Cosimo (1389-1464) Piero (1416-1469) Lorenzo (1449-1492)
Bankers of the Papacy with offices in Rome, Venice, Avignon, Lyon, Geneva, Cologne, Bruges, London… Patrons of the arts. De facto rulers of the Republic of Florence through their influence. Lorenzo the Magnificent
Palazzo Medici-Riccardi by Michelozzo di Bartolomeo. 1444.
Adoration of the Magi by Sandro Boticelli, 1470. -Meaning for the donors?
The Medici embody the wisdom of the Magi and their kingship. They belong to the Confraternity of the Magi and participate in the procession every January 6 th.
Accomplishments: Cosimo: enlisted Brunelleschi to: Enlisted Brunelleschi to complete the dome of Florence cathedral. Paid for the reconstruction of the church of San Lorenzo. Lorenzo collected manuscripts creating the Laurentian Library.
Classical models: Doors of Florence Baptistery (1401-1402) Brunelleschi’s dome of Florence Cathedral (1420-1436) Scientific perspective San Lorenzo (1421-1469) Doors of Paradise (1425-37) Masaccio’s Trinity with the virgin (1425) Classical freestanding sculpture Donatello’s David (1440) Michelangelo’s David (1501-1504)
Mythological themes Sandro Boticelli, Primavera, Birth of Venus (1480). Illusionism: Studiolo of Federigo da Montefeltro, Urbino (1476) Mantegna’s Camera Picta, Mantua, 1465-74 Leonardo da Vinci Sfumato, psychological portrayal
Brunelleschi Sacrifice at the center Gothic verticality: three rising planes. Crowded, figures spill out Dramatic tension Ghiberti Introduction of classical models: torso, toga Introduction of landscape: sense of real space. Diagonal lines, cohesion
Filippo Brunelleschi Technical challenge: to cover and octagonal gap, 140 foot wide. 1420-1436 Brunelleschi travelled to Rome to study Roman domes. Where can you study a dome in Rome?
Internal structure of vertical and horizontal ribs. Elongated dome, rather than semicircular.
Brunelleschi: Church of San Lorenzo, (1421-1469) Sense of balance and proportion. Use of scientific perspective and geometry. Search for harmony as a reflection of the divinity. Use of Classical models (Roman basilica)
Lorenzo Ghiberti East side of the Baptistery Themes: Old testament
Use of classical models Scientific perspective: convergence of lines at the vanishing point. Landscape and architectural detail create a sense of real space and guide the viewer to the vanishing point. Low and high relief.
Masaccio Trinity of Santa Maria Novella (1425) Visual effects? Vanishing point? Donors? Origin of architectural details?
-Trompe l’oeil: vault and architectural details Donors in the foreground. Vanishing point: Christ Perspective from viewer’s viewpoint. Architecture: Roman triumphal arch.