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KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN: Bahaya Lingkungan & Kesehatan Disarikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub nop 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN: Bahaya Lingkungan & Kesehatan Disarikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub nop 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 KETAHANAN LINGKUNGAN: Bahaya Lingkungan & Kesehatan Disarikan oleh: soemarno, psdl ppsub nop 2013

2 Apakah bahaya lingkungan ? 'Environmental hazard' is a generic term for any situation or state of events which poses a threat to the surrounding environment. This term incorporates topics like pollution and natural hazards such as storms and earthquakes. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

3 Sumber: Diunduh 16/12/2012

4 BAHAYA DAN RISIKO BAHAYA = Hazard: Is “a factor or exposure that may adversely affect health” it is a qualitative term expressing the potential of an environmental agent to harm the health of certain individuals if the exposure level is high enough and/or if other conditions apply. Risiko Is “the probability that an event will occur, the probability of unfavorable outcome e.g that an individual will become ill or die within a stated period of time or age. It is the quantitative probability that a health effect will occur after an individual has been exposed to a specified amount of a hazard. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

5 KONTAMINASI Contamination -- Introduction into water, air, and soil of microorganisms, chemicals, toxic substances, wastes, or wastewater in a concentration that makes the medium unfit for its next intended use. Also applies to surfaces of objects, buildings, and various household and agricultural use products. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

6 PENCEMARAN Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light energy. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

7 POLUTAN = PENCEMAR A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water or soil. Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: –Sifat kimianya, –Konsentrasinya –Persistensinya. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

8 "Pollution" is generally used when you're talking about something big, like a whole environment, or an entire river, or something else really large. "Contamination" can refer to very small quantities of something - contaminated food, medicine, drinking water supply; it can also mean a very small amount of foreign or harmful material, such as bacterial contamination, or a toxin, especially when it's not readily visible or noticeable. For instance, a surgical suite could be contaminated simply because someone walks into it when they're not sterile, and it would be completely invisible. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- POLUTAN & KONTAMINASI

9 ANY external factor that negatively affects your health can be considered an environmental health “hazard." Common environmental health hazards include indoor and outdoor air pollution, and contaminated food and water. Less commonly discussed environmental health hazards include lack of sidewalks, crime, insufficient physical activity, poor nutrition, social isolation, noise, stress, and the lack of aesthetically pleasing living environments. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN BAGI KESEHATAN ?

10 JENIS BAHAYA KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Bahaya Tradisional Disease Vectors Infectious agents Housing and Shelter Drinking Water & Sanitation Indoor air Pollution Dietary Deficiencies Reproduction Injury hazards Bahaya Modern Tobacco smoking Alcohol and drugs Transport hazards Environmental pollution Outdoor air pollution Chemical hazards Occupational Hazards Unbalanced Diet Stress Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

11 Jalur masuknya bahaya EH Inhalation –airborne contaminants Absorption –penetration through the skin Ingestion –eating –drinking Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

12 Acute –Short term period between exposure and onset of symptoms Chronic –Long time period between exposure to an agent and the onset of symptoms Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- PAPARAN BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN

13 There are five types of environmental hazards: Chemical ; Physical ; Mechanical ; Biological ; Psychosocial Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- JENIS-JENIS BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN The system of environmental health. The human living environment consists of home, work and recreational environments. The interaction between these environments and human activities results in various types of hazards that may adversely affect human health. (Source: adapted from Bassett, 2004) Sumber: 15/12/2012

14 Pesticides; Acids and Bases; Metal fumes ; Solvents; Gases BAHAYA BAHAN KIMIA Sumber:. 15/12/2012

15 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- BAHAYA BAHAN KIMIA

16 Insects; Rodents; Animals Microorganisms: –Bacteria –Viruses –Parasites –Yeasts –Molds Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: /12/ BAHAYA BIOLOGIS Biological risk assessment and risk management Sumber: …. Diunduh dari: 17/12/2012

