Presentation on theme: "Sectoral systems of Innovation and production in Portugal: structural weakness?… CIS II - CIS III: inter-firm cooperation continues too low: a structural."— Presentation transcript:
Sectoral systems of Innovation and production in Portugal: structural weakness?… CIS II - CIS III: inter-firm cooperation continues too low: a structural weakness?…
A análise...1 “efeito de estrutura” A composição sectorial da economia portuguesa tem evoluido no sentido de um peso maior do sector dos serviços. Contudo, o sector da indústria transformadora é ainda mais importante em relação a muitos países da OCDE, e a distribuição do emprego pelos sectores produtivos portugueses permaneceu estável até ao início dos anos noventa, assim como fortemente dominada pelos sectores: – têxtil – calçado – produtos alimentares
A análise...2 “efeito de intensidade” as deficiências que Portugal revela ao nível estrutural estão também a constrangir a inovação em muitas indústrias, devido sobretudo a: baixa produtividade baixo nível educacional da população activa despesa reduzida em I&D fraca ligação ás fontes de informação sobre novos conhecimentos
A análise...3 o “efeito de intensidade” tem revelado dominar em muitas situações, sendo particularmente influenciado pelo baixo nível educativo e de qualificação da população. O financiamento directo da I&D pela indústria, sendo reduzido, não tem tido impacto significativo: é sobretudo o resultado da ausência, no passado, de políticas integradoras de ciência e tecnologia
A análise...5 Para além do capital individual ou mesmo agregado, o capital social, enquanto capacidade colectiva de aprendizagem, tem emergido como um conceito mais importante para o desenvolvimento socio-económico.
KD S&T System (box 1) Economic and Social System (box 2) Inputs ( of box 1) Inputs (of box 2) Outputs (of box 1) Conceptualization of the Relationship between the S&T System and the Economic and Social System ‘K’ refers to knowledge, and ‘D’ refers to development Outputs (of box 2)
TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY of INDUSTRIES Concept: –measures the effort put into R&D activities within each industry method 1: Direct Technology Intensity: –ratio between the expenses on R&D activities and a measure of output (typically gross output or value added)
TECHNOLOGY INTENSITY of INDUSTRIES method 2: Considering second-round gains –the R&D embodied in the output of an industry includes the R&D effort realized by that industry but also the R&D embodied in the intermediate goods it acquires from other industries method 3: Taking into account the cumulative nature of R&D –The technology intensity of an industry after several years is the sum of the technology intensity of that industry for the all the years considered
OECD INDUSTRIAL SECTORAL TAXONOMY ACCORDING TO TECHNOLOGY INTENSITIES The OECD (1996) suggests a breakdown of industries into four groups, according to their level of technology intensity: —High Technology Intensity industries —Medium High Technology Intensity industries —Medium Low Technology Intensity industries —Low Technology Intensity industries The classification of industries into these four groups is roughly the same for every OECD country using whichever measuring methodology.
Purpose: to describe and explain sectoral patterns of technical change Data: UK firms between 1945 & 1979 Concept: Technological knowledge is specific to firms and applications, cumulative in development and varied amongst sectors. Original Neoclassical formulation Pavitt´s formulation New technology instantly diffuses across capital. Make exogenous the production of technology and innovations. Do not reflect the variety of the sources. Three part taxonomy based on firms: a) Supplier dominated b) Production intensive c) Science based Make endogenous the production of technology and innovations. Technical change is largely a cumulative process specific to firms. Pavitt´s formulation
Institutional sources of main knowledge inputs 7% Public technological infrastructure 34% Other industrial firms 59% Within the innovating firms themselves Analysis of PAVITT´s data Compare sectors in terms of: The sectoral sources of technology used in a sector; The importance of intramural and extramural knowledge sources, and of product and process innovation (institutional sources and nature of the technology) ; The characteristics of innovating firms: their size and principal activity. Most of the knowledge applied by firms in innovations is not general purpose and easily transmitted and reproduced, but appropriate for specific applications and appropriated by specific firms.
Characteristics of innovating firms: size, technological diversification, patterns of production and use of innovations Innovating firms principally in electronic and chemicals, are relatively big, and they develop innovations over a wide range of specific product groups within their principal sector, but relatively few outside. Firms principally in mechanical and instrument engineering are relatively small and specialized, and they exist in symbiosis with large firms, in scale intensive sectors like metal manufacture and vehicles, who make a significant contribution to their own process technology. In textile firms, on the other hand, most process innovations come from suppliers.
