Presentation on theme: "SP1D: Reforms and policies of the JULIO-CLAUDIAN rulers"— Presentation transcript:
1SP1D: Reforms and policies of the JULIO-CLAUDIAN rulers The Julio-Claudians
2Tiberius Area of Reform Changes made Political Had one commander of the Guard, concentrating the Praetorian Guard (PG) into one new barrackDischarged corrupt officials in disgrace – imposed harsh penaltiesPaid donatives to the troopsMaiestas rose after Sejanus (and death of mother Livia), as well as the triviality of the cases.All public business conducted in the SenateSocialOverall there was very little opposition to Tiberius as PrincepsDID NOT put on lavish games or gladiatorial battlesMaintained law and order through the appointment of a city prefect.LegalKept the efficient governors in office for long periodsTransferred back to the Senate the right to elect magistrates.ReligiousAbolished foreign cults – including EgyptianDid not encourage the worship of himself in the provincesAdministrativeLimited expenses – but did give generously to the provincesDeveloped a new road system in Spain and GaulKeen to promote effective government in the provinces, generally appointing good governorsMaintained strict discipline of the troops in the provincesImproved the services for the provincesGood financial policies, despite Tacitus’ criticisms as tight-fisted
3Gaius (Caligula) Recalled exiles Area of ReformChanges madePoliticalRecalled exilesErratic policies in general, little policy-making as not interestedDisliked and distrusted governorsEmptied the prisons of the those accused on treason under Tiberius, and burnt the records (this changed later on)SocialRenewed gladiatorial spectaclesLarge and frequent donatives to the publicPut on extravagant spectacles – a number of theatrical showsLegalAbolished the sales taxReligiousDeified himselfDemanded that the Jews erect a statute of him in their temple.Anti-Semitic – caused many problems in the provinces with this attitude.AdministrativeRenewed maiestas and Increased the taxes to pay for extravagancesBuilt some aqueducts in OstiaCompleted half-finished projects of Tiberius’
4Claudius Area of Reform Changes made Political Added the Gaul provinces to the SenateExtended the imperial bureaucracy, and improved the administration creating separate depts.Great interest in judicial matters – introduced new legislation such as unruly behaviour in the theatre and disclaiming sick slaves by masters.SocialCelebrated the Secular Games in 47AD – religious celebration involving sacrifices and theatrical performances.LegalPassed just and humane lawsReligiousHe made an attempt to follow Augustus' policy to restore some of the old religions.Restored aspects of state religionOutlawed the Druid religion in GaulAdministrativeEmpire underwent its first major expansion since Augustus – including invasion of BritainInitiated public works such as the harbour at Ostia, completed two aqueducts and restored another into RomeExtended citizenship to individuals and communitiesTried to resolve the problems between the Greeks and the Jews in AlexandriaBuilt numerous roads in Italy – improving transportation between Rome and the provincesPolicy of expansion and assimilationImperial future lay in efficiency and strove for this in his reignConcentrated imperial finances in hands of emperor – supervised by financial secretary Pallas
5NeroArea of ReformChanges madePoliticalMost changes were made to favour the poorer classes, at the expense of the rich. Suetonius criticised him for being obsessed with desire to be popular.According to Tacitus, at the outset Nero promised the Senate more autonomy.SocialAbolished capital punishment – later reinstatedEncouraged the arts and all forms of music and drama especially GREEKWanted to introduce the Greek gamesWorked to protect the rights of the poorer classes – restricted the amount for bail and fines (Tacitus)Established the Quinquennial Neronia (Greek style festival)LegalAllowed slaves to take action against their mastersReligiousHad a statue of him as the Sun god set up in the Golden Palace.AdministrativeNot very effective – easily influenced by Seneca, Burrus and Agrippina IILittle interest in the provinces, except for GreeceHands-off approach to running the empire64AD Rome fire. To reconstruct the city, enacted a public relief effort, heavily taxing the wealthy land owners in the provinces.
6Thinking it throughIn your own words answer the following questions...Under which Julio-Claudian ruler was there the MOST significant change? Explain the reasons for your view.Compare the administration of the empire during the principates of Tiberius and Gaius (Caligula). (2008 HSC)Assess the reforms and policies of ONE Julio-Claudian ruler. (2006 HSC)