17 Tipe Bahaya Fisika: Noise and Vibration Ionizing Radiation Non-ionizing Radiation Light, Lasers Pressure Extremes of Temperature Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 BAHAYA FISIKA Characteristics of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. Sumber: gtcceis.anl.gov …. Diunduh dari: /12/2012

18 Uncertainty Anxiety Lack of feeling of control over one own life Homesickness Isolation Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- BAHAYA PSIKOSOSIAL Common Signs of Anxiety Anxiety itself could also be a result of a deeper physiological or psychological cause. That is why the possible manifestations that are associated with anxiety are numerous and can be classified into the specific areas of the body affected. Anxiety is often difficult to identify in a person. Extreme cases present with severe symptoms. This makes stress or anxiety exercises and treatments an essential for anyone going through anxiety attacks. Read More Here:

19 –Stress is a human response to stressors –Stress is a specific event or situation that causes a mental or psychological reaction. –Stress is a process resulting from the interaction between humans and the environment. –Stress process consists of 2 stages: Deciding whether or not an event (stressor) poses a hazard Appraising the possibilities of dealing with the situation. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- APAKAH STRESS ITU?

20 Penyakit Kardiovaskular –Hypertension –Ischemic heart diseases –Increase heart rate Peptic ulcer Asma Bronchial Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- EFEK STRESS THD KESEHATAN

21 BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN YANG SERIUS Polutan Udara –Indoor air pollutants –Outdoor air pollutants Kelangkaan air & Polutan air Bahaya makanan Bahaya rumah hunian Bahaya permukiman Bahaya serangga & Rodents Pestisida Bahaya lingkungan global Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

22 EFEK KESEHATAN AKIBAT PENCEMARAN UDARA Sumber: Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 Climate change and health Climate change has a range of complex interlinkages with health. These include direct impacts, such as temperature- related illness and death; the health impacts of extreme weather events; the effect of air pollution in the form of spores and moulds.

23 BAHAYA KESEHATAN YANG PENTING? Do We Face? The effects of environmental exposures on health depend on the social settings in which the exposures occur and on individual behaviours. Behavioural risk factors are sometimes closely related to physical risk factors (e.g. hygiene is related to sanitation) and modify the health impacts of the physical risk factors. Indeed, the specific contributions of related behavioural and physical risk factors sometimes cannot easily be separated, as for example in the risk factor "water, sanitation and hygiene". Sumber: https://apps.who.int/peh/burden/ / chap2.htm.diunduh 15/12/2012.diunduh

24 APAKAH PENCEMARAN UDARA? Addition of harmful substances to the atmosphere resulting in damage to the environment, human health and quality of life Can occur indoor or outdoor, in cities and across continents and even globally Air pollutants consist of: gaseous pollutants, odors, suspended particle matter (dust, fumes, mist and smoke) Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

25 POLUSI UDARA DI DALAM RUANGAN Indoor air can be defined as any non- industrial indoor space where a person spends a period of an hour or more in any day. This can include the air space in the office, classroom, motor vehicle, shopping centre, hospital and home. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

26 PENCEMAR UDARA DALAM RUANGAN second-hand tobacco smoke; airborne mold and mildew; lead-impregnated dust from old paint cockroach shedding; dust mite particles; combustion gases released by stoves, heaters, candles and fireplaces; chemicals released by –dry cleaned clothes; –cleaning products; –room deodorizers; –office supplies; –paints and sealers; –new furniture and pressed wood; –personal care products; and –pesticides. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

27 SUMBER PENCEMAR INDOOR Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

28 PENCEMAR UDARA OUTDOOR Ozone (O3) Particulate Matter (PM) Carbon Monoxide (CO( Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Lead (Pb) Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs( Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

29 SUMBER PENCEMAR UDARA Transportation (Mobile sources ) –Motor vehicles, rail, shipping, aviation. Industry sources –Power stations, petroleum refining, chemical manufacturing. Power Plants Central heating Incineration of domestic wastes Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