Analysis based on the innovating firm: Pavitt´s taxonomy Different sectoral technological trajectories: Supplier dominated Production intensive Science-based Sectoral differences : Sources of technology User needs Means of appropriating benefits
Supplier dominated firms Characteristics: Mainly small; Weak in-house R&D and engineering capability; Appropriate less on the basis of technological advantage; Based mainly on professional skills, aesthetic design, trademarks and advertising; Technological trajectories defined in terms of cutting costs; Most innovations come from suppliers of equipment and materials. Manufacturing Agriculture Many kinds of Services House building Informal household
Production intensive firms Steel Glass Instruments Food Machinery Characteristics: Small (Instruments and Machinery) or large; Some kind of in-house R&D and strong engineering capability; Based mainly on process secrecy and know-how, technical lags, patents, dynamic learning economies, design know-how; Technological trajectories defined in terms of cutting costs or product design; Produces high portion of their own process technology.
Science-based firms Electronics/ Electrical Chemicals Characteristics: Mainly large; Strong in-house R&D and engineering capability; Based mainly on R&D know-how, patents, process secrecy and know- how, dynamic learning economies; Mixed technological trajectories; Produces high portion of their own process technology.
A revised Pavitt´s taxonomy Different sectoral technological trajectories: Supplier dominated Scale- intensive Information-intensive Science-based Specialiuzed suppliers Sectoral differences : Size of firms (big in chemicals, aircraft, electronic; small in machinery, software) Type of product (price sensitive vs performance sensitive) Objectives of Innovation (product vs porcess vs both) Sources of innovation (suppliers; customers; in-housse; basic research) Locus of own innovation (R&D labs in Chemicals and electronics; engineering dept in automotive; system dept in services)
O Processo de Mudança Tecnológica Capacidade Tecnológica Acumulação Tecnológica (aprendizagem) As bases necessárias para gerar e gerir a mudança tecnológica (1)Conhecimento, “skills” e experiência (2)Instituições e ligações intra e inter-empresas Mudança Tecnológica (a)Introdução de tecnologia “embodied” em novos produtos e/ou novos processos. (b)Adaptação e optimização da capacidade produtiva existente Capacidade de Inovação Componentes de sistema de produção: capital “know-how” e “skills” da força de trabalho Input specs Organização e procedimentos de produção Output Industrial
Indicators such as R&D intensity or patent-counting fail to appreciate the innovative capability of most traditional industries: technological change in fact is mainly based upon learning-by-doing and tacit knowledge rather than conventional R&D activities. Traditional Industries High-Tech Industries vs. Accumulation of technological knowledge Technological change is intense and rapid European industries seems to fall into the new category of skill- intensive industries (Pavitt -1987).
Skill-intensive industries (SII) characteristics are: -Small size firms -High levels of regional concentration -High levels of wages -Low levels of capital intensity -Tight web of cooperative agreements among firms -High rates of Total Factor Productivity Growth (TFP) -Specific nature of technological change Aspects that play a major role in SII as source of technological change: -Internal organization of companies -Structure of internal labor markets -The close interaction between changes in process and products in terms of design. - The creation process of firms and the accumulation of tacit knowledge. The dynamics of technological changes of skill-intensive industries are based upon localized technological knowledge.
-Relies upon a continuum of specifications of different forms of knowledge: ► Generic and Scientific Knowledge (public good) ► Tacit Knowledge (result of lengthy learning processes, highly idiosyncratic and specific to the business of the firm) - It is costly to use elsewhere (switching costs) - Highly impure public good Technological knowledge : Tends to be highly localized WHY ?
Why is this Tacit Knowledge so firm specific ? The traditional distinction between new technologies and existing technologies appears much weaker (relevant search costs) The generation of technological knowledge is the result of a mix of production, learning and communicating, of which R&D is only a part Technological knowledge is embedded in the “circumstances” in witch the firm operates
Experiment, learning-by-doing, learning-by-using. Localized Knowledge Tacit Knowledge Deduction from general principles Generic Knowledge Codified Knowledge
Firms rely upon varying mixes of tacit and generic knowledge in order to generate localized technological innovations. But more on tacit k. or more on generic k.? Depends … -The amount of resources devoted to implementing the accumulation of tacit knowledge by each agent in the system -Its receptivity to technological knowledge generated by third parties -The properties of the system in terms of connectivity and distribution of receptive agents New technological change emerges also from the daily interaction of learning firms among themselves and with other scientific institutions
What are the main incentives to invest on learning-by-doing or R&D activities? “Firms are pushed to introduce technological innovations by pressure of demand” (Rosenberg, 1974) Increase rate of growth of output Investment on learning-by-doing and R&D activities Technological Innovation Growth of labor productivity Lower average unit costs Path Dependent
Validating Previous Hypotheses: mechanical engineering industry -relevance of learning processes -creative recombination of existing knowledge -standard R&D activities Technological Change -136 manufacturing firms -Time span of six years (1988-1994) -In these years, the industry recovered from the crises of the late 1980s and experienced a fast growth fueled by the demand for capital goods after 1991, with an increase in added value and TFP Data set
Empirical Evidence The larger are the stimulations to capitalize on acquired tacit knowledge The Faster is the output growth The faster is the rate of introduction of localized technological innovations Generation of new localized technological change Increase TFP Increase market share and output Reduce market prices Makes possible Hence And Recursive cycle of growth
THE INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURE Food, beverages & tobacco Textiles, apparel & leather Wood products & furniture Paper, paper products & printing Chemical products Non-metallic mineral products Basic metal industries Fabricated metal products Other manufacturing, nec EU-13 YEAR Portugal
How far Industrial structure affects innovation?
