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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 1 Chapter 11: Waves Energy Transport by Waves Longitudinal and Transverse Waves Transverse Waves on Strings Periodic Waves Mathematical and Graphical Descriptions of Waves Reflection and Refraction of Waves Interference and Diffraction Standing Waves on a String

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 2 § 11.1 Waves and Energy Transport A wave is a disturbance that travels outward from its source. Waves carry energy. The energy is transported outward from the source; matter is not.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 3 When a stone is dropped into a pond, the water is disturbed from its equilibrium positions as the wave passes; it returns to its equilibrium position after the wave has passed. The water moves up and down as the disturbance moves outward.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 4 Intensity is a measure of the amount of energy/sec that passes through a square meter of area perpendicular to the wave’s direction of travel. Intensity has units of watts/m 2. This is an inverse square law. The intensity drops as the inverse square of the distance from the source. (Light sources appear dimmer the farther away from them you are.)

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 5 Example: At the location of the Earth’s upper atmosphere, the intensity of the Sun’s light is 1400 W/m 2. What is the intensity of the Sun’s light at the orbit of the planet Mercury? Divide one equation by the other:

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 6 § 11.2 Transverse and Longitudinal Waves A transverse wave is where the motions of the particles are transverse (perpendicular) to the direction of wave travel.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 7 A longitudinal wave is where the motions of the particles are along the same direction as the wave propagation. Rarefaction, a region of low density Compression, a region of high density

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 8 Both types of waves can move through solids. Only longitudinal waves can move through a fluid. A transverse wave can move along the surface of a fluid.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 9 § 11.3 Transverse Waves on a String M Attach a vibrator here L Attach a mass to a string to provide tension. The string is then shaken at one end at a frequency f.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 10 A wave traveling on this string will have a speed of where F is the force applied to the string (tension) and is the mass/unit length of the string (linear mass density).

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 11 Example (text problem 11.10): When the tension in a cord is 75.0 N, the wave speed is 140 m/s. What is the linear mass density of the cord? The speed of a wave on a string is Solving for the linear mass density:

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 12 §11.4 Periodic Waves A periodic wave repeats the same pattern over and over. For periodic waves: v= f v is the wave’s speed f is the wave’s frequency Is the wave’s wavelength

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 13 The period T is measured by the amount of time it takes for a point on the wave to go through one complete cycle of oscillations. The frequency is then f = 1/T.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 14 The maximum displacement from equilibrium is amplitude (A) of a wave. One way to determine the wavelength is by measuring the distance between two consecutive crests.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 15 Example (text problem 11.13): What is the wavelength of a wave whose speed and period are 75.0 m/s and 5.00 ms, respectively? Solving for the wavelength:

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 16 §11.5 Mathematical Description of a Wave To describe a wave, we must know the position of the particles in the medium. This requires a function of the form y(x,t).

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 17 + is used for a wave traveling in the –x direction, and – is used for a wave traveling in the +x direction. is called the wave number. Note: it would also be valid to use the sine function in the above description. is called the phase.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 18 The above picture is a snapshot (time is frozen). Two points on the wave are “in phase” if: (n= 1, 2, 3,…)

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 19 Example (text problem 11.22): A wave on a string has an equation: (a) What is the amplitude of the wave? (b) What is the wavelength? A = 4.00 mm The wave number k is 6.00 rad/m.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 20 (d) What is the wave speed? (e) What direction is the wave traveling. (c) What is the period? Along the +x direction. Example continued:

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 21 §11.6 Graphing Waves The next two slides show three “snapshots” of a traveling wave y(x,t) = A cos ( t kx) where A = 1.0 m, k = 1 rad/m, and = rad/sec.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 22 Wave travels to the left (-x-direction) time

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 23 Wave travels to the right (+x-direction) time

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 24 §11.7 The Principle of Superposition For small amplitudes, waves will pass through each other and emerge unchanged. Superposition Principle: When two or more waves overlap, the net disturbance at any point is the sum of the individual disturbances due to each wave.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 25 Two traveling wave pulses: left pulse travels right; right pulse travels left.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 26 §11.8 Reflection and Refraction At an abrupt boundary between two media, a reflection will occur. A portion of the incident wave will be reflected backward from the boundary.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 27 When you have a wave that travels from a “low density” medium to a “high density” medium, the reflected wave pulse will be inverted. The frequency of the reflected wave remains the same.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 28 When a wave is incident on the boundary between two different media, a portion of the wave is reflected, and a portion will be transmitted into the second medium.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 29 The frequency of the transmitted wave also remains the same. However, both the wave’s speed and wavelength are changed such that:

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 30 The transmitted wave will also suffer a change in propagation direction (refraction) determined by where 1 is the angle of incidence, 2 is the angle of refraction, and v 1 and v 2 represent the wave speeds in medium 1 and medium 2 respectively. The angles are measured from the normal.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 31 Example (text problem 11.36): Light of wavelength 0.500 m in air enters the water in a swimming pool. The speed of light in water is 0.750 times the speed in air. What is the wavelength of the light in water? Since the frequency is unchanged in both media:

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 32 §11.9 Interference and Diffraction Two waves are considered coherent if they have the same frequency and maintain a fixed phase relationship. Two waves are considered incoherent if the phase relationship between them varies randomly.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 33 When waves are in phase, their superposition gives constructive interference. When waves are one-half a cycle out of phase, their superposition gives destructive interference.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 34 When two waves travel different distances to reach the same point, the phase difference is determined by:

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 35 Diffraction is the spreading of a wave around an obstacle in its path.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 36 §11.10 Standing Waves Pluck a stretched string such that y(x,t) = A sin( t + kx) When the wave strikes the wall, there will be a reflected wave that travels back along the string.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 37 The reflected wave will be 180° out of phase with the wave incident on the wall. Its form is y(x,t) = -A sin ( t - kx). Apply the superposition principle to the two waves on the string:

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 38 The previous expression is the mathematical form of a standing wave. N N N N A A A A node (N) is a point of zero oscillation. An antinode (A) is a point of maximum displacement. All points between nodes oscillate up and down.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 39 The nodes occur where y(x,t) = 0. The nodes are found from the locations where sin kx=0, which happens when kx = 0, , 2 ,…. That is when kx = n where n = 0,1,2,… The antinodes occur when sin kx= 1; that is where

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 40 If the string has a length L, and both ends are fixed, then y(x=0,t) = 0 and y(x=L, t) = 0. The wavelength of a standing wave: where n = 1, 2, 3,…

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 41 These are the permitted wavelengths of standing waves on a string; no others are allowed. The speed of the wave is: The allowed frequencies are then: n =1, 2, 3,…

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 42 The n=1 frequency is called the fundamental frequency. All allowed frequencies (called harmonics) are integer multiples of f 1.

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 43 Example (text problem 11.55): A Guitar’s E-string has a length 65 cm and is stretched to a tension of 82 N. It vibrates with a fundamental frequency of 329.63 Hz. Determine the mass per unit length of the string. For a wave on a string: Solving for the linear mass density:

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Fisica Generale - Alan Giambattista, Betty McCarty Richardson Copyright © 2008 – The McGraw-Hill Companies s.r.l. 44 Summary Intensity Wave Properties (f,, v, ampltude) Transverse vs. Longitudinal Waves Mathematical Description of a Wave Reflection, Refraction, Interference, and Diffraction Superposition of Waves Standing Waves on a String

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