30 EFEK KESEHATAN – PENCEMAR UDARA Irritation of nose, eye, and throat Respiratory diseases (Bronchitis, Asthma, cough, nausea …etc.) Cardiovascular diseases Toxicity (CO) Decrease of pulmonary function and restricted activities) Cancers (Benzene) Neurological impairments, such as seizures, mental retardation, and behavioral disorders (Pb). kidney/liver damage, CNS disorders (Arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, and chromium) Increased hospital admissions and ER visits. Premature death Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

31 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- Efek Polusi thd Kesehatan Polusi Udara Polusi Air Kontaminasi Tanah Pestisida Ozon Bakteri Parasit Bahan Kimia Pb

32 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- Piramida efek kesehatan EFEK KESEHATAN POLUSI UDARA

33 PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Reduce emissions (conservation and improved efficiency); e.g., refineries Collect, capture, and retain pollutants before entering the atmosphere; e.g., gas stations Regulating automobile exhaust using catalytic converter, control of sulfur dioxide through scrubbing Varied pollutant-control strategies and new and improved technologies Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

34 Risiko biasanya dinyatakan dalam “Peluang” Risiko Probability and possibility Pendugaan Risiko Pengelolaan Risiko Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012

35 Regulatory control –Standards (process and emission) Engineering control –Ventilation (general and local) –Process change Work practice control Administrative control Personnel protective equipment Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA

36 PENTINGNYA KESEHATAN AIR There are 4 billion cases of diarrhea worldwide each year and 2.2 million avoidable deaths-that's a death every 14 seconds. Most diarrheal deaths occur in the Majority World and just being able to wash one's hands with soap and water can reduce diarrhea by 35%. Insect-related diseases Malaria, is the biggest killer, causing 1-2 million deaths a year. At any given time 100 million people suffer from the disease. Parasites Intestinal worms infect about 10% of the majority world population. About 200 million people are affected by schistosomiasis (bilharzia), with 200,000 dying each year. After a peak in the late 1980s, guinea-worm infections have been declining as water sources are better monitored. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

37 Every day, diarrheal diseases cause some 6,000 deaths, mostly among children under five: in 2001, 1.96 million people died from infectious diarrheas; 1.3 million were children under five. Diarrheal diseases have killed more children in the past ten years than all the people lost to armed conflict since World War II. Between 1,085,000 and 2,187,000 deaths due to diarrheal diseases can be attributed to the 'water, sanitation and hygiene' risk factor, 90% of them among children under five. With simple hygiene measures such as washing hands after using the toilet or before preparing food, most of these deaths are preventable. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- PENTINGNYA KESEHATAN AIR

38 Biological Chemical physical Sumber:. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012 BAHAYA AIR & EFEK KESEHATAN

39 Volatile organic compounds Hydrophobic organic compounds Endocrine disruptors Petroleum Additives Pesticides Heavy metals Other inorganic elements Acids/bases Oxidants/reductants Chlorination by-products Combustion by-products 39 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- BAHAN BERBAHAYA DALAM AIR

40 Typhoid fever ; Giardia ; Dysentery ; Cholera ; Diarrhea (caused by a variety of pathogens) ; Hepatitis ; Polio ; Worms Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- PENYAKIT DARI AIR Classification of water-related diseases Sumber;

41 JASAD PATHOGENIK 41 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

42 42 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- JASAD PATHOGENIK

43 PENYAKIT YANG BERHUBUNGAN DNEGAN AIR 43 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

44 TINGKAT PENYAKIT & RISIKONYA 44 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

45 PENDUGAAN RISIKO & PENGELOLAAN RISIKO Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012 PENDUGAAN RISIKOPENGELOLAAN RISIKO

46 Fig. 17-3, p. 440 Risk Assessment Risk Management Hazard identification What is the hazard? Risk reduction How much should it be reduced? Probability of risk How likely is the event? Risk reduction strategy How will the risk be reduced? Consequences of risk What is the likely damage? Financial commitment How much money should be spent? Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012 TINGKAT PENYAKIT & RISIKONYA Identifikasi bahaya Apa bahaya itu? Analisis komparatif risiko Bagaimana dibandingkan dg risiko mlainnya?