: Perspectivas para a “mudança” HIPÓTESES : Perspectivas para a “mudança” A noção de mudança tecnológica localizada: A base cientifica e tecnológica nacional um processo conjunto de produçãp, aprendizagem e comunicação um processo endógeneo, envolvendo especialização e diversificação a importancia do mercado, apesar da relevancia das politicas públicas baseado num “mix” de conhecimento genérico e tácito …”foresight should be resisted. …the aim of policy should be to create a broad and productive science base, closely linked to higher education…”, Pavitt (1998)
CONTENTS SERVICES E-TAILERS “THE INTERNET” ALTERNATIVE MEDIA E-CHANNELS Software Solutions Develop software solutions Designed to enhance the Internet experience for both Consumers and business Enabling Technologies Create hardware/software solutions which enable the efficient operation of the internet ACCESS PROVIDERS CONSUMER INTERNET SERVICES BUSINESS um caso de estudo – o sector da internet
Business/Customer Support On-line Products and Services Traditional Corporations Content Services THE GLOBE.COM THE MOTLEY FOOL BROADCAST.COM MPATH MONSTER.COM NETCENTIVES Alternative Media ESPN CNN Wall St. Journal YAHOO MSN EARTHWEB VERTICALNET BABY CENTER DELL BARNES & NOBLE CHARLES SCHWAB CITIBANK MACY’S E- CHANNELS AMAZON.C OM E*TRADE BEYOND.C OM EBAY BUY.COM E-tailers Access Providers EARTHLINK MINDSPRING AOL EXCITE @HOME VERIO COMPUSERVE NETCOM Service Providers AT&T WorldNet Ameritech DOUBLECLICK USWEB/CKS IXL MEDIA TRIX RAZORFISH ABOVENET Software solutions NetObjects Real Networks Egain Netscape Marimba Inktomi Sitara Networks Resonate Networks Associates WebOrder Vignette Ariba IBM Cisco IOS Hewlett-Packard Sun Cisco Lucent/Ascend Nortel/Bay Networks Nexabit Netopia Broadcom Verifone Enabling Technologies Technological Innovation Um caso de estudo: o modelo de negócios da internet Source: joint Venture – Sillicon Valley Network, 1999
um caso de estudo – a industria de internet It is unlikely that technological clusters aimed at supporting service integration will emerge, unless incentives exist to integrate elements in the value chain... Hawkins (1997) Evolucão contínua para uma “nova” cadeia de valor A necessidade de extender a análise ao contexto : -Communidades de utilizadores -Contexto regional/local Internet business models: creative destruction, as usual !! (McKnigth et al, 2000)
Promover o Capital Social num contexto de base tecnológica caso de estudo: A diversidade regional na EU Source: Sixth Periodic Report DG XVI, 1998
análise: sistemas regionais fragmentados Regional Government Business Services SMEs Chamber of Commerce SMEs Large firms SMEs Universities Technology Centers Sectoral Associations SMEs Large firms SMEs Technology Consultants SMEs Large firms SMEs Regional economy
A learning region : um sistema de inovacão regional Regional government Business services & tech. con- sultants SMEs Business intermediaries: Cham. of Comm.; Local Agencies BICs SMEs Large firms; Tech. Centers; Sect. Associa- tions SMEs Cluster Science base: Universities; Public R&D; Laboratories Technology Centers Sectoral Associations SMEs Large firms SMEs Valorisation of R&D and Tech. Transfer Office SMEs Global economy SMEs Open gate: International technology transfer networks Open gate: International value chains Open gate: International business consultants & specialized business services Open gate: International R&D/academic excellence networks SMEs Regional economy
Estratégias de Inovacão Regional Landabaso et al. (1999) – Internal coherence of the regional innovation system by connecting its different key elements: R&TDI supply with well identified Demand and business needs, from SMEs in particular. –Increase the amount and, more importantly the quality of innovation public spending through innovation projects (bigger and better spending in this field through regional policy). – Rationalise the regional innovation support system by raising awareness, eliminating duplications, filling gaps and promoting synergies. Successful stories: The Regional Technology Plans Wales (UK), Limburg (Netherlands), Lorraine (France) and Leipzig-Halle- Dessau (Germany), Central Macedonia (Greece), Castilla Y Leon (Spain) and Abruzzo (Italy).
O argumento… “ With some notable exceptions, the regional developmment debate in Europe has been dominated by exogeneous models to such an extent that development tends to be conceived as something that is introduced to, or visited upon, less favoured regions, LFRs, from external doors… …this kind of regional policy did little or nothing to stimulate localised learning, innovation and indigeneous development within LFRs”, Henderson & Morgan (1999)