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Innledning LCA- metodikk ISO- standarder Miljøvare deklarasjoner Avslutning A systematic mapping and evaluation of health, ecological and resource impact.

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Presentation on theme: "Innledning LCA- metodikk ISO- standarder Miljøvare deklarasjoner Avslutning A systematic mapping and evaluation of health, ecological and resource impact."— Presentation transcript:

1 Innledning LCA- metodikk ISO- standarder Miljøvare deklarasjoner Avslutning A systematic mapping and evaluation of health, ecological and resource impact thoughout the entire life-cycle of a product from resource extraction to final disposal Resources Health Transport Use Environment Waste treatment Production What is LCA?

2 Innledning LCA- metodikk ISO- standarder Miljøvare deklarasjoner Avslutning LCA Framework Goal and Scope Definition Inventory Analysis 1. Constructing a Process Flow Chart 2. Collecting Data 3. Defining Systems Boundaries 4. Processing the Data Impact Assessment 1. Classification 2. Characterization 3. Weighting Interpretation Credit: UNEP, Life Cycle Assessment: What it is and how to do it, Paris 1996.

3 Innledning LCA- metodikk ISO- standarder Miljøvare deklarasjoner Avslutning Functional unit requires... ca 130 PET bottles (17 use cycles) ”1000 liters of beer delivered” ca 70 glas bottles (28 use cycles) ca 2000 aluminium cans (1 'cycle')

4 Innledning LCA- metodikk ISO- standarder Miljøvare deklarasjoner Avslutning Process flow chart for a glas bottle Collection of used glass Private transport Production of lime- stone and sand etc. Glass production washingDeposit Bottle production Filling Retail user landfill Climate change acidification waste VOC Energy consumpton Production of materials Production of bottles washing/ filling & distribution other transport To waste treatment from user

5 Innledning LCA- metodikk ISO- standarder Miljøvare deklarasjoner Avslutning System boundaries … define the boundary between the product system and the environment. … separate unit processes that are included in the analysis from those that are excluded. E.g., for private transport, we may include the energy consumption and emissions of driving the car, but exclude the production of the car, the road etc.

6 Innledning LCA- metodikk ISO- standarder Miljøvare deklarasjoner Avslutning Data sources, data processing Good data on the emissions and resource use during life- cycle steps is difficult to obtain. Following data sources are often used: Process engineering data from the manufacturer Public emissions databases (e.g., TRI) LCA databases included in LCA software other LCAs Great care must be taken to ensure that data is correct and relevant. LCA software tools differ in their ability to correctly process inventory data. They are often unable to address feedback loops or uncertainty.

7 Innledning LCA- metodikk ISO- standarder Miljøvare deklarasjoner Avslutning Impact Assessment Hertwich et al., J. Ind. Ecol. 4(1):13-28, 2000

8 Innledning LCA- metodikk ISO- standarder Miljøvare deklarasjoner Avslutning Equivalent effect Hertwich et al., J. Ind. Ecol. 4(1):13-28, 2000

9 Innledning LCA- metodikk ISO- standarder Miljøvare deklarasjoner Avslutning Impact Assessment and Weighting LCA of concrete: 3 different impact assessment systems were used, reflecting different approaches and values.

10 Innledning LCA- metodikk ISO- standarder Miljøvare deklarasjoner Avslutning Interpretation Find significant contributions most important impact (pollutant or resource use) most important step in the life-cycle Understand analysis -- critical assumptions how would conclusions change in response to other assumptions (sensitivity analysis) how dependent are conclusions on uncertain input data (uncertainty analysis) Identify and evaluate improvement options changes in design, material, or process that may reduce important environmental impacts … is a systematic procedure to identify, qualify, check and evaluate information from the reulsts of the LCI and/or LCIA of a product system … ISO 14043

11 Innledning LCA- metodikk ISO- standarder Miljøvare deklarasjoner Avslutning LCA of Norwegian Hydropower M. Vold, SETAC Case Study Symposium, Brussels, 1996.

12 Innledning LCA- metodikk ISO- standarder Miljøvare deklarasjoner Avslutning Windpower Simplon, CH 1990 Damage costs according to pollutants [Euro/kWh] CO27.7 E-4 CH45.9 E-5 NOx 4.9 E-4 Particles1.1 E-3 SO2 1.1 E-3 NMVOC 1.4 E-4 Benzo(a)pyren 2.7 E-9 Global Warming Mortality Morbidity acidification terrestrical acidification aquatic Eutrophication terrestrial3.76E-05 material damage2.39E-05 damage to plants3.65E-05


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