47 KONTROL PENCEMARAN AIR  Pencegahan pencemaran  Meminimumkan pencemaran –recycling and re-use; treatment; encourage cleaner production technologies; encourage good housekeeping  Disinfection (Chlorination)  Disposal or discharge of waste water –only under specified conditions; precautionary approach; differentiated approach; polluter pays 47 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

48 BAHAYA MAKANAN About risk analysis in food The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are in the forefront of the development of risk-based approaches for the management of public health hazards in food. The approach used is called risk analysis, and is made up of three components: Risk assessmentRisk assessment; Risk management; Risk communication Sumber: …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012

49 TIPE-TIPE BAHAYA MAKANAN Biologis: bacteria, viruses, parasites Bahan Kimia: heavy metals, natural toxins, sanitizers, pesticides, antibiotics Fisika: bone, rocks, metal Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

50 BAHAYA BIOLOGIS DALAM MAKANAN Biologis = Organisme hidup Dalam daging dan unggas: Salmonella bacteria (poultry and eggs) Trichinella spiralis parasite (pork) On Fruits and Vegetables: E. coli bacteria (apple juice) Cyclospora parasite (raspberries) Hepatitis A virus (strawberries) Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

51 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- BAHAYA BIOLOGIS DALAM MAKANAN

52 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- BAHAYA BIOLOGIS DALAM MAKANAN

53 Pencegahan pertumbuhan mikroba –Holding at low temperatures (<40 o F) –Cooling from 140 o -40 o F quickly “Memasak” membantu mematikan mikroba – >165 o F(73 o C) for poultry and eggs – >155 o F (68 o C) for ground beef – >160 o F (71 o C) for pork Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- MENCEGAH BAHAYA BIOLOGIS DALAM MAKANAN

54 Bahaya Kimiawi: a toxic substance that is produced naturally added intentionally or un- intentionally Naturally-occurring: –Natural toxins (aflatoxins, marine toxins) Added intentionally: –Antibiotics, preservatives Added non-intentionally: –Cleaning agents, Pesticide Residues Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- BAHAYA KIMIA DALAM MAKANAN

55 Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- BAHAYA KIMIA DALAM MAKANAN Bahaya kimia yang tidak nampak pada makanan Residu Pestisida Residu Veteriner Bahan kimia pembersih

56 Bahaya Fisika: a hard foreign object that can cause illness or injury Inherent to the food or ingredient –Bone fragment, feathers Contaminant during processing –Stones, rocks, dirt, fingernails Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- BAHAYA FISIKA DALAM MAKANAN

57 Lima faktor siriko gangguan penyakit akibat dari makanan: –Makanan dari sumber yang tidak aman –Waktu dan suhu penyimpanan makanan yang tidak tepat –Higienis personal yang buruk –Memasak yang tidak tepat –Kontaminasi silang. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20- FAKTOR RISIKO MAKANAN

58 SISTEM KENDALI MAKANAN To guarantee quality and safety of the foods traded at the national and international level; –Protecting the health of the consumers and ensuring fair practices in the food trade; – Facilitating food trade. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

59 REGULASI MAKANAN Consumer protection, facilitate the production of safe food and fair trade practices. –Simple, coherent, transparent, result of process of consensus among the food chain actors. – Based on risk assessment through the food chain. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

60 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) To monitor and control production processes Identify food safety hazards and critical control points Production, processing and marketing Establish limits Monitor Applied to meat, poultry, and eggs Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

61 PENGENALAN DAN KONTROL BAHAYA DI HUNIAN Determine if personnel have potential occupational exposure to environmental hazards. Obtain training. Voluntarily notify supervisor or OMC of any pre- disposition to environmental hazards that can create medical emergencies. Use personal protective equipment, administrative controls, and engineering controls when exposed to environmental hazards. Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

