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@ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 An example of a good translation En inbyggd oljepump levererar olja under tryck både till hydraulsystemet och växellådans oljesystem.

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Presentation on theme: "@ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 An example of a good translation En inbyggd oljepump levererar olja under tryck både till hydraulsystemet och växellådans oljesystem."— Presentation transcript:

1 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 An example of a good translation En inbyggd oljepump levererar olja under tryck både till hydraulsystemet och växellådans oljesystem.  An integrated oil pump delivers pressurised fluid both to the hydraulic system and to the lubrication system of the gearbox.

2 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 An example of a bad translation Stackars Kalle var rädd. -> Wretched cold each cautious.

3 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Fundamental problems in MT lexical ambiguity in SL translation ambiguity grammatical differences between SL and TL

4 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Lexical ambiguity in SL form –hus (sg/pl, basic/genitive case) part-of-speech –var (verb, pronoun, adverb, noun) polysemy –fil (milk, tool, traffic lane)

5 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Handling form and part-of-speech ambiguity in SL Syntactic analysis of the input sentence Han köpte ett nytt hus (sg, basic case). Stackars Kalle var (verb) rädd.

6 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Handling polysemy domain context –rules based on grammatical analysis anta en elev (obj) –> admit a student anta, att (compl) -> suppose that examples

7 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Handling translation ambiguity rules based on grammatical analysis bilen på gatan -> the car on the street (lokationsattribut) taket på huset -> the roof of the house (partonymiattribut) examples

8 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Grammatical differences morphology –Hon köpte en liten hund. -> Sie hat einen kleinen Hund gekauft. syntax –Genom att svänga till vänster hittar du huset. -> Turning left you will find the house. word order –Sedan gick han hem. -> Then he went home.

9 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Handling grammatical differences syntactic-semantic analysis + transfer rules deep analysis (interlingua) + generation according to TL grammar examples

10 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Re-use techniques sentence alignment –linking source and target sentences pairwise –success rate close to 100 % –translation memories –basis for word alignment

11 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Sentence alignment I oljefilterhållaren sitter en överströmningsventil. The oil filter retainer has an overflow valve. (sventscan ) Undvik hudkontakt med kylvätska. Hudkontakt kan medföra irritation. Avoid contact with the skin as this may cause irritation. (sventscan )

12 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Sentence alignment, cont. Skruvarna sträcks vid varje åtdragning, därför får skruvarna i en del förband återanvändas endast ett visst antal gånger. Bolts are stretched each time they are tightened. For this reason, the bolts in some joints should only be reused a certain number of times. (sventscan )

13 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Re-use techniques, cont. word alignment –linking sub-sentence segments, typically, source and target words and phrases, pair-wise –co-occurrence, word similarity, dictionary –large-scale processing –success rate close to 80 % –translation dictionaries –bi- or multi-lingual term databases –data-driven machine translation

14 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 A word alignment example Jag tar mittplatsen, som jag inte tycker om. I take the middle seat, which I dislike. jag – I tar – take mittplatsen – the middle seat som – which jag – I inte tycker om – dislike (from Tiedemann 2003)

15 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Evaluation of MT human –adequacy –acceptance automatic comparison with a gold standard n-gram technique: e.g. BLEU, NEVA edit distance See further (OH-presentation by Eva Forsbom)

16 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Automatic evaluation, ex. 1 SL: Framställningsmetod och särskild beredningsmetod: En hög kvalitet på råvaran komjölk är viktig för tillverkningen. MT: Manufacturing method and special manufacturing method: A high quality of the raw material cow's milk is important to the production. Ref: Specific production or manufacturing method: High-quality cow's milk is important to production. NEVA: 0,27

17 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Automatic evaluation, ex. 2 SL: Mjölkråvaran som används för ystning pastöriseras till 72 ºC i 15 sekunder. MT: The milk that is used for coagulation is pasteurised to 72 ºC for 15 seconds. Ref: The milk used for coagulation is pasteurised at 72 ºC for 15 seconds. NEVA: 0,59

