all that are left of the wind erosion in that area. The smaller particles, silt and clay were blown eastward toward the Palouse. The deposition of the silt and clay particles led to the formation of the Palouse Hills. The Palouse Hills are a wind/water erosional surface. Diunduh dari: www.instruction.greenriver.edu/.../BW_EssentialCh06Lecture.ppt …… 20/12/2012 EROSION & DEPOSITION Diunduh dari: http://www.cep.unep.org/pubs/Techreports/tr32en/content.html…… 21/12/2012 Four types of soil erosion on an exposed slope.
Diunduh dari: http://www.fao.org/docrep/t1765e/t1765e05.htm …… 21/12/2012 EROSI TANAH
TIPE EROSI TANAH Diunduh dari: http://extension.missouri.edu/p/G1509 …… 21/12/2012 Raindrop impact is the major cause of soil particle detachment, which can result in the particles moving down slope in flowing water (as sheet erosion) during a rainfall event. Flowing water can also detach soil particles if the velocity is high enough, usually where water starts to concentrate (rill and gully erosion ). If the velocity is reduced sufficiently, particles will settle out. The velocity at which settling begins is dependent on particle size and density, as is the time required for the particles to settle out. Large, dense particles, such as grains of sand, settle first. Fine clays settle out slowly and only in relatively still water.
Desertification A loss of more than 10% productivity due to: Erosion Soil compaction Forest removal Overgrazing Drought Salinization Climate change Depletion of water resources etc. When severe, there is expansion of desert areas, or creation of new ones, e.g., the Middle East, formerly, “Fertile Crescent”. Diunduh dari: www.instruction.greenriver.edu/.../BW_EssentialCh06Lecture.ppt …… 20/12/2012
Diunduh dari: http://www.keepbanderabeautiful.org/soilconservation.html …… 21/12/2012 KONSERVASI TANAH Soil conservation is the best way to make sure that we have the land we need to live on. Erosion is the biggest enemy of soil and land conservation. Protecting / conserving soil with grass, plants or mulch is needed. Always make sure that the soil on your property stays right where it should be!
Alternating the crop planted (e.g., between corn and soybeans) can restore nutrients to soil and fight pests and disease. Diunduh dari: nzdl.org …… 21/12/2012 ROTASI TANAMAN DESIGNING THE CROP ROTATION PATTERN: 1.Based on knowledge from past years or from rainfall data, determine the onset and the end of the rainy season. 2.Choose short-maturing varieties of both rice and legume crop to accomodate a three-crop sequence or to avoid water stress. 3.Estimate the planting and harvesting dates of each crop in the cropping sequence. 4.If, based on the rainfall occurrence and drainage system, only a two-crop sequence is possible, there is a flexibility to choose a longer duration crop variety which has other desired characteristics..
Planting along contour lines of slopes helps reduce erosion on hillsides. Diunduh dari: http://www.bensoninstitute.org/Publication/Lessons/Images/L1/LandPreparation/fp/1306.jpg …… 21/12/2012 PERTANIAN KONTUR The management practices such as contouring, strip planting, cover cropping, alley cropping,reduced tillage, terracing and leaving some crop residue on the land help to eliminate or minimize the loss of soil from water and wind erosion
Diunduh dari: http://www.agnet.org/library.php?func=view&id=20110804181442&type_id=4 …… 21/12/2012 ALLEY CROPPING The Concept of Alley Cropping on Sloping Lands Fast-growing, deep-rooted legume trees such as leucaena ( Leucaena leucocephala) have been planted in double or single rows in Indonesia and the Philippines by small-scale farmers on sloping lands to control erosion (Lungren and Nair 1985). Food crops are then planted in the alleys between the trees. Periodic pruning is needed to prevent shading of the food crops by the tree canopy. Once established, the trees facilitate terrace formation within the alley
Cutting stairsteps or terraces is the only way to farm extremely steep hillsides without causing massive erosion. Bench terraces are a soil and water conservation measure used on sloping land with relatively deep soils to retain water and control erosion. They are normally constructed by cutting and filling to produce a series of level steps or benches. This allows water to infiltrate slowly into the soil. Bench terraces are reinforced by retaining banks of soil or stone on the forward edges. This practice is typical for rice-based cropping systems. In China, a modification of bench terraces includes an interval slope planted with perennials and grasses between individual terraces. This system is suitable where soil erosion is critical, rainfall is low and labor and farm manure are not typically available. Shrubs or herbs can also be grown on the edges of the terraces. Diunduh dari: http://www.greenstone.org/greenstone3/ …… 21/12/2012 TARASSERING
No-till and reduced-tillage farming leaves old crop residue on the ground instead of plowing it into soil. This covers the soil, keeping it in place. Here, corn grows up out of a “cover crop.” Diunduh dari: http://www.livinghistoryfarm.org/farminginthe50s/machines_11.html …… 21/12/2012 PENGOLAHAN TANAH KONSERVASI
Conservation tillage is not a panacea for all crops everywhere. It often requires more chemical herbicides (because weeds are not plowed under). It often requires more fertilizer (because other plants compete with crops for nutrients). But legume cover crops can keep weeds at bay while nourishing soil, and green manures can be used as organic fertilizers. Diunduh dari: http://www.extension.org/pages/18636/soil-fertility-in-organic-farming-systems:- much-more-than-plant-nutrition …… 21/12/2012 PENGOLAHAN TANAH KONSERVASI The increased soil stratification and size and activity of soil organism populations under conservation tillage compared to conventional tillage lead to increased nutrient retention. Figure credit: Ed Zaborski, University of Illinois. Adapted from House and Parmelee (1985).
Reduces erosion Saves fuel Cuts costs Holds more soil water Reduces soil compaction Allows several crops per season Does not reduce crop yields Reduces CO 2 release from soil Can increase herbicide use for some crops Leaves stalks that can harbor crop pests and fungal diseases and increase pesticide use Requires investment in expensive equipment Disadvantages Advantages Trade-Offs Conservation Tillage Diunduh dari: www.instruction.greenriver.edu/.../BW_EssentialCh06Lecture.ppt …… 20/12/2012