62 MENGURANGI / KONTROL BAHAYA LINGKUNGAN Prevent the creation of a hazard in the first place Reduce the amount of hazard brought into being Prevent the release of existing hazard Modify the rate or spatial distribution of release of hazard from its source Separate, in time or in place, the hazard and that which is to be protected. Separate the hazard and that which is to be protected by interaction of a material barrier. Modify the basic qualities of the hazard. Make that which is to be protected more resistant to damage from the hazard Counter damage already done by the environmental hazard Stabilize, repair, and provide rehabilitative corrective measures Sumber: Environmental Health Hazard. Atallah Z. Rabi …. Diunduh dari: 15/12/2012www.sawa2006.com/.../22%20-

63 Kita menghadapi banyak macam bahaya Lima tipe-utama bahaya Lingkungan: 1.Biologis: pathogens 2.Kimiawi 3.Fisika 4.Kultural 5.Pilihan Gaya hidup Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012

64 JENIS-JENIS BAHAYA BIOLOGIS Do We Face? In terms of death rates, the most serious infectious diseases are flu, AIDS, diarrheal diseases, malaria, and tuberculosis; most of these deaths occur in developing countries. Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012

65 Bbrp penyakit dapat menular dari satu orang ke orang lainnya 1.Nontransmissible disease 2. Infectious disease 3.Transmissible disease (contagious or communicable disease) Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. mental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012 mental.../chapter_...diunduh Amebas-Malaria.html

66 Sejak 1950, kematian akibat penyakit infeksi telah menurun, karena : –Perawatan kesehatan lebih baik –Antibiotika –Vaksin Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012 Bbrp penyakit dapat menular dari satu orang ke orang lainnya

67 Penyakit infeksi masih menjadi ancaman utama Penyakit infeksi menyebar melalui: –Udara –Air –Makanan –Cairan tubuh Epidemik dan Pandemik Resistensi bacteri dan serangga Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. al.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012 al.../chapter_...diunduh Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Diunduh dari:

68 JALUR PENYAKIT INFEKSI PADA MANUSIA Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012

69 RESISTENSI GENETIK THD ANTIBIOTIK Bacteria: rapid reproduction, easily spread Penggunaan antibiotika yg berlebihan Penggunaan pesticida yang berlebih Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012 Antibiotic Resistance is the adaptation of bacterial strains to certain of the ANTIBIOTIC MEDICATIONS doctors prescribe to treat infections the BACTERIA cause, rendering the antibiotic ineffective. Sumber: _...diunduh 15/12/2012_...diunduh

70 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) –Resistant to most antibiotics –Symptoms of MRSA –How will it be controlled? Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. /chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012 /chapter_...diunduh RESISTENSI GENETIK THD ANTIBIOTIK Sumber: _...diunduh 15/12/2012_...diunduh Mechanisms of Antibiotic Resistance.

71 ANCAMAN GLOBAL AKIBAT TUBERCULOSIS Why is tuberculosis on the rise? –Not enough screening and control programs –Genetic resistance to a majority of effective antibiotics –Person-to-person contact has increased –AIDS individuals are very susceptible to TB Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012

72 BEBERAPA PENYAKIT VIRUS SANGAT MEMATIKAN Influenza or flu virus –#1 Killer –Transmission HIV –#2 Killer –Antiviral drugs Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012

73 Global strategy to slow down the spread of HIV –Reduce the number of new infections –Concentrate on those most likely to spread HIV –Free testing –Education for prevention –Provide free or low-cost drugs –Research Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012 BEBERAPA PENYAKIT VIRUS SANGAT MEMATIKAN

74 Hepatitis B virus (HBV) –#3 Killer –Mode of transmission Viruses that move form animals to humans –West Nile virus –Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Reduce chances of infection: Wash your hands Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012 BEBERAPA PENYAKIT VIRUS SANGAT MEMATIKAN

75 PENYEBARAN PENYAKIT INFEKSI DARI BINATANG KE MANUSIA Ecological medicine Human practices that encourage the spread of diseases from animals to humans Emerging infections –HIV –SARS –West Nile virus –Lyme virus Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012

76 Malaria— oleh NYAMUK PEMBAWA PARASIT Malaria 1.Caused by Plasmodium sp. carried by Anopheles mosquitoes 2.Penyebaran 3.Gejala-gejala 4.Siklus Malarial