18 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Basic translation strategies rule-based translation –direct translation –transfer-based translation –interlingua translation datadriven translation –statistical translation –example-based translation hybrids

19 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Direct translation translation proceeds word by word, or phrase by phrase no intermediary sentence structure the most important language component is a translation dictionary translation problems are handled more or less ad hoc by means of specific rules

20 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Simplistic direct approach sentence splitting tokenisation handling capital letters dictionary look-up and lexical substitution incl. heuristics for handling ambiguities copying unknown words, digits, signs of punctuation etc. formal editing

21 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Advanced direct approach (Tucker 1987) source text dictionary look-up and morphological analysis identification of homographs identification of compound nouns identification of nouns and verb phrases processing of idioms

22 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Advanced approach, cont. processing of prepositions subject-predicate identification syntactic ambiguity identification synthesis and morphological processing of TL rearrangement of words and phrases in TL

23 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Feasibility of direct translation quality –typically browsing quality –depends on the quality of the translation dictionary the coverage of the translation rules –editing quality may be achieved problems with –ambiguity –inflection –word order –other structural differences

24 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 SYSTRAN SYStem TRANslation advanced direct translation (moving towards transfer-based translation) )http://www.systranet.com/systran/net

25 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 EC Systran 1,600,000 dictionary units –20 domain dictionaries daily use by EC translators, administrators of the European institutions

26 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Ex. 1: fairly good translation "Enskilda företagare som inte bildat bolag klassificeras hit." "Individual entrepreneurs that have not formed companies are classified here.” Systemet känner igen bildat som en perfektform och översätter korrekt have formed, trots att hjälpverbet är utelämnat. Negationen not placeras på rätt plats.

27 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Ex. 2: word order problem/ Systran sv-en "När byarna kontaktades hade de inte ens utsatts för influensa." "When the villages were contacted had they not even been exposed to flu.” Systemet hittar inte subjekt och predikat och ger därför fel ordföljd.

28 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Ex. 3: ambiguity problem "Vad kan vi lära av Arrawetestammen?" "What can we faith of the Arawete?” Systemet hittar inte sambandet mellan kan och lära och ser därför inte att lära är ett verb.

29 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Ex. 4: ambiguity problem ”Extrapoleringen går till så här. " ”The extrapolation goes to so here.” Systemet känner inte till partikelverbet känna till och översätter därför felaktigt ord för ord.

30 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Transfer-based translation intermediary sentence structure provides a basis for the systematic handling of grammatical problems and some types of lexical choices basic processes –analysis –transfer –generation (synthesis)

31 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Transfer-based translation, cont. knowledge-intensive language modules –dictionary and grammar of SL –transfer dictionary and transfer rules –dictionary and grammar of TL

32 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Multra transfer-based translation engine transfer via grammatical relations –TL word order not inherited from SL modular unification-based focus on restricted domains developped at Uppsala University

33 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 An example Sv. I oljefilterhållaren sitter en överströmningsventil.  En. The oil filter retainer has an overflow valve. (from the Scania corpus) transfer rule: sitter  has, adv  subj, subj  obj

34 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Interlingua translation analysis of SL sentence into a language- independent meaning representation, an interlingua –ideally, no trace of the SL structure in the interlingua generation of TL sentence from the interlingua

35 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Statistical machine translation translation model based on word alignment language model based on n-grams decoding algorithm –selecting the most probable combination of alternatives in the translation model and the language model

36 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Statistical MT on the market Language Weaver

37 @ Anna Sågvall Hein 2005 Example-based machine translation non-trivial use of translation examples in the translation process preliminary definition –alignment of texts –matching of input sentences against phrases (examples) –selection and extraction of equivalent TL phrases –adaptation and combination of TL phrases as acceptable output sentences (from Hutchins, J., Towards a definition of example-based machine translation. Proc. of Workshop: Example- Based Machine Translation. MT SUMMIT X. Phuket. Thailand. 2005)


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