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Microbial Metabolism. A. Basic Concepts Definitions Metabolism: The processes of catabolism and anabolism Catabolism: The processes by which a living.

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Presentation on theme: "Microbial Metabolism. A. Basic Concepts Definitions Metabolism: The processes of catabolism and anabolism Catabolism: The processes by which a living."— Presentation transcript:

1 Microbial Metabolism

2 A. Basic Concepts Definitions Metabolism: The processes of catabolism and anabolism Catabolism: The processes by which a living organism obtains its energy and raw materials from nutrients Anabolism: The processes by which energy and raw materials are used to build macromolecules and cellular structures (biosynthesis)

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4 Overview of cell metabolism

5 What are nutrients that bacteria want? C Sugar, Lipid Energy, Biosynthesis N Protein Biosynthesis O Air Energy

6 Breakdown Proteins to Amino Acids, Starch to Glucose Synthesis Amino Acids to Proteins, Glucose to Starch

7 Bacterial Metabolism ☺ Exoenzymes: Bacteria cannot transport large polymers into the cell. They must break them down into basic subunits for transport into the cell. Bacteria therefore elaborate extracellular enzymes for the degradation of carbohydrates to sugars (carbohydrases), proteins to amino acids (proteases), and lipids to fatty acids (Lipases).

8 – After Sugars are made or obtained, they are the energy source of life. – Breakdown of sugar(catabolism) different ways: Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration Fermentation Energy Generating Patterns

9 Aerobic respiration – Most efficient way to extract energy from glucose. – Process: Glycolysis Kreb Cycle Electron transport chain – Glycolysis: Several glycolytic pathways – The most common one: glucose-----> pyruvic acid + 2 NADH + 2ATP

10 B.Glycolytic Pathways 4 major glycolytic pathways found in different bacteria: Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas pathway “Classic” glycolysis Found in almost all organisms Hexose monophosphate pathway Also found in most organisms Responsible for synthesis of pentose sugars used in nucleotide synthesis Entner-Doudoroff pathway Found in Pseudomonas and related genera Phosphoketolase pathway Found in Bifidobacterium and Leuconostoc

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15 Formation of intermediates of the Embden – Meyerhof – Parnas (EMP) and Entner – Doudoroff (ED) pathway from carbohydrates other than glucose

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17 BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS OF RESPIRATION

18 Carbohydrate Metabolism 4. TCA cycle

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20 Anaerobic respiration – Final electron acceptor : never be O2  Sulfate reducer: final electron acceptor is sodium sulfate (Na2 SO4)  Methane reducer: final electron acceptor is CO2  Nitrate reducer : final electroon acceptor is sodium nitrate (NaNO3) O2/H2O coupling is the most oxidizing, more energy in aerobic respiration. Therefore, anaerobic is less energy efficient.

21 C.Fermentation Features of fermentation pathways Pyruvic acid is reduced to form reduced organic acids or alcohols. The final electron acceptor is a reduced derivative of pyruvic acid NADH is oxidized to form NAD: Essential for continued operation of the glycolytic pathways. O 2 is not required. No additional ATP are made. Gasses (CO 2 and/or H 2 ) may be released

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24 Fermentation  Glycosis: Glucose ----->2 Pyruvate + 2ATP + 2NADH  Fermentation pathways a. Homolactic acid F. P.A -----> Lactic Acid eg. Streptococci, Lactobacilli b.Alcoholic F. P.A -----> Ethyl alcohol eg. yeast

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33 Nutrition Table 27.1

34 Alternative energy generating patterns (3)

35 Alternative energy generating patterns (4)

36 Energy/carbon classes of organisms

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38 Fig. 5-12

39 Overview of Metabolism

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