77 Malaria on the rise since 1970 –Drug resistant Plasmodium –Insecticide resistant mosquitoes –Effect of global warming –AIDS patients particularly vulnerable Prevention of spread and current research Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012 Malaria— oleh NYAMUK PEMBAWA PARASIT

78 Mengurangi penyakit infeksi Good news –Vaccinations on the rise –Oral rehydration therapy Bad news –More money needed for medical research in developing countries Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012

79 SOLUTIONS Infectious Diseases Increase research on tropical diseases and vaccines Reduce poverty Decrease malnutrition Improve drinking water quality Reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics Educate people to take all of an antibiotic prescription Mengurangi penggunaan antibiotik dalam budidaya unggas Require careful hand washing by all medical personnel Immunisasi anak-anak thd penyakit virus Provide oral rehydration for diarrhea victims Conduct global campaign to reduce HIV/AIDS Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh Solusi: Penyakit Infeksi, Cara-cara untuk mencegah atau mereduksi kejadiannya Memperbaiki kualitas air minum

80 MENGHADAPI BAHAN KIMIA BERBAHAYA Managing the risks of toxic substances is an ongoing, integrated process Sumber: 15/12/2012_...diunduh

81 BEBERAPA BAHAN KIMIA DAPAT MENYEBABKAN KANKER, MUTASI, DAN GANGGUAN JANIN Bahan kimia toksik: Carcinogens Mutagens Teratogens Sumber:_http://risk.arizona.edu/healthandsafety/chemicalsafetyinfo/index.shtml...diunduh ….. 15/12/2012_http://risk.arizona.edu/healthandsafety/chemicalsafetyinfo/index.shtml...diunduh

82 PCB ADA DI BERBAGAI TEMPAT Kelompok senyawa kimia yang mengandung khlor: –Sangat stabil –Nonflammable –Break down slowly in the environment –Travel long distances in the air –Larut dalam lemak –Biomagnifikasi –Food chains and webs Banned, but found everywhere Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012

83 Potential Pathways on Which Toxic Chemicals Move Through the Environment Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012

84 Hormonally active agents (HAAs) – Gender benders –Pengganggua kelenjar Thyroid – Bahan kimia Toksik Phthlates Efek pada sistem hormonal system Kanker Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012 Bbrpa bahan kimia mempengaruhi sistem immune, Nervous, dan Endocrine

85 EFEK TOKSIK AKIBAT MERKURI Hg: teratogen and potent neurotoxin –Once airborne, persistent and not degradable –1/3 from natural sources –2/3 from human activities –Enters the food chain: biomagnification Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. onmental.../chapter_...di unduh 15/12/2012 onmental.../chapter_...di unduh Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification or biological magnification, is the increase in concentration of a substance that occurs in a food chain as a consequence of: 1.Persistence (can't be broken down by environmental processes) 2.Food chain energetics 3.Low (or nonexistent) rate of internal degradation/excretion of the substance (often due to water-insolubility)

86 2007: Hg hotspots identified How are humans exposed? –Inhalation: vaporized Hg or particulates of inorganic salts –Eating fish with high levels of methylmercury Effects of Hg on humans Who is most at risk? Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012 EFEK TOKSIK AKIBAT MERKURI

87 Siklus merkuri dalam lingkungan akuatik Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012

88 Fig. 17-B, p. 451 SOLUTIONS Pencemaran Merkuri PreventionControl Phase out waste incinerationSharply reduce mercury emissions from coal-burning plants and incinerators Remove mercury from coal before it is burned Tax each unit of mercury emitted by coal-burning plants and incinerators Switch from coal to natural gas and renewable energy resources such as wind, solar cells, and hydrogen Require labels on all products containing mercury Convert coal to liquid or gaseous fuel Phase out use of mercury in batteries, TVs, compact fluorescent lightbulbs, and all other products unless they are recycled Collect and recycle mercury- containing electric switches, relays, and dry-cell batteries Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012 PENYELESAIAN PENCEMARAN MERKURI Pencegahan Kontrol

