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SP1D: Reforms and policies of the JULIO-CLAUDIAN rulers

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Presentation on theme: "SP1D: Reforms and policies of the JULIO-CLAUDIAN rulers"— Presentation transcript:

1 SP1D: Reforms and policies of the JULIO-CLAUDIAN rulers
The Julio-Claudians

2 Tiberius Area of Reform Changes made Political
Had one commander of the Guard, concentrating the Praetorian Guard (PG) into one new barrack Discharged corrupt officials in disgrace – imposed harsh penalties Paid donatives to the troops Maiestas rose after Sejanus (and death of mother Livia), as well as the triviality of the cases. All public business conducted in the Senate Social Overall there was very little opposition to Tiberius as Princeps DID NOT put on lavish games or gladiatorial battles Maintained law and order through the appointment of a city prefect. Legal Kept the efficient governors in office for long periods Transferred back to the Senate the right to elect magistrates. Religious Abolished foreign cults – including Egyptian Did not encourage the worship of himself in the provinces Administrative Limited expenses – but did give generously to the provinces Developed a new road system in Spain and Gaul Keen to promote effective government in the provinces, generally appointing good governors Maintained strict discipline of the troops in the provinces Improved the services for the provinces Good financial policies, despite Tacitus’ criticisms as tight-fisted

3 Gaius (Caligula) Recalled exiles
Area of Reform Changes made Political Recalled exiles Erratic policies in general, little policy-making as not interested Disliked and distrusted governors Emptied the prisons of the those accused on treason under Tiberius, and burnt the records (this changed later on) Social Renewed gladiatorial spectacles Large and frequent donatives to the public Put on extravagant spectacles – a number of theatrical shows Legal Abolished the sales tax Religious Deified himself Demanded that the Jews erect a statute of him in their temple. Anti-Semitic – caused many problems in the provinces with this attitude. Administrative Renewed maiestas and Increased the taxes to pay for extravagances Built some aqueducts in Ostia Completed half-finished projects of Tiberius’

4 Claudius Area of Reform Changes made Political
Added the Gaul provinces to the Senate Extended the imperial bureaucracy, and improved the administration creating separate depts. Great interest in judicial matters – introduced new legislation such as unruly behaviour in the theatre and disclaiming sick slaves by masters. Social Celebrated the Secular Games in 47AD – religious celebration involving sacrifices and theatrical performances. Legal Passed just and humane laws Religious He made an attempt to follow Augustus' policy to restore some of the old religions. Restored aspects of state religion Outlawed the Druid religion in Gaul Administrative Empire underwent its first major expansion since Augustus – including invasion of Britain Initiated public works such as the harbour at Ostia, completed two aqueducts and restored another into Rome Extended citizenship to individuals and communities Tried to resolve the problems between the Greeks and the Jews in Alexandria Built numerous roads in Italy – improving transportation between Rome and the provinces Policy of expansion and assimilation Imperial future lay in efficiency and strove for this in his reign Concentrated imperial finances in hands of emperor – supervised by financial secretary Pallas

5 Nero Area of Reform Changes made Political Most changes were made to favour the poorer classes, at the expense of the rich. Suetonius criticised him for being obsessed with desire to be popular. According to Tacitus, at the outset Nero promised the Senate more autonomy. Social Abolished capital punishment – later reinstated Encouraged the arts and all forms of music and drama especially GREEK Wanted to introduce the Greek games Worked to protect the rights of the poorer classes – restricted the amount for bail and fines (Tacitus) Established the Quinquennial Neronia (Greek style festival) Legal Allowed slaves to take action against their masters Religious Had a statue of him as the Sun god set up in the Golden Palace. Administrative Not very effective – easily influenced by Seneca, Burrus and Agrippina II Little interest in the provinces, except for Greece Hands-off approach to running the empire 64AD Rome fire. To reconstruct the city, enacted a public relief effort, heavily taxing the wealthy land owners in the provinces.

6 Thinking it through In your own words answer the following questions... Under which Julio-Claudian ruler was there the MOST significant change? Explain the reasons for your view. Compare the administration of the empire during the principates of Tiberius and Gaius (Caligula). (2008 HSC) Assess the reforms and policies of ONE Julio-Claudian ruler. (2006 HSC)

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