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Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T Globalisering og de Videregående Uddannelser Rotary Århus 22. november 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T Globalisering og de Videregående Uddannelser Rotary Århus 22. november 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T Globalisering og de Videregående Uddannelser Rotary Århus 22. november 2005

2 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T The case of Australia

3 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T

4 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T Foreign Students in Australia by mode of study ( )

5 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T Cross-border higher education and international mobility: trends and issues

6 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T International mobility of students  OECD countries receive about 85-90% of all foreign students in the world, i.e. 1.8 million students in 2002  The majority (57%) of foreign students within the OECD area come from non-OECD countries  5 countries received 77% of all foreign students in the OECD area in 2002: United States (33%), United Kingdom (13%), Germany (12%), Australia (10%), France (9%)

7 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T The international market for higher education Source: OECD Education at a glance 2005

8 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T The international market for higher education Source: OECD Education at a glance 2005

9 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T Recognition of degrees and quality assurance are key drivers of mobility  Recognition of foreign degrees  facilitates the reception of foreign students with former education  facilitates the return of domestic students with foreign degrees  Lack of recognition of foreign degrees can also be a driver of cross-border education: people can study abroad because their domestic degrees are not well recognised in the country where they want to work  Quality assurance and accreditation, recognition of foreign degrees, and recognition of professional qualifications become increasingly interlinked

10 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T Trends in international mobility of students and cross-border education

11 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T International mobility of academics  United States  international scholars in 2003: an increase by 40% since 1994  Foreign scholars were estimated to represent 30 to 40% of total university researchers  Europe  No systematic evidence, but the academic mobility through the EU Socrates programme has increased by 71% between 1997 and 2000 (to scholars) Source: OECD & Institute of International Education (IIE)

12 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T International mobility of programmes and institutions  Programme and institution mobility is still limited in scale but grows rapidly, especially in the Asia- Pacific region  37% of all international students enrolled in Australian institutions studied from their country in 2001 (against 26% in 1996)  Singapore: more undergraduate students accessed a foreign programme from Singapore than studied abroad in 2000  China: 9-fold increase in foreign programmes between 1995 and 2003

13 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T Growth of Foreign Students: 1990 to 2002 (1990=100) Source: OECD

14 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T Origin of foreign students in America & Europe (2001) OECD receiving countries in North America EuropeOECD From Africa20%77%12% From N. America 55%38%7% From S. America 54%42%4% From Asia47%29%42% From Europe15%81%34% From Oceania29%19%1% From WORLD33%54% Source: OECD

15 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T Rationales and policies to internationalisation: the capacity building agenda

16 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T Rationales and drivers of cross- border higher education  Disappearance of distance (new technologies, decrease in costs of travel and communication)  Globalisation and labour market opportunities  Unmet demand in some emerging countries and need to increase their stock of human capital  Need to attract highly skilled people in the context of ageing societies and increasingly knowledge-based economies

17 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T EXPORT stragegiesIMPORT strategies Capacity building Revenue generation Skilled migration Intensity of economic rationales Mutual understanding

18 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T Cross-border education and brain drain/gain

19 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T Cross-border education and brain drain/gain  Increasing competition for highly skilled people  75% of Chinese students who studied abroad between 1978 and 1999 failed to return  USA: 25% of temporary visa holders were formerly enrolled in US universities (27% of all medical doctors educated abroad)

20 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T Stay rates of 1996 PhD holders in the USA in 2001 Source: Oak Ridge Associated Universities

21 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T Costs and benefits of skilled migration for the sending countries  Costs:  Loss on investment (if they have financed the schooling)  Loss of qualified human capital (and thus productivity)  Benefits:  Investment from their diaspora  Remittances from their diaspora  Business links enabling the sending country to participate in international networks  Permanent and temporary migration are two different cases

22 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T Some countries, especially in the Caribbean and in Africa, face significant emigration rates of their elites (sometimes exceeding 50%)

23 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T Conclusion  Participation in cross-border higher education is important for building capacity: there is still room for more participation of the Nordic countries  Quality assurance agencies and recognition bodies should coordinate internationally to ensure the quality of cross-border higher education and facilitate international mobility (full Bologna and ECTS)  While cross-border higher education can contribute to brain drain, it is only a small aspect of mobility - and a risk to be taken in order to benefit from brain gain. The Nordic countries participates in mobility in a give-and-take system.

24 Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen, Rektor A A R H U S U N I V E R S I T E T Globalisering og de Videregående Uddannelser TAK FOR INVITATIONEN


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