89 Bisphenol A Menyerupai Estrogen Found in many common products Laboratory findings Effects on human health Should it be banned? Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. al.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012 al.../chapter_...diunduh Diunduh dari:

90 Bagaimana Evaluasi dan Menangani Bahaya Kimia ? Scientists use live laboratory animals, non-animal tests, case reports of poisonings, and epidemiological studies to estimate the toxicity of chemicals, but these methods have limitations. Many health scientists call for much greater emphasis on pollution prevention to reduce our exposure to potentially harmful candidates. Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012

91 EFEK BERBAHAYA DARI BAHAN KIMIA Toxicology Toksisitas tergantung pada: –Dose –Age –Genetic makeup –Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) –Kelarutan dan persistensi bahan kimia –Biomagnifikasi Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. al.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012 al.../chapter_...diunduh Diunduh dari:

92 KECELAKAAN KIMIA Sumber: 15/12/2012_...diunduh “Chemical accident" means an accident involving a fortuitous, or sudden or unintended occurrence while handling any hazardous chemicals resulting in continuous, intermittent or repeated exposure to death, or injury to, any person or damage to any property but does not include an accident by reason only of war or radio-activity

93 Estimasi Paparan Manusia thd bahan kimia dan mengukur efeknya Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh Pengukuran & Pemodelan Ilmiah Ramalan kandungan toksik dalam manusia Metabolisme Akumulasi Ekskresi

94 Studi Kasus: Melindungi anak-anak dari bahan kimia toksik Analysis of umbilical cord blood: significance Infants and children more susceptible to the toxic effects of chemicals than adults –Eat, drink water, and breathe more per unit of body weight than adults –Put their fingers in their mouths –Less well-developed immune systems and body detoxification processes Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh

95 Estimasi toksisitas: Hewan uji di Lab dan Uji non- hewan Dose-response curve: median lethal dose (LD50) –Nonthreshold dose-response model –Threshold dose-response model Can the data be extrapolated to humans? Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012

96 More humane methods using animals Replace animals with other models –Computer simulations –Tissue culture and individual animal cells –Chicken egg membranes What are the effects of mixtures of potentially toxic chemicals? Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012 Estimasi toksisitas: Hewan uji di Lab dan Uji non- hewan

97 Kurva Hipotetis Dose-Response untuk menentukan LD50 Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012

98 Tingkat Toksisitas dan Rataan LD untuk manusia Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh

99 Fig , p. 456 Nonlinear dose- response Linear dose- response Effect Threshold level Dose No thresholdThreshold Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012 KURVA RESPON DOSIS

100 ESTIMASI EFEK BERBAHAYA BAHAN KIMIA Case reports and epidemiological studies Limitations of epidemiological studies –Too few people tested –Length of time –Can you link the result with the chemical? –Can not be used for new hazards Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012

101 APA BAHAYA DOSIS RENDAH DARI BAHAN TOKSIK? Sumber: 15/12/2012_...diunduh Acute-based Predicted No-effect Concentrations (PNEC acute ), as well as two existing EQSs for the pesticides chlorpyrifos and chlorfenvinphos compared to a correlation of observed effects on community structure of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities, expressed as SPEAR index (SPEAR[%]) and a measure of toxic stress, calculated as Toxic Units (TU) for the most toxic compound (based on data from von der Ohe et al., 2009).von der Ohe et al., 2009 The two red dots represent sites at which chlorfenvinphos was responsible for the TU max.

102 BAHAN KIMIA BERBAHAYA DI RUMAH Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012

103 Vinyl toys contain phthalates Imported fruit may contain pesticides banned in the U.S. Fig , p. 458 Shampoo Teddy bear Clothing Baby bottle Nail polish Perfluorochemicals and phthalates Some stuffed animals made overseas contain flame retardants and/or pesticides Perfluorochemicals to add shine Can contain perfluorochemicals Can contain bisphenol-A Mattress Perfume Flame retardants in stuffing Phthalates Hairspray Carpet Phthalates Padding and carpet fibers contain flame retardants, perfluorochemicals, and pesticides Food Some food contains bisphenol-A TV Milk Wiring and plastic casing contain flame retardants Fat contains dioxins and flame retardants Sofa Frying pan Foam padding contains flame retardants and perfluorochemicals Nonstick coating contains perfluorochemicals Tile floor Fruit Water bottle Computer Toys Tennis shoes Contains perfluorochemicals, phthalates, and pesticides Can contain bisphenol-A Flame retardant coatings of plastic casing and wiring Can contain phthalates Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh

104 EFEK BERBAHAYA DARI BAHAN KIMIA Severe limitations estimating toxicity levels and risks Acceptable levels vary between 1/100 and 1/1000 of the estimated harmful levels Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012 Diagram illustrating dose response curve for Chemical A Diunduh dari: …

105 PENCEGAHAN Polusi & Prinsip Ke-hati-hatian Those introducing a new chemical or new technology would have to follow new strategies –A new product is considered harmful until it can be proved to be safe –Existing chemicals and technologies that appear to cause significant harm must be removed Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012 Dose-Effect and Dose-Response Since the basic question in toxicology is how dose is related to toxicity, most toxicology studies are designed to investigate how living creatures react as doses vary incrementally, from low to high levels. Diunduh dari:

106 Individuals Matter: Ray Turner and His Refrigerator 1974: Ozone layer being depleted by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) 1992: International agreement to phase out CFCs and other ozone-destroying chemicals Ray Turner: citrus-based solvents to clean circuit boards Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh The cycle of the ozone depletion and how its shown to be depleted. Diunduh dari:

107 Risiko dan Menghindari Bahayanya We can reduce the major risks we face if we become informed, think critically about risks, and make careful choices. Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. mental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012 mental.../chapter_...diunduh The relationship between risk assessment and selection of controls Sumber: diunduh 17/12/2012http://security.practitioner.com/introduction/infosec_5_5.htmdiunduh

108 Risiko kesehatan datang-dari Kemiskinan, Gender dan Gaya-hidup Analisis Risiko Risiko Kesehatan “terbesar”: –Kemiskinan –Gender –Pilihan Gaya Hidup Sumber: 17/12/2012_...diunduh Analyzing Health Problems for Risk Factors

109 Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012www.bergen.edu/.../Environmental.../chapter_...diunduh Analisis Komparatif Risiko: Problematik ekologis dan kesehatan

110 BAHAYA AKIBAT MEROKOK Most preventable major cause of suffering and premature death Nikotin: bahan adetif (tambahan) Efek merokok pasif (secondhand smoke) Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. mental.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012 mental.../chapter_...diunduh Secondhand smoke is a complex mixture of gases and particulates containing as many as 4800 chemicals including formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, nicotine, carcinogenic tars and others. Of the chemicals identified in secondhand smoke, more than 50 have been found to cause cancer. Diunduh dari:

111 Bagaimana mengurangi merokok –Pajak –Ban –Klassifikasi dan Regulasi nikotin –Pendidikan Sumber: 17/12/2012_...diunduh BAHAYA AKIBAT MEROKOK

112 Estimasi risiko dari teknologi Hal ini tidak mudah Sumber:. _...diunduh 15/12/2012 _...diunduh Technologies for Risk Assessment and Risk Management of Chemical Substances

113 Banyak orang tidak mengerti bagaimana Evaluasi Risiko? Fear Degree of control Whether a risk is catastrophic Optimism bias Unfair distribution of risks Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. ntal.../chapter_...diunduh 15/12/2012 ntal.../chapter_...diunduh Diunduh dari: ……. 17/12/2012http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S &script=sci_arttext

114 Beberapa prinsip Evaluasi dan Reduksi Risiko Membandingkan Risiko Determine how much you are willing to accept Determine the actual risk involved Concentrate on evaluating and carefully making important lifestyle choices Sumber: Environmental Hazard and Human Health. …………. 15/12/2012


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